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Fuyu Kyrgyz language

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Title: Fuyu Kyrgyz language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Languages of China, Turkic languages, Tibetan Sign Language, Mulam language, Central Min
Collection: Agglutinative Languages, Endangered Turkic Languages, Languages of China, Siberian Turkic Languages, Turkic Languages
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Fuyu Kyrgyz language

Fuyu Kyrgyz
Fuyü Gïrgïs
Native to China
Region Heilongjiang
Ethnicity 875 (no date)
Native speakers
unknown (10 cited 1982 census)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 None (mis)
Linguist list

Fuyu Kyrgyz (Fuyü Gïrgïs, Fu-Yu Kirgiz), also known as Manchurian Kirghiz, is the easternmost Turkic language. Despite its name, it is not a variety of Kyrgyz but is closer to Khakas; the people migrated from Russia in 1761, and the name may be due to the survival of a common tribal name. The present-day Kyrgyz people originally lived in the same area that the speakers of Fuyu Kyrgyz at first dwelled in within modern-day Russia. These Kyrgyz were known as the Yenisei Kyrgyz. It is now spoken in northeastern China's Heilongjiang province, in and around Fuyu County, Qiqihar (300 km northwest of Harbin) by a small number of passive speakers who are classified as Kyrgyz nationality.[3]


  • Sounds 1
  • Speakers 2
  • Notes 3
  • References 4


Although a complete phonemic analysis of Girgis has not been done,[4] Hu and Imart have made numerous observations about the sound system in their tentative description of the language. They describe Girgis as having the short vowels noted as "a, ï, i, o, ö, u, ü" which correspond roughly to IPA [a, ə, ɪ, ɔ, œ, ʊ, ʉ], with minimal rounding and tendency towards centralization.[5] Vowel length is phonemic and occurs as a result of consonant-deletion (Girgis /pʉːn/ vs. Kyrgyz /bygyn/). Each short vowel has an equivalent long vowel, with the addition of /e /. Girgis displays vowel harmony as well as consonant harmony.[6] The consonant sounds in Girgis, including allophone variants, are [p, b, ɸ, β, t, d, ð, k, q, ɡ, h, ʁ, ɣ, s, ʃ, z, ʒ, dʒ, tʃ, m, n, ŋ, l, r, j]. Girgis does not display a phonemic difference between the stop set /p, t, k/ and /b, d, g/; these stops can also be aspirated to [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] in Chinese loanwords.[7]


In 1980, Fuyu Girgis was spoken by a majority of adults in a community of around a hundred homes. However, many adults in the area have switched to speaking a local variety of Mongolian, and children have switched to Chinese as taught in the education system.[8]


  1. ^ Khakas reference at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  2. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Contributors Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (revised ed.). Elsevier. 2010. p. 1109.  
  3. ^ Hu & Imart 1987, p. 1
  4. ^ Hu & Imart 1987, p. 11
  5. ^ Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 8–9
  6. ^ Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 24–25
  7. ^ Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 11–13
  8. ^ Hu & Imart 1987, pp. 2–3


  • Hu, Zhen-hua; Imart, Guy (1987), Fu-Yü Gïrgïs: A tentative description of the easternmost Turkic language,  
  • Li, Yongsŏng; Ölmez, Mehmet; Kim, Juwon (2007), "Some Newly Identified Words in Fuyu Kirghiz (Part 1)", Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher (Neue Folge) 21: 141–169 

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