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Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha

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Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha

Hüseyin Hilmi
Pasha
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
In office
14 February 1909 – 13 April 1909
Monarch Abdülhamid II
Preceded by Kâmil Pasha
Succeeded by Ahmed Tevfik Pasha
In office
5 May 1909 – 12 January 1910
Monarch Mehmet V Reşad
Preceded by Ahmed Tevfik Pasha
Succeeded by Ibrahim Hakki Pasha
Minister of the Interior
In office
1908–1909
Inspectorate-General of Macedonia
In office
1902–1908
Ambassador to Austria-Hungary
In office
1912–1918
Personal details
Born (1855-04-01)1 April 1855
Lesbos, Ottoman Empire
Died 1922
Vienna, Austria
Nationality Ottoman
Religion Islam

Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: حسین حلمی پاشا, also spelled Hussein Hilmi Pasha) (1 April 1855 – 1922) was a statesman and twice Grand Vizier[1] of the Ottoman Empire around the time of the Second Constitutional Era. He was also one-time president of the Turkish Red Crescent.[2] Hüseyin Hilmi was one of the most successful Ottoman administrators in the explosive Balkans of the early 20th century, becoming the Ottoman Inspectorate-General of Macedonia[3] from 1902 to 1908, Minister of the Interior[4] from 1908 to 1909, and ambassador to Austria-Hungary[5] from 1912 to 1918.

Biography

Hüseyin Hilmi was born in 1855 in Lesbos to a family of Greek ancestry[6][7][8][9] who had formerly converted to Islam.[10] He did his primary studies in Lesbos and learned fluent French at an early age. He started out as a clerk in the Ottoman state structure and gradually climbed the ladder of the hierarchy, becoming the governor of Adana in 1897 and of Yemen in 1902. That same year in 1902, he was appointed Inspectorate-General with responsibility over virtually all of the Balkan territories of the Ottoman Empire at the time, namely the vilayets of Salonica, Kosovo and Manastir.

After the restoration of the Ottoman constitution in 1908, he was appointed as Minister of the Interior and then served as Grand Vizier, at first between February 14, 1909 and April 13, 1909 under Abdülhamid II and then, reassuming the post from Ahmet Tevfik Pasha a month later, between May 5, 1909 and December 28, 1909. As such, in his first vizierate, he was the last grand vizier of Abdülhamid II. His first term was suddenly interrupted because of the 31 March Incident (which actually occurred on April 13), when for a few days, reactionary absolutists and Islamic fundamentalists took back control of the Ottoman government in Istanbul until the arrival of an army from Salonica that suppressed the attempted countercoup.

After his second term as grand vizier under Mehmet V Reşad, Hüseyin Hikmi Pasha served as the Minister of Justice in the succeeding Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha cabinet. In October 1912, he was sent to Vienna as the Ottoman ambassador to Austria-Hungary, a position he held until the end of World War I. Due to health problems, he remained in Vienna until his death in 1922. He was buried in Beşiktaş, Istanbul.

References

  • Emine Onhan Evered, "An educational prescription for the Sultan: Huseyin hilmi pasa's advice for the maladies of empire," Middle Eastern Studies, 43,3 (2007), 439-459.

See also

Political offices
Preceded by
Minister of the Interior
1908–1909
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Mehmed Said Pasha
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
14 February 1909 – 13 April 1909
Succeeded by
Ahmed Tevfik Pasha
Preceded by
Ahmed Tevfik Pasha
Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
5 May 1909 – 12 January 1910
Succeeded by
Ibrahim Hakkı Pasha
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Ambassador to Austria-Hungary
1912–1918
Succeeded by
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