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  1. ^ In Classical Latin, Hadrian's name would be inscribed as PVBLIVS AELIVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
  2. ^ As emperor his name was Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus.
  1. ^ a b Alicia M. Canto, Itálica, Sedes natalis de Adriano
  2. ^ Inscription in Athens, year 112 AD: CIL III, 550 = InscrAtt 3 = IG II, 3286 = Dessau 308 = IDRE 2, 365: P(ublio) Aelio P(ubli) f(ilio) Serg(ia) Hadriano / co(n)s(uli) VIIviro epulonum sodali Augustali leg(ato) pro pr(aetore) Imp(eratoris) Nervae Traiani / Caesaris Aug(usti) Germanici Dacici Pannoniae inferioris praetori eodemque / tempore leg(ato) leg(ionis) I Minerviae P(iae) F(idelis) bello Dacico item trib(uno) pleb(is) quaestori Imperatoris / Traiani et comiti expeditionis Dacicae donis militaribus ab eo donato bis trib(uno) leg(ionis) II / Adiutricis P(iae) F(idelis) item legionis V Macedonicae item legionis XXII Primigeniae P(iae) F(idelis) seviro / turmae eq(uitum) R(omanorum) praef(ecto) feriarum Latinarum Xviro s(tlitibus) i(udicandis) //... (text in greek)
  3. ^ Mary T. Boatwright (2008). "From Domitian to Hadrian". In Barrett, Anthony. Lives of the Caesars. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 159.  
  4. ^ Eutr. VIII. 6: "...nam eum (Hadrianum) Traianus, quamquam consobrinae suae filium..." and . I, 2Vita HadrSHA, : ...pater Aelius Hadrianus cognomento Afer fuit, consobrinus Traiani imperatoris.
  5. ^ After A. M. Canto, in, specifically pp. 322, 328, 341 and footnote 124, where she stands out SHA, Vita Hadr. 1.2: pro filio habitus (years 93); 3.2: ad bellum Dacicum Traianum familiarius prosecutus est (year 101) or, principally, 3.7: quare adamante gemma quam Traianus a Nerva acceperat donatus ad spem successionis erectus est (year 107).
  6. ^ Royston Lambert, 1984, p. 175
  7. ^ Alicia M. Canto, "Itálica, patria y ciudad natal de Adriano (31 textos históricos y argumentos contra Vita Hadr. His father died in AD 86 when Hadrian was at the age of 10. 1, 3", Athenaeum vol. 92.2, 2004, pp. 367–408
  8. ^ Ronald Syme, in "Hadrian and Italica" (Journal of Roman Studies, LIV, 1964; pp. 142–9) examined the question and concluded that Rome was his birthplace. Against this is the argument of Canto, who argues that only one ancient source gives Hadrian's birth as Rome (SHA, Vita Hadr 2,4, probably interpolated), opposite to 25 ancient authors who affirm that he was born in Italica. Among these ancient sources is included his own imperial horoscope, which remained in the famous Antigonus of Nicaea's collection (end of the 2nd. century). This horoscope was well studied by prominent authors as F. H. Cramer, Astrology in Roman Law and Politics, Mem.Amer.Philos.Soc. nr. 37 , Philadelphia, 1954 (repr. 1996), see for Hadrian p. 162–178, fn. 121b and 122, etc.: "...Hadrian – whose horoscope is absolutely certain – surely was born in southern Spain... (in) SHA, Hadrian, 2, 4, the birth was erroneously assigned to Rome instead of Italica, the actual birth-place of Hadrian...", or O. Neugebauer and H. B. Van Hoesen in their magisterial compilation Greek Horoscopes, Mem.Amer.Philos.Soc. nr. 48, Philadelphia, 1959, nr. L76, see now here, ed. 1987 pp. 80, 90–1, and his footnote 19. They came also to the conclusion that the astronomic parallel of the Hadrian’s birth is situated in the Baetica, today Andalusia: “...L40 agrees exactly with the geographical latitude of southern Spain, the place of origin of Hadrian and his family...”.. "since Hadrian was born in Italica (southern Spain, near Seville, latitude about 37° 30)...".
  9. ^ Historia Augusta, 'Hadrian', I-II, here explicitly citing the autobiography. This is one of the passages in the Historia Augusta where there is no reason to suspect invention. But see now the Canto's 31 contrary arguments in the op.cit. supra; among them, in the same Historia Augusta and, from the same author, Aelius Spartianus, Vita Sev. 21: Falsus est etiam ipse Traianus in suo municipe ac nepote diligendo, see also Adriano, and, characterizing him as a man of provinces (Canto, ibid.): Vita Hadr. 1,3: Quaesturam gessit Traiano quater et Articuleio consulibus, in qua cum orationem imperatoris in senatu agrestius pronuntians risus esset, usque ad summam peritiam et facundiam Latinis operam dedit
  10. ^ On the numerous senatorial families from Spain residing at Rome and its vicinity around the time of Hadrian’s birth see R.Syme, 'Spaniards at Tivoli', in Roman Papers IV (Oxford, 1988), pp. 96–114. Tivoli (Tibur) was of course the site of Hadrian’s own imperial villa
  11. ^ a b Royston Lambert, Beloved And God, pp.31–32.
  12. ^ Aul.Gell., Noct.Att. XVI, 13, 4, and some inscriptions in the city with C(olonia) A(elia) A(ugusta) I(talica)
  13. ^ The inscription in footnote 1
  14. ^ H. W. Benario in
  15. ^ Anthony Birley, Hadrian the Restless Emperor, p. 68
  16. ^ Anthony Birley, p. 75
  17. ^ Elizabeth Speller, p. 25
  18. ^ Kennedy, Maev (2008-06-09). "How Victorian restorers faked the clothes that seemed to show Hadrian's softer side".  
  19. ^ Royston Lambert, p. 34
  20. ^ a b Elizabeth Speller.
  21. ^ Elizabeth Speller, p. 69
  22. ^ Lambert, Royston, Beloved and God, New York: Viking, 1984, pp. 1–14 passim.
  23. ^ Historia Augusta (c. 395) Hadr. 14.5–7
  24. ^ "Antinous’s mysterious death in the Nile led to a Graeco-Egyptian hero-cult to surpass all others in the Greek-speaking world, and busts of the young man are now among the most common from antiquity." (MacGregor, Neil, "There’s more to Hadrian than wall-building", Times of London, 6 July 2008.
    Dyson, Stephen L., Rome: A Living Portrait of an Ancient City, p. 195.
  25. ^ "The public taking of Antinous the Greek as a lover makes more sense as a deliberate political manoeuvre designed to ingratiate himself with the Greek-speakers who still made up 50% of the empire." (Januszczak, Waldemar, "Hadrian – Empire and Conflict at the British Museum", Times of London, 20 July 2008)
    Lambert, op. cit. p. 185.
  26. ^ Historia Augusta, Hadrian 2.1.
  27. ^ a b c Fox, Robin The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian Basic Books. 2006 pg 574
  28. ^ Conway, A. E. (1914). "?". The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 25 (138): 346–349.  
  29. ^ "Facts About the Byzantine Emperors". 2001-09-07. Retrieved 2012-05-07. 
  30. ^ a b Elizabeth Speller, pp. 74–81
  31. ^ Epiphanius, Treatise on Weights and Measures – Syriac Version (ed. James Elmer Dean), University of Chicago Press, c1935, pp. 29–30
  32. ^ The Historia Augusta notes that 'the Britons could not be kept under Roman control; Pompeius Falco was sent to Britain to restore order (Birley 123) and coins of 119–120 refer to this.
  33. ^ Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Hadrian, xi, 2
  34. ^ Breeze, David J., and Brian Dobson, "Hadrian's Wall: Some Problems", Britannia, Vol. 3, (1972), pp. 182–208
  35. ^ Birley, pp. 131–3
  36. ^ Breeze and Dobson (2000) pp. 15–7
  37. ^ "Britannia on British Coins". Chard. Retrieved 2006-06-25. 
  38. ^ Royston Lambert, pp. 41–2
  39. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 151–2
  40. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 153–5
  41. ^ a b Anthony Birley, pp. 157–8
  42. ^ Royston Lambert, pp. 60–1
  43. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 164–7
  44. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 175–7
  45. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 177–80
  46. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 182–4
  47. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 189–190
  48. ^ a b Anthony Birley, pp. 191–200
  49. ^ Royston Lambert, pp. 71–2
  50. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 213–4
  51. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 215–20
  52. ^ Cassius Dio, LIX.11; Historia Augusta, Hadrian
  53. ^ Ronald Syme, "Journeys of Hadrian" (1988), pp. 164–9
  54. ^ Midrash Rabba, Genesis Rabba 64 (end)
  55. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman history 69.12.1
  56. ^ Virgilio Corbo, The Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem (1981)
  57. ^ Epiphanius, Treatise on Weights and Measures – Syriac Version (ed. James Elmer Dean), University of Chicago Press, c1935, p. 30
  58. ^  
  59. ^ Mackay, Christopher. Ancient Rome a Military and Political History 2007: 230
  60. ^ The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Second Jewish Revolt Against Rome Peter Schäfer Mohr Siebeck, 2003 pg 68
  61. ^ The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World: The Jews of Palestine from Alexander the Great to the Arab Conquest By Peter Schäfer Routledge, 2 Sep 2003 pg 146
  62. ^ Historia Augusta, Hadrian14.2
  63. ^ Chronicle of Jerome, s.v. Hadrian. See: [1] See also Yigael Yadin, Bar-Kokhba, Random House New York 1971, pp. 22, 258
  64. ^ C. Clermont-Ganneau, Archaeological Researches in Palestine during the Years 1873–74, London 1899, pp. 463–470.
  65. ^ account(Legio XXII Deiotariana)
  66. ^ Cassius Dio 69, 14.3
  67. ^ Midrash Rabba (Lamentations Rabba 2:5), end
  68. ^ Gittin 57a-58b; Lamentations Rabbah 2.2 §4;
  69. ^ The Aramaic version, "שחיק טמיא", is used, e.g., in Genesis Rabbah 78:1. This is referenced by Rashi in his comment on the phrase, "טמא לנפש", in his commentary on Numbers 5:2. The other two locations in Genesis Rabbah referenced in Rashi's comment, 10:3 and 28:3, use the Hebrew version, "שחיק עצמות"
  70. ^ Midrash Rabba (Lamentations Rabba), section 3
  71. ^ midrash HaGadol to dvarim 26:19
  72. ^ Malbim to Daniel 9:27
  73. ^ Midrash Rabba, Genesis Rabba 64 (end).
  74. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 289–292.
  75. ^ a b The adoptions: Anthony Birley, pp. 294–5; T.D. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus', Journal of Roman Studies (1967), Ronald Syme, Tacitus, p. 601. Antoninus as a legate of Italy: Anthony Birley, p. 199
  76. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 291–2
  77. ^ Dio 69.17.2
  78. ^ Anthony Birley, p. 297
  79. ^ Historia Augusta, Hadrian 25.9; Antony Birley, p. 301


Primary sources

  • Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius Roman History. Greek Text and Translation by Earnest Cary at internet archive
  • Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Augustan History. Latin Text Translated by David Magie
  • Anon, Excerpta of  


  • Smallwood, E.M, Documents Illustrating the Principates of Nerva Trajan and Hadrian, Cambridge, 1966.

Secondary sources

  • Barnes, T. D. (1967). "Hadrian and Lucius Verus". Journal of Roman Studies 57 (1/2): 65–79.  
  • Birley, Anthony R. (1997). Hadrian. The restless emperor. London: Routledge.  
  • Canto, Alicia M. (2004). . 1, 3"Vita Hadr y ciudad natal de Adriano (31 textos históricos y argumentos contra patria"Itálica, . Athenaeum 92.2: 367–408. 
  • Dobson, Brian (2000). Hadrian's Wall. London: Penguin. 
  • Lambert, Royston (1997). Beloved and God: the story of Hadrian and Antinous. London: Phoenix Giants.  
  • Speller, Elizabeth (2003). Following Hadrian: a second-century journey through the Roman Empire. London: Review.  
  • Syme, Ronald (1964). "Hadrian and Italica". Journal of Roman Studies LIV: 142–9.  
  • Syme, Ronald (1988). "Journeys of Hadrian" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 73: 159–170. Retrieved 2006-12-12.  Reprinted in Syme, Ronald (1991). Roman Papers VI. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 346–357.  

Further reading

  • Boatwright, Mary T. (2003). Hadrian and the cities of the roman empire. Princeton: Princeton Univ Press.  
  • Danziger, Danny; Purcell, Nicholas (2006). Hadrian's empire : when Rome ruled the world. London: Hodder & Stoughton.  
  • Everitt, Anthony (2009). Hadrian and the triumph of Rome. New York: Random House.  
  • Gray, William Dodge (1919). "A Study of the life of Hadrian Prior to His Accession". Smith College Studies in History 4: 151–209. 
  • Gregorovius, Ferdinand (1898). The Emperor Hadrian: A Picture of the Greco-Roman World in His Time. Mary E. Robinson, trans. London: Macmillan. 
  • Henderson, Bernard W. (1923). Life and Principate of the Emperor Hadrian. London: Methuen. 
  • Ish-Kishor, Sulamith (1935). Magnificent Hadrian: A Biography of Hadrian, Emperor of Rome. New York: Minton, Balch and Co. 

External links

  • Historia Augusta: Life of Hadrian
  • Hadrian coinage
  • Temple of Hadrian QuickTime VR, Rome
  • Catholic Encyclopedia article
  • A Bibliography
  • Major scultoric find at Sagalassos (Turkey), 2 August 2007 (between 13 and 16 feet in height, four to five meters), with some splendid photos courtesy of the Sagalassos Archaeological Research Project
  • Hadrian, in: De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors
  • Next exhibition on Hadrian in the British Museum, 24 July – 26 October 2008: "Hadrian, Empire and Conflict". Curator: Thorsten Opper
  • "Emperor Hadrian, YouTube hero": a review by Tom Holland of the Hadrian Exhibition at the British Museum, TLS, 6 August 2008.
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L. Ceionius Commodus
Appia Severa
G. Fuscus Salinator II
Arria Antonia
Arria Fadilla
T. Aurelius Fulvus
L. Caesennius Antoninus
Fundania Plautia
Ignota Plautia
G. Avidius
Antoninus Pius
(r. 138–161)
M. Annius Verus
Domitia Lucilla
M. Annius Libo
Lucius Aelius
Avidia Plautia
(r. 161–180)
G. Avidius Cassius
Aurelia Fadilla
(r. 161–169)
Ceionia Fabia
Plautius Quintillus
Q. Servilius Pudens
Ceionia Plautia
Cornificia Minor
M. Petronius Sura
(r. 177–192)
M. Annius Verus Caesar
Ti. Claudius Pompeianus (2)
M. Plautius Quintillus
Junius Licinius Balbus
Servilia Ceionia }}}}
Petronius Antoninus
L. Aurelius Agaclytus
Aurelia Sabina
L. Antistius Burrus
Plautius Quintillus
Plautia Servilla
G. Furius Sabinus Timesitheus
Antonia Gordiana
Junius Licinius Balbus
Furia Sabina Tranquillina
(r. 238-244)
Born: 24 January AD 76 Died: 10 July AD 138
Political offices
Preceded by
Roman Emperor
Succeeded by
Antoninus Pius
Preceded by
Quintus Aquilius Niger and Marcus Rebilus Apronianus
Consul of the Roman Empire
Succeeded by
Lucius Catilius Severus Iulianus Claudius Reginus and Antoninus Pius
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