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Title: Gözlükule  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Yanıkhan, Karakabaklı, History of Turkey, Mezitli River, Cities of the ancient Near East
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Gözlükule is located in Turkey
Shown within Turkey
Location Tarsus, Mersin Province, Turkey
Region Mediterranean Region
Type Settlement
Periods Neolithic Age

Gözlükule is a tumulus within the borders of Tarsus city, Mersin Province, Turkey. It is now a park with an altitude of 22 metres (72 ft) with respect to surrounding area.


Initially settled in the Neolithic Period, Gözlükule became an important settlement and a port during the 2nd millennium BC. [1] It was located at the intersection of the main road systems, one following the Mediterranean sea side, the other following valleys through Toros Mountains to Anatolian plateau (so called Cilician Gates). Eventually the city of Tarsus was established just north of Gözlükule. But Gözlükule was still active as the port of Cilicia. In 41 BC Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony entered Tarsus using the port of Gözlükule.

In later years, the coastline moved to south because of the sediment carried by the Berdan River and Gözlükule lost its importance as a port.


Before the official excavations began, the tumulus had been partially damaged. During French occupation of Tarsus following the first world war, a French battalion had been deployed on Gözlükule. It is believed that this operation resulted in some depredation.

The initial excavations between 1934 and 1939 were carried out by a team from Bryn Mawr College and the Institute for Advanced Study led by Hetty Goldman. [2] [3] [4] She was the first officially sanctioned woman archeologist.[5] After being interrupted by the Second World War, some additional work went on from 1947 to 1949. The stratification recovered at the site is important in Bronze Age Anatolian chronology.

In 2001, Boğaziçi University began to work at the site, with excavations beginning in 2007. [6]

The finds

  • Bronze age: Bronze weapons, stamps, ruins of adobe buildings, city wall


[8] [9]

See also


  1. ^ Hetty Goldman, Excavations at Gözlü Kule, Tarsus. Volume II: From the Neolithic through the Bronze Age, Princeton University Press, 1956
  2. ^ Hetty Goldman, Excavations at Gozlu Kule, Tarsus. Vol I: The Hellenistic and Roman periods, Princeton University Press, 1950
  3. ^ Hetty Goldman, Excavations at Gözlü Kule, Tarsus. Volume II: From the Neolithic through the Bronze Age, Princeton University Press, 1956
  4. ^ Hetty Goldman, Excavations at Gozlu Kule, Tarsus, Volume III: The Iron Age, Princeton University Press, 1963
  5. ^ Hetty Goldman
  6. ^ Asli Özyar, Field season 2001-2003 of the Tarsus-Gözlükule : interdisciplinary research project, Ege Yayinlari, 2005, ISBN 975-8071-07-6
  7. ^ A.Goetze, Philological Remarks on the Bilingual Bulla from Tarsus", AJA, vol. 40, pp. 210-214, 1936
  8. ^ Albrecht Goetze, Cuneiform Inscriptions from Tarsus, Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 1-16, 1939
  9. ^ H. Goldman, A Crystal Statuette from Tarsus", Archaeologica orientalia in memoriam Ernst Herzfeld, pp. 129-133, J J Augustin, 1952, ISBN 99911-832-5-6


  • Hetty Goldman, Preliminary Expedition to Cilicia, 1934, and Excavations at Gözlü Kule, Tarsus, 1935, American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 526–549, 1935
  • Hetty Goldman, Excavations at Gözlü Kule, Tarsus, 1936, American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 262–286, 1937
  • Hetty Goldman, Excavations at Gözlü Kule, Tarsus, 1937, American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 30–54, 1938
  • Hetty Goldman, Excavations at Gözlü Kule, Tarsus, 1938, American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 60–86, 1940

External links

  • Web site of current dig
  • Adana Archaeological Museum
  • A page from Boğaziçi University
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