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Ikshvaku dynasty

The Ikshvaku dynasty, in Puranic literature, was a mythical dynasty[1] founded by Ikshvaku. Ikshvaku, literally means "sugar cane". The dynasty is also known as Sūryavaṁśa (the Solar dynasty). Rama, hero of the Ramayana belonged to this dynasty.[2] Twenty-two out of the twenty-four Jain Tirthankara belonged to this dynasty.[3]

The important personalities belonging to this royal house are Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara,[4] Raghu, Rama and Prasenajit. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts include Shuddodhana, Gautama Buddha and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts, Mahasammata, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty,[5] who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.

Hinduism

In Hinduism, Ikshvaku, is the grandson of Vivasvan or Surya and son of Vaivasvata Manu. They ruled from the Kosala Kingdom, today known as Oudh in the state of Uttar Pradesh along the banks of river Sarayu with saketa, Ayodhya today as their capital. Ikshvaku is the first king who executed the Manusmrti or religious rules of Hindu living which were composed by his father Manu. Ikshvaku, ruled as Monarch at the beginning of the Treta Yuga or second yuga, had hundred sons. His estates descended to his eldest son Vikukshi.[6]

Ikshvaku dynasty lineage

The lists of kings of Ikṣvāku or Aikṣvāka dynasty are found in the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Harivamsha and the Puranas. The Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa also mentions the names of the kings of this dynasty.[7][8]

To Kusha

The genealogy of the Ikshvaku dynasty to Rama is mentioned in the Ramayana in two lists . The only difference between the two lists is that, Kukshi is mentioned only in the second list . In the first list, Vikukshi is mentioned as the son of Ikshvaku.[9] The genealogy is as follows:

Brahma

Marichi

Kashyapa

Vivasvan or Surya

  1. Vaivasvata Manu

The begin Of Ikshwaku Dynasty

  1. Vivasvan Manu (wife:- Shraddha)
  2. Ikshvaku
  3. Kukshi :- Kukshi is the son of King Ikshvaku, the first king of the Ikshvaku dynasty and founder of the Sun Dynasty (Suryavansha). Among the hundred sons of king Ikshvaku, Kukshi is the eldest one. Because he has very broad chest of a warrior, he was called as Kukshi.
  4. Vikukshi (Shashad) (he eat meat of Rebbit so he named Shashad) (contemporary to King Pururava who was founder of Chandravansh)
  5. Baan (contemporary to 2nd Chandravanshi King Aayu & Vijaya-1)
  6. Kakutstha (Puranjaya or Indrahomi or Indravahu) ruled 10,900 years (contemporary to 2nd Chandravanshi King Aayu)
  7. Anena (Anaranya or Suyodhana) (contemporary to 3rd Chandravanshi King Nahusha)
  8. Prithu (contemporary to 4th Chandravanshi King Yayati and demon king Vrushaparva)
  9. Vishvarandhri (Vishvagandhi or Vishvamshaha) (contemporary to 5th Chndravanshi King Yadu, Puru, Suhotra)
  10. Chandra (Aayu in Agni Puran or Indu in Matsya Puran or Aadra in Vishnu Puran)
  11. Yuvanashva-1
  12. Shashvat (Shravant of Vishnu Puran, Harivansh Puran, Agni Puran) who built town Saraswati
  13. Brihadasva
  14. Kuvalayasva (or) Dubdhunara (21,000 sons and Here time duration is many thousands years long)
  15. Dridhasva, Kapilashva, Bhadrashva (Dand in Agni Puran & Matsya Puran, Chandrashva in Vishnu Puran & Harivansh Puran)
  16. Pramod
  17. Haryasva (Pramodak or Vayarshvah in Vishnu Puran)
  18. Nikumbha
  19. Baharnashva (Shanhatashva in Agni Puran, Matsya Puran, Harivasnh Puran)
  20. Giritashva
  21. Krisasva (Akrutashva in Agni Puran, Matsya Puran)
  22. Prasenajit-1 (Seinya Jeet, Ranashva in Agni Puran)
  23. Yuvanashva(2) (who was contemporary to Chandravanshi King Gandhara who was founder of Gandhara Kingdom, Shakuni born 95 generation after King Gandhara)
  24. Mandhata (Chakravarti Samrat) killed by Lavanasura in Mathura
  25. Purukutsha (married with Narmada), Ambarisha (adopted by Yuvanashva), Muchukanda (helped Deva in Deva-Asur War & latter he killed Kaal Yavan by fire from his eyes at the time of Sri Krishna Avatara in end of Dwaparayuga) (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Shibi who was founder of Keikaya & Madra Kingdom)
  26. Vasud
  27. Trayadasyu (Sambhuti in Agni Puran)
  28. Sambhrut (Vishnu Puran, Agni Puran, Matsya Puran)
  29. Anaranya-1
  30. Pushadashva (Vishnu Puran)
  31. Haryasva(2)
  32. Sumana (Sudhanava in Harivansh Puran, Vasuman, Paarjitar)
  33. Tridhanva (Vishvamitra was chief minister in his court, contemporary to God Parashurama)
  34. Thrayaruni
  35. Tribandhan
  36. Satyavrata (or) Trishanku
  37. Harishchandra (contemporary to Shahashtra Bahu Kartivirya Arjuna)
  38. Rohit (Rohitashva) (Kanyakubj or Kannauj dynasty ended during Rohitashva's reigned)
  39. Harita (Haritashva) (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Dushyant)
  40. Champ (Chunchu) (Conntemporary of Chakravarti Samrat Bharata of Chandravansh in line age of Puru)
  41. Sudeva (Chakshu in Vishnu Puran, Agni Puran)
  42. Vijaya (Ramayana was written by Valmiki during reign of this king) (contemporary to Maharshi Bharadwaja)
  43. Bharuk (Ruruk in Vishnu Puran, Harivansh Puran)
  44. Pratapendra
  45. Bruk
  46. Sushandhi
  47. Bahuk
  48. Bharat (Ramayana)
  49. Asit (Kalinda in Ramayana)
  50. Sagara (Chakravartin Samrat) he ended Haihaya Dynasty. Sagar had 60,000 sons but only Asamanjash live (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Hasti who founded Hatinapura)
  51. Asamanjash (Contemporary to Chandravanshi King Ajaamidha who was founder of Panchala Kingdom)
  52. Anshumaan
  53. Dilīpa
  54. Bhagiratha (He brought river Ganga on earth)
  55. Srutha
  56. Kukutsa-2
  57. Raghu-1
  58. Naabh (Nabhag in Matsya Puran, Harivansh Puran)
  59. Ambarisha(2) (great devotee of God Maha Vishnu)
  60. Shindhudwip
  61. Avyutayu (Shrutayu in Agni Puran)
  62. Rituparna
  63. Sarvakama (Sarvakarma, Aartupani in Harivansha Puran)
  64. Sudas (contemporary to King Kuru-1 of Chandravansh who founded Magadha Kingdom)
  65. Saudasa (or) Kalmashapada (married to Madayanti)
  66. Asmaka
  67. Mulaka (Naari Kavacha) (Contemporary to Yadava King Shakuni who was father of Rashasha "Bhasmasura")
  68. Dasharatha-1
  69. Adwil (Ilabil in Vishnu Puran)
  70. Vishvamashaha
  71. Anaranya-2
  72. Nidhn
  73. Animitra
  74. Dululaha (Harivansh Puran)
  75. Krisakarma
  76. Dilipa(2) (or) Khatvanga (in Vishnu Puran, Harivansh Puran)
  77. Deerghabahu
  78. Raghu-2 (Chakravartin Samrat) (Raghuvansh, Raghava, Raghuvir word use in honour of this king)
  79. Aja (married to Indumati)
  80. Dasaratha (contemporary to Videha King Siradwaja (Janaka-2) father of Seeta)
  81. Rama( Lakshmana, Bharata & Shatrughna are his siblings and he is also avatar of lord Vishnu)

In the Ramayana, we find that, Lava and Kusha were the sons of Rama.

Kusha to Brihadbala

Sri Ram had two son Lava, Kusha. Lava was founded Lavapuri (Lahore) Bharata had two son Taksha, Pushakal Taksha was founder of Takshashila (Modern Islamabad) Pushkal was founder of Pushkalatirtha (Modern Peshavar) Laxmana had two son Angada, Chitraketu. Shtrugnya had two son Subahu, Shrutasena. The Puranas provide a genealogical list from Kusha to Brihadbala, who was killed by Abhimanyu in the Mahabharata war. This list is corroborated by the Raghuvamsha till Agnivarna:[10]

82. Kusha (Srimad Bhagavat Puran)

83. Atithi, the son of Kusha (Srimad Bhagavat Puran)

84. Nishadha, the son of Atithi

85. Nala, the son of Nishadha (Matsya Puran, Agni Puran, Harivansha Puran)

86. Nabhas, the son of Nala

87. Pundarika, the son Nabhas

88. Kshemadhanvan, the son of Pundarika (Sudhanava)

89. Devanika, the son of Kshemadhanvan

90. Ahinagu, the son of Davanika (Ahinaag)

91. Rup,the son of Ahinagu

92. Ruru,the son of Rup

93. Pariyaatra, the son of Ruru

94. Balasthala, the son of Ruru

95. Chhal, the son of Balashthala

96. Ukya, the son of Chaal

97. Vrajanabha, the son of Ukya

98. Khagana, the son of Vrajanabh

99. Vighruti, the son of Khagana

100. Vishvashaha-2, the son of Vighruti

101. Hiranyanaabh, the son of Vishvashaha

102. Pushpa, the son of Hiranyanabh

103. Dhruvashandhi, the son of Pushpa

104. Sudas, the son Dhruvashandhi

105. Sudarshana, the son of Sudas

106. Agnivarna,the son of Sudarshana

107. Shighra, the son of Agnivarna

108. Maru-2, the son of Shighra

109. Prashushrut, the son of Maru-2

110. Shandhi, the son of Prashushrut

111. Amarshana, the son of Shandhi

112. Mahasvan, the son of Amarshana

113. Vishvashaha, the son of Mahasvan

114. Prasenjeet, the son of Vishvashaha

115. Takshaka, the son of Prasenjeet

116. Brihadbalam, the son of Takshaka

Brihadbalam was contemporary of Chandravanshi King Dritarashtra of Mahabharat. Abhimanyu killed him in Mahabharata war at age 125 in BCE 3138.

Sri Ram to Brihadbalam 35 generation passed in Ikshavakuvansh

Brihadbala to Sumitra

The Puranas also provide the list of the kings from Brihadbala to the last ruler Sumitra. But these lists mention Shakya as an individual, and incorporate the names of Shakya, Shuddodhana, Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha) and Rahula between Sanjaya and Prasenajit. The names of the kings are:[11]

117. Brihadbalam (at age 125 years killed by Abhimanyu in Mahabharata War BCE3138)

118. Bruhadrunam

119.Urukriya

120. Vatsavyuha

121. Prativyoma

122. Bhanu

123. Divakar

124. Divakara

125. Sahadeva

126. Brihadashva-2

127. Bhanuratha (Bhanumaan)

128. Pratitashva

129. Supratika

130. Marudeva

131. Sunakshatra

132. Pushkar (Kinnara of Vishnu Purana)

133. Antariksha

134. Sutapa (Suvarna of Vishnu Puran)

135. Sumitra Amitrajit

136. Bruhada Raaj

137. Barhi

138. Kruttajjaya

139. Ranajjaya

140. Sanjaya Mahakoshala

141. Shakya Suddhod (father of Shiddharth Gautam Buddha)

142. Langul (Siddharth) or Gautama Buddha (BCE 563 - BCE 483)

143. * Prasenajit (c. 6th century BCE) (Rahul in Vishnu Puran)

144. Kshudraka

145. Ranak

146. Suratha

147. Sumitra, defeated by Mahapadma Nanda in BCE 362

In Buddhist tradition

The Buddhist text, Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata, an ancestor of Okkaka. This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara.[12] The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows:[13][14]

  1. Okkaka
  2. Okkamukha
  3. Sivisamjaya
  4. Sihassara
  5. Jayasena
  6. Sihahanu
  7. Suddhodana
  8. Siddhartha (Gautama Buddha)
  9. Rahula

In Jainism

The Ikshvaku dynasty has a significant place in Jainism, as twenty-two Tirthankaras were born in this dynasty.[15]

  • Origin
    • Rishabha (son of King Nabhi), the founder of Jainism in the present Avasarpani era (descending half time cycle as per Jain cosmology) is said to have founded the Ikshvaku dynasty. Ikshvaku is considered to be his another name.[16] He is said to have taught the people how to extract sugarcane juice. Hence, name for the Ikshvaku dynasty comes from the word ikhsu (sugarcane) because of this event.[17]
    • Bharata (first Chakravartin) and Bahubali (first Kamadeva), sons of Rishabha
    • Arkakirti and Marichi, son of Bharata
  • at the time of Ajitanatha
    • Jitashatru (father of Ajitanatha) and his younger brother Sumitra (father of Sagara)
    • Ajitanatha (the 2nd Tirthankara) and Sagara (2nd Chakravartin)
    • Janhu (eldest son of Sagara), the one who flooded village of Nagas with waters of Ganga leading to turning of sixty thousand sons of Sagara into ashes by Jawalanprabha (emperor of Nagas)
    • Bhagiratha (eldest grandson of Sagara)
  • at the time of Vasupujya
  • at the time of Shantinatha
    • Visvasena (father of Shantinatha)
    • Shantinatha, the 16th Tirthankara and 5th Chakravarti
    • Chakrayudha, son of Shantinatha
    • Kuruchandra, son of Chakrayudha[18]
  • at the time of Kunthunatha
  • at the time of Aranatha

See also

Notes


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ Geography of Rgvedic India, M.L. Bhargava, Lucknow 1964, pp. 15-18, 46-49, 92-98, 100-/1, 136
  2. ^ Zimmer 1952, p. 218.
  3. ^ Zimmer 1952, p. 220.
  4. ^ Ikshaku tribe The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section CVI, p. 228 'There was born in the family of the Ikshaku, a ruler of the earth named Sagara, endued with beauty, and strength...".
  5. ^
  6. ^ http://www.gloriousindia.com/history/dynasties/ikshvaku/ikshvaku.html
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, pp.283-8, 384
  12. ^ Law, B.C. (1973). Tribes in Ancient India, Bhandarkar Oriental Series No.4, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, p.246
  13. ^ Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, p.286
  14. ^
  15. ^ Jain 1991, p. 2.
  16. ^ Jain 1991, p. 5.
  17. ^ Shah 2004, p. 15.
  18. ^
  19. ^ Jain 1991, p. 161.

References

Preceded by
Kulkara (in Jainism)
Ikshvaku Dynasty Succeeded by
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