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Golestan Province

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Title: Golestan Province  
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Subject: Mazandaran Province, Provinces of Iran, Semnan Province, Aqqala County, Azadshahr County
Collection: Golestan Province, Provinces of Iran
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Golestan Province

Golestan Province
استان گلستان
Map of Iran with Golestān highlighted
Location of Golestān within Iran
Country  Iran
Region Region 1 [1]
Capital Gorgan
Counties 12
 • Total 20,367 km2 (7,864 sq mi)
Population (2011)[3]
 • Total 1,777,014
 • Density 87/km2 (230/sq mi)
Time zone IRST (UTC+03:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRST (UTC+04:30)
Main language(s) Turkmen

Golestān Province (Gorgan.

The province was put as part of Region 1 upon the division of the provinces into 5 regions solely for coordination and development purposes on June 22nd, 2014.[5]

Golestān was split off from the province of Kalaleh County, Kordkuy County, Maraveh Tappeh County, Minudasht County, Ramian County, and Torkaman County. Present-day Gorgan was called Esterabad until 1937.


  • The name 1
  • History 2
  • Demographics 3
  • Culture 4
  • Climate and geography 5
    • Golestan National Park 5.1
  • Administrative divisions 6
  • Colleges and universities 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

The name

Gorgān, Hyrcania (in Latin), and Υρκανία (in Ancient Greek, meaning "the district of the wolves") were all previously referred to as Varkāna in the Behistun Inscription.[6] Wolves are still seen in the vicinity.


Map of the Abbasid Caliphate showing Gorgan province, forerunner to modern-day Golestan Province

Human settlements in this area date back to 10 000 BCE. Evidence of the ancient city of Jorjan can still be seen near the current city of Gonbad-e Kavus. It was an important city of Persia located on the Silk Road.

Under the Achaemenid Iran, it seems to have been administered as a sub-province of Parthia and is not named separately in the provincial lists of Darius and Xerxes. The Hyrcanians, however, under the leadership of Megapanus, are mentioned by Herodotus[7] in his list of Xerxes’ army during the invasion of Greece.[6]


The Ali Abad, Kalaleh and many of eastern townships.

Other ethnic groups such as Armenians also reside in this area, and have preserved their traditions and rituals.

Recent decades has seen a huge migration to this province, especially from Zabol northest city of Sistan and Baluchestan.

A small minority of Bahá'í Faith also live in Golestan (in Shahpassand). [4][8][9]


The Buwayhid and Ziyarid dynasties of Persia were from this region. They were known for the revival of pre-Islamic Persian culture. For example, Buwayhid leaders entitled themselves as Shâhanshâh (شاهنشاه), literally king of kings, a term used by Sassanid rulers.

The world's tallest brick tower stands in this province. It is the famous Gonbad-e Qabus, built by a famous Amir of this region.

Climate and geography

Golestān enjoys mild weather and a temperate climate most of the year. Geographically, it is divided into two sections: The plains, and the mountains of the Alborz range. In the eastern Alborz section, the direction of mountains faces northeast and gradually decreases in height. The highest point of the province is Shavar, with a height of 3,945 meters.

Golestan National Park

Golestan National Park in northern Iran is faced with the construction of a road through the forest, allegedly for the ease of traffic for villagers and woodmen but at the expense of losing the only national park in Iran throughout which a range of different climates (humid near the Caspian Sea and desert farther south) is spread.

Golestān National Park is Iran's biggest national park which spans three provinces, Golestan, Mazandaran and North Khorasan. Surprisingly, the authorities ignore repeated calls by experts to construct such roads around, instead of through, the forests, which in this way would no longer threaten the animal and plant life.

Administrative divisions

Map Abbreviation in map County (Shahrestan)
A Aliabad
Az Azadshahr
BT Torkaman
K Kalaleh
G Gorgan
Go Gonbad-e Qabus
Ko Kordkuy
Ga Galikash
M Minudasht
R Ramian
BG Bandar-e Gaz
Ag Aqqala

Colleges and universities

  1. Golestan University (website)
  2. Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (website)
  3. Golestan University of Medical Sciences
  4. Islamic Azad University of Azadshahr
  5. Islamic Azad University of Gorgan
  6. Islamic Azad University of Ali Abad katool


  1. ^ همشهری آنلاین-استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند
  2. ^ [2] Iranian Statistical Yearbook 1385
  3. ^ a b Selected Findings of National Population and Housing Census 2011
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ همشهری آنلاین-استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند
  6. ^ a b "GORGĀN". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved 23 December 2009. 
  7. ^ Herodotus, Histories, 7.62
  8. ^
  9. ^ The Geography of Golestan Province, Educational Ministry of Iran, 2006

External links

  • The Provincial Cultural Heritage Organization
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