World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Inner city

Article Id: WHEBN0000460049
Reproduction Date:

Title: Inner city  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Suburb, Inner suburb, Ali G, Central business district, A.S. Roma
Collection: City, Urban Decay, Urban Decay in Canada, Urban Decay in the United States, Vernacular Geography
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Inner city

Inner city of Zürich and Lake Zurich as seen from Käferberg

The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis. Inner city areas tend to have higher population densities than outer suburbs, with more of the population living inside multi-floored townhouses and apartment buildings.

In the United States, the term "inner city" is often used as a euphemism for lower-income residential districts in the city centre and nearby areas, with the additional connotation of impoverished black and/or Hispanic neighborhoods. Sociologists sometimes turn this euphemism into a formal designation, applying the term "inner city" to such residential areas, rather than to geographically more central commercial districts. However, some inner city areas of American cities have undergone gentrification, especially since the 1990s.[1]

Such connotations are less common in other countries, where deprived areas may be located in outlying parts of cities. For instance, in many European and Brazilian cities, the inner city is the most prosperous part of the metropolis, where housing is expensive and where elites and high-income individuals dwell. Poverty and crime are more associated with the distant suburbs. The banlieue and förort respectively) often have a negative connotation similar to that of the English term "inner city", especially when used in the plural.

The American sociological usage is rooted in the middle 20th century. When automobiles became affordable in the United States and forced busing ensued, many middle and high-income residents, who were mostly white, moved to suburbs to have larger lots and houses, and a lower crime rate. The loss of population and affluent taxpayers caused many inner city communities to fall into urban decay. Late in the century, many such areas underwent gentrification, especially in the Northeast and West coast, depriving them of the "inner city" label despite their unchanged location.

Contents

  • Brazil 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • Further reading 4

Brazil

In big Brazilian cities, for example, there are two kinds of inner cities: one equivalent to the American sense of inner city (generally built before 1900 and commonly called Centro Velho) and another, generally close to the former, following a European context: high-income (commonly built after 1900, with Haussmann influences. Notable exceptions are cities built in the 20th century, usually planned with modernist concepts, such as Brasília, Goiânia, Belo Horizonte, Campo Grande and Palmas — under the "personal car" culture. Nevertheless, since the 1990s thousands of walled townhouses and condos are being built in and around poor suburbs for middle-to-high-income dwellers.

See also

References

  1. ^ , Part II, "Race and Ethnicity", p.62State of Metropolitan America (Brookings Institution) and its analysis in — see example in Demographics of Atlanta: Race and ethnicity

Further reading

  • Harrison, P. (1985) Inside the Inner City: Life Under the Cutting Edge. Penguin: Harmondsworth. This book takes Hackney in London as a case study of inner city urban deprivation.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.