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Ile-de-France

For other uses, see Île-de-France (disambiguation).

Île-de-France
Region of France

Logo
Country  France
Prefecture Paris
Departments
Government
 • President Jean-Paul Huchon (PS)
Area
 • Total 12,012 km2 (4,638 sq mi)
Population (2012)[1]
 • Total 11,914,812
 • Density 990/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
GDP/ Nominal €607 billion (2011)[2]
GDP per capita €51,118 (2011)[2]
NUTS Region FR1
Website www.iledefrance.fr

Île-de-France (French pronunciation: [ildəfʁɑ̃s]Template:IPA audio link) (literally "Island of France"; see the Etymology section) is the wealthiest and most populated of the twenty-seven administrative regions of France. Created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961, it was renamed after the historic province of Île-de-France in 1976 when its administrative status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Despite the name change, Île-de-France is still popularly referred to by French people as the Région Parisienne ("Paris Region") or RP. It is almost completely covered by the Paris metropolitan area.

With 11.9 million inhabitants,[1] increasingly referred to as "Franciliens", an administrative word created in the 1980s, Île-de-France is not only the most populated region of France, but also has more residents than Austria, Belgium, Finland, Greece, Portugal, Norway or Sweden, with a population comparable to that of the U.S. state of Ohio or to that of the Canadian province of Ontario. It is the third most populous country subdivision in the European Union, after North Rhine-Westphalia and Bavaria.

Economically, Île-de-France is the world's fourth-largest and Europe's wealthiest and largest regional economy: in 2011, its total GDP as calculated by INSEE was 607 billion[2] (US$845 billion at market exchange rates).[3] It is the wealthiest metropolitan area in the European Union, and if it were a country, it would rank as the seventeenth-largest economy in the world, larger than the Turkish and Dutch economies and almost as large as Indonesia's.[4] Île-de-France is also the world's second most important location for Fortune Global 500 companies' headquarters[5] (after the Kantō region).

Etymology

Although the modern name "Île-de-France" clearly means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear. The "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise, Marne and Seine, or it may also have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, in which case "Island of France" was originally a pars pro toto or perhaps a metonym.

Yet another possibility is that the term is a corruption of a hypothesized Frankish language term "Liddle Franke" meaning "Little France" or "little Frankish land", so the modern reference to an "island" may be coincidental. However, this theory might be anachronistic, since the name "L'Île-de-France" (its old spelling) is not documented prior to 1387.

History

The province, also known as Isle of France (as it was once written, as sometimes in English, especially in old publications) is a historical province of France, and the one at the centre of power during most of French history. The historical province is centred on Paris, the seat of the Crown of France, but it does correspond to the present-day région Île-de-France. The area around Paris was the original personal domain of the king of France, as opposed to areas ruled by feudal lords of whom he was the suzerain. This is reflected by divisions such as the Véxin Français and the Véxin Normand, the former being within the King of France's domain, the latter being within the Duke of Normandy's fief.

The old provinces were abolished during the French Revolution in the late 18th century. The region was reconstituted in 1976 and increased administrative and political powers devolved in the process of regionalisation in the 1980s and 1990's.

Geography

Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2 (4,637 sq mi). It is composed of eight departments centered around its innermost department and capital, Paris. Around the department of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments commonly known as the petite couronne ("small ring"), and extends into a second outer ring of four departments known as the grande couronne ("large ring"). The former department of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne.

The petite couronne consists of the departments of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, and Val-de-Marne, and the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines, Essonne, and Val-d'Oise.

The river Seine also runs through the region. The Seine has many tributaries which include the rivers Oise and Aube. The river Seine has its mouth in the English channel and has its source in the 'Massif central'. It is France's second largest river after the Loire. The region is in an area of lowland called the Paris basin. South of the region lies the Massif-central, an area of highlands that are higher than normal, but far lower than the Alps.

The climate of the region is quite similar to those of England and western Germany, except that it has warmer summers and milder winters than England, and receives less rain than England does.

Demographics

Paris' demographic development, represented by the Paris Metropolitan Area, fills most of the Île-de-France: its central built-up area, or pôle urbain ("urban cluster"[7]) extends beyond the Île-de-France's inner three petite couronne departments, and this is surrounded by a commuter belt "rim"[8] that extends beyond the Region's four outer grande couronne departments in places.

departments of Île-de-France and their populations (INSEE 2007 estimates)
concentric area department population
(Jan. 2007 estimate)
area population
density
annual
pop. growth
1999–2007
the centre Paris (75) 2,188,500 105 km² 20,843/km² +0.4%
the inner ring
(petite couronne)
Hauts-de-Seine (92) 1,551,500 176 km² 8,815/km² +1.0%
Seine-Saint-Denis (93) 1,508,500 236 km² 6,392/km² +1.1%
Val-de-Marne (94) 1,309,000 245 km² 5,343/km² +0.8%
subtotals for the inner ring 4,369,000 657 km² 6,650/km² +1.0%
the outer ring
(grande couronne)
Seine-et-Marne (77) 1,285,500 5,915 km² 217/km² +1.0%
Yvelines (78) 1,401,000 2,284 km² 613/km² +0.4%
Essonne (91) 1,207,500 1,804 km² 669/km² +0.8%
Val-d'Oise (95) 1,165,000 1,246 km² 935/km² +0.7%
subtotals for the outer ring 5,059,000 11,249 km² 450/km² +0.7%
totals   11,616,500 12,011 km² 967/km² +0.8%

Petite Couronne

"Petite Couronne" redirects here. For the municipality in Upper Normandy, see Petit-Couronne.


The Petite Couronne[9] (Little Crown, i.e. Inner Ring) is the hub of the urban agglomeration of Paris. It is formed by the 3 departments of Île-de-France bordering with the French capital and forming a geographical crown around it. The departments, until 1968 part of the disbanded Seine department, are Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne. The most populated towns of the Petite Couronne are Boulogne-Billancourt, Montreuil, Saint-Denis, Nanterre and Créteil.

The table below shows some statistical information about the area including Paris:

Department Area (km²) Population Municipalities
Paris (75)
105.4
2,193,031[10]
1 (Paris)
Hauts-de-Seine (92)
176
1,536,100[11]
Seine-Saint-Denis (93)
236
1,502,340[11]
Val-de-Marne (94)
245
1,298,340[11]
Petite Couronne
657
4,336,780
123
Paris + Petite Couronne
762.4
6,529,811
124

Grande Couronne

"Grande Couronne" redirects here. For the municipality in Upper Normandy, see Grand-Couronne.

The Grande Couronne[12] (Greater Crown, i.e. Outer Ring) includes the towns of the metropolitan area part of the other 4 departments of Île-de-France not bordering with Paris. They are Seine-et-Marne (77), Yvelines (78), Essonne (91) and Val-d'Oise (95). The latter three departments formed the Seine-et-Oise department until this was disbanded in 1968. The city of Versailles is part of this area.

Historical population

population of Île-de-France
1801
census
1806
census
1821
census
1826
census
1831
census
1836
census
1841
census
1846
census
1851
census
1856
census
1861
census
1866
census
1,352,280 1,407,272 1,549,811 1,780,900 1,707,181 1,882,354 1,998,862 2,180,100 2,239,695 2,552,980 2,819,045 3,039,043
1872
census
1876
census
1881
census
1886
census
1891
census
1896
census
1901
census
1906
census
1911
census
1921
census
1926
census
1931
census
3,141,730 3,320,162 3,726,118 3,934,314 4,126,932 4,368,656 4,735,580 4,960,310 5,335,220 5,682,598 6,146,178 6,705,579
1936
census
1946
census
1954
census
1962
census
1968
census
1975
census
1982
census
1990
census
1999
census
2006
census
2009
estimate
2012
estimate
6,785,750 6,597,758 7,317,063 8,470,015 9,248,631 9,878,565 10,073,059 10,660,554 10,952,011 11,532,398 11,728,240 11,914,812
Census returns before 2010; official January estimates from INSEE from 2010 on.

Immigration

Template:Table Paris Region top countries & territories of birth Paris and the Île-de-France region is a magnet for immigrants, hosting one of the largest concentrations of immigrants in Europe. As of 2006, about 35% of people (4 million) living in the region were either immigrant (17%) or born to at least one immigrant parent (18%).[13]

If the region, primary seat of French political and economic power for centuries, has always attracted immigrants, modern immigration can be traced back to the second half of the 19th century when France emerged as an immigration destination[14] with Eastern European Jews fleeing persecutions, and Southern Europeans (mostly Italians) and Belgians seeking better economic conditions. During the first half of the 20th century, immigrants were mostly Europeans, but after decolonisation, and during the French post-war economic boom, many immigrants came from former French colonies (chiefly the Magreb and West Africa). At the French census of March 1999, 2,159,070 residents of the Île-de-France region were people born outside Metropolitan France, making up 19.7% of the region's total population.[15]

Among these people born outside Metropolitan France, 1,611,989 were immigrants (see definition below the table), making up 14.7% of the region's total population.[16] INSEE estimated that on 1 January 2005, the number of immigrants in the region had reached 1,916,000, making up 16.7% of its total population.[17] This is an increase of 304,000 immigrants in slightly less than six years.

According to a study in 2009, nearly 56% of all newborns in the region in 2007 had at least one parent originated from sub-Saharan Africa, Turkey, Maghreb or Overseas departments and territories of France.[18]

Place of birth of residents of the Île-de-France region in 1999
Born in Metropolitan France Born outside Metropolitan France
80.3% 19.7%
Born in
Overseas France
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth¹ EU-15 immigrants² Non-EU-15 immigrants
1.8% 3.2% 4.2% 10.5%
¹This group is made up largely of former French settlers, such as pieds-noirs in Northwest Africa, followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), and to a lesser extent foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country not part of France as of 1999, so a person born for example in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria was an integral part of France, is nonetheless listed as a person born in a foreign country in French statistics.
²An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country not having French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.

People under 18 of foreign origin

In 2005, 37% of young people under 18 were of foreign origin (at least one immigrant parent) in Île-de-France, including a quarter of African origin (Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa).[19][20]

People under 18 of Maghrebi, sub-Saharan and Turkish origin became a majority in several cities of the region (Clichy-sous-Bois, Mantes-la-Jolie, Grigny, Saint-Denis, Les Mureaux, Saint-Ouen, Sarcelles, Pierrefitte-sur-Seine, Garges-lès-Gonesse, Aubervilliers, Stains, Gennevilliers et Épinay-sur-Seine). Young people of Maghrebi origin comprised about 12% of the population of the region, 22% of that of département of the Seine-Saint-Denis district, and 37% of the 18th arrondissement of Paris. In Grigny, 31% of young people are of sub-Saharan origin[21]

In the département of Seine-Saint-Denis (population 1.5 million), 56.7% of people under 18 are of foreign origin, including 38% of African origin. Islam is the main religion.[22]

% people under 18 (2005) Seine-Saint-Denis Paris Val-de-Marne Val-d'Oise France
All origins 56.7% 41.30% 39.90% 37.90% 18.10%
Maghreb 22.0% 12.1% 13.2% 13.0% 6.9%
Sub-Saharan Africa 16.0% 9.9% 10.8% 9.1% 3.0%
Turkey 2.7% 0.6% 1.2% 3.1% 1.4%
South Europe 4.0% 4.0% 5.5% 4.8% 2.6%

Economy


The GDP of the Île-de-France is the largest of NUTS-1 Regions in the European Union and is third per Capita after Luxembourg and Brussels. Paris with 2.2 million inhabitants with a GDP per Capita of €75,000.[24]

Politics

The Regional Council is the legislative body of the region. Its seat is in Paris, at 33 rue Barbet-de-Jouy in the 7th arrondissement. Since 1998, it is presided by the Socialist Jean-Paul Huchon.

Holders of the executive office

  • Delegates General for the District of the Paris Region
    • 1961–1969: Paul Delouvrier (civil servant) – Very influential term. Responsible for the creation of the RER express subway network in the Île-de-France and beyond.
    • 1969–1975: Maurice Doublet (civil servant)
    • 1975–1976: Lucien Lanier (civil servant)
  • Presidents of the Regional Council of Île-de-France
    • 1976–1988: Michel Giraud (RPR politician) – (1st time)
    • 1988–1992: Pierre-Charles Krieg (RPR politician)
    • 1992–1998: Michel Giraud (RPR politician) – (2nd time)
    • since 1998: Jean-Paul Huchon (PS politician)

International relations

Twin regions

Île-de-France is twinned with:

Notes and references

External links

France portal
  • Econovista, The interactive economic map of Paris Region
  • Regional Council of Île-de-France (French)
  • DMOZ

Coordinates: 48°30′N 2°30′E / 48.500°N 2.500°E / 48.500; 2.500

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