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Herring

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Herring

Herring
Sculpture of a herring school. Herrings are known for their schooling habits.
Global commercial capture of herrings
in million tonnes reported by the FAO 1950–2010[1]

Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae. They often move in large schools around fishing banks and near the coast. The most abundant and commercially important species belong to the genus Clupea, found particularly in shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea, as well as off the west coast of South America. Three species of Clupea are recognised, and provide about 90% of all herrings captured in fisheries. Most abundant of all is the Atlantic herring, providing over half of all herring capture. The herring is also found in India,in the Arabian sea, Indian ocean and Bay of Bengal.

Herring played a pivotal role in the history of marine fisheries in Europe,[2] and early in the twentieth century their study was fundamental to the evolution of fisheries science.[3][4] These oily fish[5] also have a long history as an important food fish, and are often salted, smoked, or pickled.

Species

This article is
one of a series on
Commercial fish
Large pelagic
billfish, bonito
mackerel, salmon
shark, tuna

Forage
anchovy, herring
menhaden, sardine
shad, sprat

Demersal
cod, eel, flatfish
pollock, ray
Mixed
carp, tilapia

A number of different species, most belonging to the family Clupeidae, are commonly referred to as herrings. The origins of the term herring is somewhat unclear, though it may derive from the Old High German heri meaning a "host, multitude", in reference to the large schools they form.[6]

The type genus of the herring family Clupeidae is Clupea.[4] Clupea contains three species: the Atlantic herring (the type species) found in the north Atlantic, the Pacific herring found in the north Pacific, and the Araucanian herring found off the coast of Chile. Subspecific divisions have been suggested for both the Atlantic and Pacific herrings, but their biological basis remain unclear.

Herrings in the genus Clupea
Common name Scientific name Maximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
Fish
Base
FAO ITIS IUCN status
Araucanian herring Clupea bentincki Norman, 1936 28.4 cm cm kg years 2.69 [7] [8] [9] Not assessed
Atlantic herring Clupea harengus Linnaeus, 1758 45.0 cm 30.0 cm 1.05 kg 22 years 3.23 [10] [11] [12] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[13]
Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes, 1847 46.0 cm 25.0 cm 19 years 3.15 [10] [14] [15] Not assessed

In addition, a number of related species, all in the family Clupeidae, are commonly referred to as herrings. The table immediately below includes those members of the Clupeidae family referred to by FishBase as herrings which have been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

There are also a number of other species called herrings, which may be related to clupeids or just share some characteristics of herrings (such as the lake herring, which is a salmonid). Just which of these species are called herrings can vary with locality, so what might be called a herring in one locality might be called something else in another locality. Some examples:

Characteristics

The Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus

The species of Clupea belong to the larger family Clupeidae (herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens), which comprises some 200 species that share similar features. These silvery-coloured fish have a single dorsal fin, which is soft, without spines. They have no lateral line and have a protruding lower jaw. Their size varies between subspecies: the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) is small, 14 to 18 centimetres; the proper Atlantic herring (C. h. harengus) can grow to about 46 cm (18 inches) and weigh up 700 g (1.5 pounds); and Pacific herring grow to about 38 cm (15 inches).

Life cycle

Herring spawn

At least one stock of Atlantic herring spawns in every month of the year. Each spawns at a different time and place (spring, summer, autumn and winter herrings). Greenland populations spawn in 0–5 metres (0–16 ft). North Sea (bank) herrings spawn at up to 200 metres (660 ft) in autumn. Eggs are laid on the sea bed, on rock, stones, gravel, sand or beds of algae. "...the fish were darting rapidly about, and those who have opportunity to see the fish spawning in more shallow water ... state that both males and females are in constant motion, rubbing against one another and upon the bottom, apparently by pressure aiding in the discharge of the eggs and milt" (Moore at Cross Island, Maine).

Females may deposit from 20,000 up to 40,000 eggs, according to age and size, averaging about 30,000. In sexually mature herrings, the genital organs grow before spawning, reaching about one-fifth of its total weight.

The eggs sink to the bottom, where they stick in layers or clumps to gravel, seaweeds or stones, by means of their coating mucus, or to any other objects on which they chance to settle.

If the egg layers are too thick they suffer from oxygen depletion and often die, entangled in a maze of fucus. They need substantial water microturbulence, generally provided by wave action or coastal currents. Survival is highest in crevices and behind solid structures, because predators feast on openly disposed eggs. The individual eggs are 1 to 1.4 millimetres (0.039 to 0.055 in) in diameter, depending on the size of the parent fish and also on the local race. Incubation time is about 40 days at 3 °C (37 °F), 15 days at 7 °C (45 °F), 11 days at 10 °C (50 °F). Eggs die at temperatures above 19 °C (66 °F).

The larvae are 5 to 6 millimetres (0.20 to 0.24 in) long at hatching, with a small yolk sac that is absorbed by the time the larva reaches 10 millimetres (0.39 in). Only the eyes are well pigmented. The rest of the body is nearly transparent, virtually invisible under water and in natural lighting conditions.

The dorsal fin forms at 15 to 17 millimetres (0.59 to 0.67 in), the anal fin at about 30 millimetres (1.2 in)—the ventral fins are visible and the tail becomes well forked at 30 to 35 millimetres (1.4 in)— at about 40 millimetres (1.6 in) the larva begins to look like a herring.

The larvae are very slender and can easily be distinguished from all other young fish of their range by the location of the vent, which lies close to the base of the tail. But distinguishing clupeoids one from another in their early stages requires critical examination, especially telling herring from sprats.

At one year they are about 10 centimetres (3.9 in) long, and they first spawn at three years.

Egg to juvenile
Transparent eggs with the yolk and eyes visible and one larva hatched.
Freshly hatched larva in a drop of water besides a match to demonstrate how tiny it is. The black eyes and the yolk are visible.
Young larva in typical oblique swimming position, with remaining yolk still attached. Another larva at the upper right is in the classical S-shape of the beginning phase of attacking a copepod.
Still transparent juvenile herring, about 38 mm long and 3 months old. Visible are the otoliths, the gut, the silvery swimbladder and the heart.

Ecology

Prey

Herrings are a prominent converter of zooplankton into fish, consuming copepods, arrow worms, pelagic amphipods, mysids and krill in the pelagic zone. Conversely, they are a central prey item or forage fish for higher trophic levels. The reasons for this success is still enigmatic; one speculation attributes their dominance to the huge, extremely fast cruising schools they inhabit.

Young herring feed on zooplankton, tiny animals that are found in oceanic surface waters, and small fish and fish larvae. Copepods and other tiny crustaceans are the most common zooplankton eaten by herring. During daylight herring stay in the safety of deep water, feeding at the surface only at night when there is less chance of being seen by predators. They swim along with their mouths open, filtering the plankton from the water as it passes through their gills. Young herring mostly hunt copepods individually, by means of "particulate feeding" or "raptorial feeding",[110] a feeding method also used by adult herring on larger prey items like krill. If prey concentrations reach very high levels, as in microlayers, at fronts or directly below the surface, herring become filter feeders, driving several meters forward with wide open mouth and far expanded opercula, then closing and cleaning the gill rakers for a few milliseconds.

Copepods, the primary zooplankton, are a major item on the forage fish menu. Copepods are typically one millimetre (0.04 in) to two millimetres (0.08 in) long, with a teardrop shaped body. Some scientists say they form the largest animal biomass on the planet.[111] Copepods are very alert and evasive. They have large antennae (see photo below left). When they spread their antennae they can sense the pressure wave from an approaching fish and jump with great speed over a few centimetres. If copepod concentrations reach high levels, schooling herrings adopt a method called ram feeding. In the photo below, herring ram feed on a school of copepods. They swim with their mouth wide open and their opercula fully expanded.

Hunting copepods
This copepod has its antenna spread (click to enlarge). The antenna detects the pressure wave of an approaching fish.
School of herrings ram feeding on a school of copepods with opercula and mouth expanded. The fish swim in a grid with a distance of the jump length of their prey, as indicated by the animation at the right.
Animation showing how herrings hunt in a synchronised way to capture an alert and evasive copepod

The fish swim in a grid where the distance between them is the same as the jump length of their prey, as indicated in the animation above right. In the animation, juvenile herring hunt the copepods in this synchronised way. The copepods sense with their antennae the pressure-wave of an approaching herring and react with a fast escape jump. The length of the jump is fairly constant. The fish align themselves in a grid with this characteristic jump length. A copepod can dart about 80 times before it tires. After a jump, it takes it 60 milliseconds to spread its antennae again, and this time delay becomes its undoing, as the almost endless stream of herrings allows a herring to eventually snap the copepod. A single juvenile herring could never catch a large copepod.[110]

Other pelagic prey eaten by herrings includes fish eggs, larval snails, diatoms by herring larvae below 20 millimetres (0.79 in), tintinnids by larvae below 45 millimetres (1.8 in), molluscan larvae, menhaden larvae, krill, mysids, smaller fishes, pteropods, annelids, Calanus, Centropagidae and Meganyctiphanes norvegica.

Herrings, along with cod and sprat, are the most important commercial species to humans in the Baltic Sea.[112] The analysis of the stomach contents of these fish indicate cod is the top predator, preying on the herring and sprat.[112][113] Sprat are competitive with herrings for the same food resources. This is evident in the two species' vertical migration in the Baltic Sea, where they compete for the limited zooplankton that is available and necessary for their survival.[114] Sprat are highly selective in their diet and eat only zooplankton, while herrings are more eclectic, adjusting their diet as they grow in size.[114] In the Baltic, copepods of the genus Acartia can be present in large numbers. However, they are small in size with a high escape response, so herring and sprat avoid trying to catch them. These copepods also tend to dwell more in surface waters, whereas herrings and sprat, especially during the day, tend to dwell in deeper waters.[114]

Predators

Seabirds, like this European Herring Gull, attack herring schools from above
Humpback whales attack herring schools by lunging from below
See also: Predator avoidance in schooling fish, Bait ball

Predators of herring include seabirds, marine mammals such as dolphins, porpoises, orca, whales, seals and sea lions, predator fish such as sharks, billfish, tuna, salmon, striped bass, cod and halibut, and fishermen.

The predators often operate cooperatively in groups, using different techniques to panic or herd a school of herrings into a tight bait ball. Different predators species then use different techniques to pick the fish off in the bait ball. The sailfish raises its sail to make it appear much larger. Swordfish charge at high speed through the bait balls, slashing with their swords to kill or stun prey. They then turn and return to consume their "catch". Thresher sharks use their long tails to stun the shoaling fish. These sharks compact their prey school by swimming around them and splashing the water with their tails, often in pairs or small groups. They then strike them sharply with the upper lobe of their tails to stun them.[115] Spinner sharks charge vertically through the school, spinning on their axis with their mouths open and snapping all around. The shark's momentum at the end of these spiraling runs often carries it into the air.[116][117]

Some whales lunge feed on bait balls.[118] Lunge feeding is an extreme feeding method, where the whale accelerates from below the bait ball to a high velocity and then opens its mouth to a large gape angle. This generates the water pressure required to expand its mouth and engulf and filter a huge amount of water and fish. Lunge feeding by rorquals, a family of huge baleen whales that includes the blue whale, is said to be the largest biomechanical event on Earth.[119]

Fisheries

↑  All herrings 2010 [1]
Green = Clupea herrings
Commercial herring catch

Adult herring are harvested for their flesh and eggs, and they are often used as baitfish. The trade in herring is an important sector of many national economies. In Europe the fish has been called the "silver of the sea", and its trade has been so significant to many countries that it has been regarded as the most commercially important fishery in history.[120]

Environmental Defense have suggested that the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) fishery is one of the more environmentally responsible fisheries.[121]

As food

A kipper or split smoked herring

Herring has been a staple food source since at least 3000 B.C. There are numerous ways the fish is served and many regional recipes: eaten raw, fermented, pickled, or cured by other techniques, such as being smoked as kippers.

Herring are very high in the long-chain Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA.[122] They are a source of vitamin D.

Water pollution influences the amount of herring that may be safely consumed. For example, large Baltic herring slightly exceeds recommended limits with respect to PCB and dioxin, although some sources point out that the cancer-reducing effect of omega-3 fatty acids is statistically stronger than the cancer-causing effect of PCBs and dioxins.[123] The contaminant levels depend on the age of the fish which can be inferred from their size. Baltic herrings larger than 17 cm may be eaten twice a month, while herrings smaller than 17 cm can be eaten freely.[124] Mercury in fish also influences the amount of fish that women who are pregnant or planning to be pregnant within the next one or two years may safely eat.

History

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Based on data sourced from the relevant FAO Species Fact Sheets
  2. ^ Cushing, David H (1975) Marine ecology and fisheries Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09911-0.
  3. ^ Went, AEJ (1972) "The History of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Section B. Biology, 73: 351–360.doi:10.1017/S0080455X0000240X
  4. ^ a b Pauly, Daniel (2004) Darwin's Fishes: An Encyclopedia of Ichthyology, Ecology, and Evolution Page 109, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82777-5.
  5. ^ "What's an oily fish?".  
  6. ^ Herring Online Etymology Dictionary, Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  7. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Clupea bentincki in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  8. ^ (Norman, 1936)Clupea bentincki FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  9. ^ "Clupea bentincki".  
  10. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Clupea harengus in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  11. ^ (Linnaeus, 1758)Clupea harengus FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  12. ^ "Clupea harengus".  
  13. ^ Herdson D and Priede I (2011). "Clupea harengus".  
  14. ^ (Valenciennes, 1847)Clupea pallasii FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  15. ^ "Clupea pallasii".  
  16. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Clupeoides papuensis in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  17. ^ "Clupeoides papuensis".  
  18. ^ Allen G (2010). "Clupeoides papuensis".  
  19. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Dayella malabarica in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  20. ^ "Dayella malabarica".  
  21. ^ Ali A and Raghavan R (2011). "Dayella malabarica".  
  22. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Jenkinsia lamprotaenia in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  23. ^ "Jenkinsia lamprotaenia".  
  24. ^ Cotto A, Medina E and Bernal O (2010). "Jenkinsia lamprotaenia".  
  25. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Gilchristella aestuaria in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  26. ^ "Gilchristella aestuaria".  
  27. ^ Bills R (2007). "Gilchristella aestuaria".  
  28. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Jenkinsia majua in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  29. ^ "Jenkinsia majua".  
  30. ^ Munroe TA and Priede IG (2010). "Jenkinsia majua".  
  31. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Etrumeus teres in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  32. ^ (Norman, 1936)Etrumeus teres FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  33. ^ "Etrumeus teres".  
  34. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Spratellomorpha bianalis in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  35. ^ "Spratellomorpha bianalis".  
  36. ^ Loiselle, P et al. (2011). "Spratellomorpha bianalis".  
  37. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Etrumeus whiteheadi in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  38. ^ (Wongratana, 1983)Etrumeus whiteheadi FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  39. ^ "Etrumeus whiteheadi".  
  40. ^ Heemstra PC, Munroe TA and Priede IG (2011). "Etrumeus whiteheadi".  
  41. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Jenkinsia parvula in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  42. ^ "Jenkinsia parvula".  
  43. ^ Cotto A, Medina E and Bernal O (2010). "Jenkinsia parvula".  
  44. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthonema berlangai in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  45. ^ a b "Opisthonema libertate".  
  46. ^ Iwamoto T and Eschmeyer W (2010). "Opisthonema berlangai".  
  47. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthonema medirastre in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  48. ^ "Opisthonema medirastre".  
  49. ^ Cotto A, Medina E and Bernal O (2010). "Opisthonema medirastre".  
  50. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthonema libertate in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  51. ^ (Günther, 1867)Opisthonema libertate FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  52. ^ Cotto A, Medina E and Bernal O (2010). "Opisthonema libertate".  
  53. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthonema bulleri in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  54. ^ "Opisthonema bulleri".  
  55. ^ Cotto A, Medina E and Bernal O (2010). "Opisthonema bulleri".  
  56. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Lile nigrofasciata in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  57. ^ "Lile nigrofasciata".  
  58. ^ Iwamoto T and Eschmeyer W (2010). "Lile nigrofasciata".  
  59. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Denticeps clupeoides in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  60. ^ "Denticeps clupeoides".  
  61. ^ Lalèyè P, Moelants T and Olaosebikan BD (2010). "Denticeps clupeoides".  
  62. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Chirocentrodon bleekerianus in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  63. ^ "Chirocentrodon bleekerianus".  
  64. ^ Priede IG (2010). "Chirocentrodon bleekerianus".  
  65. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Lile gracilis in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  66. ^ "Lile gracilis".  
  67. ^ Iwamoto T, Eschmeyer W and Smith-Vaniz B (2010). "Lile gracilis".  
  68. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Harengula thrissina in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  69. ^ "Harengula thrissina".  
  70. ^ Iwamoto T, Eschmeyer W and Smith-Vaniz B (2010). "Harengula thrissina".  
  71. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Thrattidion noctivagus in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  72. ^ "Thrattidion noctivagus".  
  73. ^ Moelants T (2010). "Thrattidion noctivagus".  
  74. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Spratelloides gracilis in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  75. ^ "Spratelloides gracilis".  
  76. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Lile stolifera in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  77. ^ "Lile stolifera".  
  78. ^ Iwamoto T and Eschmeyer W (2010). "Lile stolifera".  
  79. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Sierrathrissa leonensis in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  80. ^ "Sierrathrissa leonensis".  
  81. ^ Moelants T and Olaosebikan BD (2010). "Sierrathrissa leonensis".  
  82. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthopterus macrops in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  83. ^ "Opisthopterus macrops".  
  84. ^ Cotto A, Medina E and Bernal O (2010). "Opisthopterus macrops".  
  85. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthonema dovii in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  86. ^ "Opisthopterus dovii".  
  87. ^ Iwamoto T, Eschmeyer W and Alvarado J (2010). "Opisthopterus dovii".  
  88. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Ilisha fuerthii in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  89. ^ "Ilisha fuerthii".  
  90. ^ Iwamoto T, Eschmeyer W and Alvarado J (2010). "Ilisha fuerthii".  
  91. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Odontognathus panamensis in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  92. ^ "Odontognathus panamensis".  
  93. ^ Cotto A, Medina E and Bernal O (2010). "Odontognathus panamensis".  
  94. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Neoopisthopterus tropicus in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  95. ^ "Neoopisthopterus tropicus".  
  96. ^ Iwamoto T and Eschmeyer W (2010). "Neoopisthopterus tropicus".  
  97. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthopterus effulgens in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  98. ^ "Opisthopterus effulgens".  
  99. ^ Iwamoto T, Eschmeyer W and Alvarado J (2010). "Opisthopterus effulgens".  
  100. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthopterus equatorialis in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  101. ^ "Opisthopterus equatorialis".  
  102. ^ Cotto A (2010). "Opisthopterus equatorialis".  
  103. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Chirocentrus dorab in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  104. ^ (Forsskål, 1775)Chirocentrus dorab FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  105. ^ "Chirocentrus dorab".  
  106. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Chirocentrus nudus in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  107. ^ "Chirocentrus nudus".  
  108. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Coregonus artedi in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  109. ^ "Coregonus artedi".  
  110. ^ a b Kils U (1992) The ATOLL Laboratory and other Instruments Developed at Kiel U.S. GLOBEC News, Technology Forum Number 8: 6-9.
  111. ^ Biology of Copepods at Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg
  112. ^ a b Friedrich W. Köster, et al. "Developing Baltic Cod Recruitment Models. I. Resolving Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Spawning Stock And Recruitment For Cod, Herring, And Sprat." Canadian Journal Of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 58.8 (2001): 1516. Academic Search Premier. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. p. 1516. [1]
  113. ^ Maris Plikshs, et al. "Developing Baltic Cod Recruitment Models. I. Resolving Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Spawning Stock And Recruitment For Cod, Herring, And Sprat." Canadian Journal Of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 58.8 (2001): 1516. Academic Search Premier. Web. 23 Nov. 2011, p.1517 [2]
  114. ^ a b c Casini, Michele, Cardinale, Massimiliano, and Arrheni, Fredrik. "Feeding preferences of herring (Clupea harengus) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the southern Baltic Sea." ICES Journal of Marine Science, 61 (2004): 1267-1277. Science Direct. Web. 22 November 2011. p. 1268. [3]
  115. ^ Seitz, J.C. Pelagic Thresher. Florida Museum of Natural History. Retrieved on December 22, 2008.
  116. ^ Compagno, L.J.V. (1984). Sharks of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Shark Species Known to Date. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organisation. pp. 466–468.  
  117. ^ , Spinner Shark"Carcharhinus brevipinna". MarineBio.org. Retrieved May 9, 2009. 
  118. ^ Reeves RR, Stewart BS, Clapham PJ and Powell J A (2002) National Audubon Society Guide to Marine Mammals of the World Chanticleer Press. ISBN 9780375411410.
  119. ^ Potvin J and Goldbogen JA (2009) Balaenoptera physalus"Passive versus active engulfment: verdict from trajectory simulations of lunge-feeding fin whales J. R. Soc. Interface, 6(40): 1005–1025. doi:10.1098/rsif.2008.0492
  120. ^ Herring, from Census of Marine Life, 2010.
  121. ^ Eco-Best Fish - Safe for the environment, from Environmental Defense Fund, 2010.
  122. ^ Cardiovascular Benefits Of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Reviewed
  123. ^ Risks and benefits are clarified by food risk assessment - Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira
  124. ^ Dietary advice on fish consumption - Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira
  125. ^ River herring NEFSC, NOAA. Updated December 2006.
  126. ^ Salisbury and Winchester Journal, 9 January 1792.

Bibliography

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  • Stephenson RL (2001) The role of herring investigations in shaping fisheries science In F. Funk, J. Blackburn, D. Hay, A.J. Paul, R. Stephen- son, R. Toresen, and D. Witherell (eds.) Herrings: Expectations for a New Millennium, Alaska Sea Grant College Program. AK-SG-01-04. Pages 1–20. ISBN 1-56612-070-5.
  • Stephenson, R. L., Melvin, G. D., and Power, M. J. (2009) "Population integrity and connectivity in Northwest Atlantic herring: a review of assumptions and evidence" ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 1733–1739.
  • Whitehead PJP, Nelson GJ and Wongratana T (1988) FAO species catalogue, volume 2: Clupeoid Fishes of the World, Suborder Clupeoidei FAO Fisheries Synopsis 125, Rome. ISBN 92-5-102340-9. Download ZIP (16 MB)

Further reading

  • Baltic Fisheries Cooperation Committee (1995) Utilization and Marketing of Baltic Herring Nordic Council of Ministers. ISBN 9789291207749.
  • Bigelow HB and Schroeder WC (1953) Fishes of the Gulf of Maine Pages 88–100, Fishery Bulletin 74(53), NOAA. pdf version
  • Dodd JS (1752) An essay toward a natural history of the herring Original from the New York Public Library.
  • Mitchell JM (1864) The herring: its natural history and national importance Edmonston and Douglas. Original from the University of Wisconsin.
  • Postan MM, Miller E and Habakkuk HJ (1987) The Cambridge Economic History of Europe: Trade and industry in the Middle Ages Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521087094.
  • Poulsen B (2008) Dutch Herring: An Environmental History, C. 1600-1860 Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789052603049.
  • Samuel AM (1918) The herring: its effect on the history of Britain J. Murray. Original from the University of Michigan.
  • Stephenson F (2007) Herring Fishermen: Images of an Eastern North Carolina Tradition The History Press. ISBN 9781596292697.
  • Waters B (1809) Letters upon the subject of the herring fishery: addressed to the secretary of the Honourable the Board for the Herring Fishery at Edinburgh, to which is added, a petition to the lords of the treasury on the same subject Original from Harvard University.

External links

  • Herring "communicate" by flatulence from national geographic
  • Atlantic Herring from the Gulf of Maine Research Institute
  • Nutrition Facts for Herring
  • Prospecting herring waste - from ScienceNordic
  • PNAS Population-scale sequencing reveals genetic differentiation due to local adaptation in Atlantic herring.
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