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India Meteorological Department

Indian Meteorological Department (IMD)

The India Meteorological Department (IMD), also referred to as the Met Department, is an agency of the Ministry of Earth Sciences of the Government of India. It is the principal agency responsible for meteorological observations, weather forecasting and seismology. IMD is headquartered in New Delhi and operates hundreds of observation stations across India and Antarctica.

IMD is also one of the six tropical cyclones in the Northern Indian Ocean region, including the Malacca Straits, the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf.


  • History 1
  • Organization 2
  • Tasks 3
  • References 4


In 1686, Edmond Halley published his treatise on the Indian summer monsoon, which he attributed to a seasonal reversal of winds due to the differential heating of the Asian land mass and the Indian Ocean. The first meteorological observatories were established in India by the British East India Company. These included the Calcutta Observatory in 1785, the Madras Observatory in 1796 and the Colaba Observatory in 1826. Several other observatories were established in India during the first half of the 19th century by various provincial governments.

The Asiatic Society, founded in Calcutta in 1784 and in Bombay in 1804, promoted the study of meteorology in India.Henry Piddington published almost 40 papers dealing with tropical storms from Calcutta between 1835 and 1855 in The Journal of the Asiatic Society. He also coined the term cyclone, meaning the coil of a snake. In 1842, he published his landmark thesis, Laws of the Storms.[1]

After a Henry Francis Blanford was appointed the first Meteorological Reporter of the IMD. In May 1889, Sir John Eliot was appointed the first Director General of Observatories in the erstwhile capital, Calcutta. The IMD headquarters were later shifted to Shimla in 1905, then to Pune in 1928 and finally to New Delhi in 1944.[2]

IMD became a member of the independence on 27 April 1949.[3] The agency has gained in prominence due to the significance of the monsoon rains on Indian agriculture. It plays a vital role in preparing the annual monsoon forecast, as well as in tracking the progress of the monsoon across India every season.[4]


IMD, headquarters at New Delhi.
IMD is headed by the Director General of Meteorology. [5]

IMD operates a network of hundreds of surface and glacial observatories, Upper Air (high altitude) stations, ozone and radiation observatories and meteorological radar stations. Additional data is received from India's constellation of satellites, such as Kalpana-1, Megha-Tropiques and instruments on board the IRS series and the INSAT series of satellites.[6] Data and observations are also reported into the IMD network from meteorological instruments on board Indian merchant marine and Indian Navy ships. IMD was the first organisation in India to deploy a message switching computer for supporting its global data exchange.

IMD collaborates with other agencies such as the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting and the National Institute of Ocean Technology.

IMD also operates seismic monitoring centres at key locations for earthquake monitoring and measurements.


IMD undertakes observations, communications, forecasting and weather services. In collaboration with the IRS series and the Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) for weather monitoring of the Indian subcontinent. IMD was the first weather bureau of a developing country to develop and maintain its own satellite system.

IMD is one of the 6 worldwide

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  5. ^ "Indian Meteorological Department (IMD)". Indian Meteorological Department. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
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. Equator in the Indian Ocean north of the tropical cyclone It is regional nodal agency for forecasting, naming and disseminating warnings about [7]

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