World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Gene bank

Article Id: WHEBN0004387917
Reproduction Date:

Title: Gene bank  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Seed bank, Biodiversity, Ova bank, Oratia, Hungarian Grey cattle
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Gene bank

Gene banks are a type of biorepository which preserve genetic material. For plants, this could be by freezing cuttings from the plant, or stocking the seeds (e.g. in a seedbank). For animals, this is the freezing of sperm and eggs in zoological freezers until further need. With corals, fragments are taken which are stored in water tanks under controlled conditions.[1]

Plant genetic material in a 'gene bank' is preserved at -196° Celsius in Liquid Nitrogen as mature seed (dry).

In plants, it is possible to unfreeze the material and propagate it, however, in animals, a living female is required for artificial insemination. While it is often difficult to utilize frozen animal sperm and eggs, there are many examples of it being done successfully.

In an effort to conserve agricultural biodiversity, gene banks are used to store and conserve the plant genetic resources of major crop plants and their crop wild relatives. There are many gene banks all over the world, with the Svalbard Global Seed Vault being probably the most famous one.

GeneBank is listed in the [2]

Types of gene banks

Seed bank

A seedbank preserves dried seeds by storing them at a very low temperature. Spores and pteridophytes are conserved in seed banks, but other seedless plants, such as tubercrops cannot be preserved this way. The largest seed bank in world is the Millennium Seed Bank housed at the Wellcome Trust Millennium Building (WTMB), located in the grounds of Wakehurst Place in West Sussex, near London.[3]

Tissue bank

In this technique buds, protocorm and meristematic cells are conserved through particular light and temperature arrangements in a nutrient medium. This technique is used to preserve seedless plants and plants which reproduce asexually.


In this technique, a seed or embryo is preserved at very low temperatures. It is usually preserved in liquid nitrogen at -196°C. This is helpful for the conservation of species facing extinction.[4]

Pollen bank

This is a method in which pollen grains are stored. We can make plants which are facing extinction in the present world. Using this technique, we can make plants with one set chromosome.

Field gene bank

This is a method of planting plants for the conservation of genes. For this purpose we construct ecosystem artificially. Through this method one can compare the difference among plants of different species and can study it in detail. It needs more land, adequate soil, weather, etc.. Germ plasma of important crops are conserved through this method. 42,000 varieties of rice are conserved in the Central Rice Research Institute in Orissa.

See also

External links

  • AEGIS A European Genebank Integrated System
  • The Crop Genebank Knowledge Base
  • Genebanks
  • Israel Gene Bank


  • Short DIVERSEEDS video about the Israeli Gene Bank


  1. ^ Fragmentation used with coral gene banks
  2. ^ "GeneBank Entry in". Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  3. ^ Drori, Jonathan (posted May 2009, filmed February 2009). "Why we're storing billions of seeds". TED2009. TED. Retrieved 2011-12-11. 
  4. ^ "Cryo bank". CGIAR Genetic Resources Systems: Phase 2. Collective Action for the Rehabilitation of Global Public Goods. Retrieved 23 January 2012. 
  • Ellis, R.H., T.D. Hong and E.H. Roberts (1985). Handbook of Seed Technology for Genebanks Vol. II: Compendium of Specific Germination Information and Test Recommendations. IBPGR (now Bioversity International). Rome, Italy. 
  • Engels, J.M.M. and L. Visser, editors. (2003). A Guide to Effective Management of Germplasm Collections. CABI, IFPRI, IPGRI, SGRP.  174 p.
  • Kameswara, N., J. Hanson, M. E. Dulloo, K. Ghosh, A. Nowell and M. Larinde. (2006). Manual of Seed Handling in Genebanks. Bioversity International, CTA (Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation), FAO, ILRI.  147 p.
  • Koo, B., Pardey, P. G., Wright, B. D., et al. (2004). Saving Seeds. CABI, IFPRI, IPGRI, SGRP. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.