World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Full-frame digital SLR

Article Id: WHEBN0002886106
Reproduction Date:

Title: Full-frame digital SLR  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Comparison of digital SLRs, Image sensor format, Canon EOS 6D, Sony A7, Canon EOS-1D X
Collection: Digital Photography, Digital Slr Cameras
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Full-frame digital SLR

The sizes of sensors used in most current digital cameras, relative to a 35mm format.

The term Full Frame is used by D-SLR users as a short-hand for an image sensor which is the same size as 35mm format (36×24 mm) film .[1][2] Historically, 35 mm was considered a small film format compared with medium format, large format and even larger. This is in contrast to cameras with smaller sensors (for instance, those with a size equivalent to APS-C-size film), much smaller than a full 35 mm frame. Currently, the majority of digital cameras, both compact and SLR models, use a smaller-than-35 mm frame, as it is easier and cheaper to manufacture imaging sensors at a smaller size. Historically, the earliest digital SLR models, such as the Nikon NASA F4 or Kodak DCS 100, also used a smaller sensor. Kodak states that 35mm film has the equivalent of 6K resolution according to a Senior Vice President of IMAX.[3]


  • Use of 35 mm film-camera lenses 1
  • Advantages and disadvantages of full-frame digital SLRs 2
    • 35 mm lenses 2.1
  • Past and present full-frame digital cameras 3
    • DSLRs 3.1
    • Rangefinders 3.2
    • Other technologies 3.3
  • Features of some full frame DSLR cameras 4
  • Prototype full-frame digital SLRs 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7

Use of 35 mm film-camera lenses

If the lens mounts are compatible, many lenses, including manual-focus models, designed for 35 mm cameras can be mounted on DSLR cameras. When a lens designed for a full-frame camera, whether film or digital, is mounted on a DSLR with a smaller sensor size, only the center of the lens's image circle is captured. The edges are cropped off, which is equivalent to zooming in on the center section of the imaging area. The ratio of the size of the full-frame 35 mm format to the size of the smaller format is known as the "crop factor" or "focal-length multiplier", and is typically in the range 1.3–2.0 for non-full-frame digital SLRs.

Advantages and disadvantages of full-frame digital SLRs

35 mm lenses

An APS-C format DSLR (left) and a full-frame DSLR (right) show the difference in the size of the sensors.

When used with lenses designed for full frame film or digital cameras full-frame DSLRs offer a number of advantages compared to their smaller-sensor counterparts. One advantage is that wide-angle lenses designed for full-frame 35 mm retain that same wide angle of view. On smaller-sensor DSLRs, wide-angle lenses have smaller angles of view equivalent to those of longer-focal-length lenses on 35 mm film cameras. For example, a 24 mm lens on a camera with a crop factor of 1.5 has a 62° diagonal angle of view, the same as that of a 36 mm lens on a 35 mm film camera. On a full-frame digital camera, the 24 mm lens has the same 84° angle of view as it would on a 35 mm film camera.

If the same lens is used on both full-frame and cropped formats, and the subject distance is adjusted to have the same field of view (i.e., the same framing of the subject) in each format, depth of field (DoF) is in inverse proportion to the format sizes, so for the same f-number, the full-frame format will have less DoF. Equivalently, for the same DoF, the full-frame format will require a larger f-number (that is, a smaller aperture diameter). This relationship is approximate and holds for moderate subject distances, breaking down as the distance with the smaller format approaches the hyperfocal distance, and as the magnification with the larger format approaches the macro range.

There are optical quality implications as well—not only because the image from the lens is effectively cropped—but because many lens designs are now optimized for sensors smaller than 36 mm × 24 mm. The rear element of any SLR lens must have clearance for the camera's reflex mirror to move up when the shutter is released; with a wide-angle lens, this requires a retrofocus design, which is generally of inferior optical quality.[4] Because a cropped-format sensor can have a smaller mirror, less clearance is needed, and some lenses, such as the EF-S lenses for the Canon APS-C sized bodies,[5] are designed with a shorter back-focus distance; however, they cannot be used on bodies with larger sensors.

The full-frame sensor can also be useful with wide-angle perspective control or tilt/shift lenses; in particular, the wider angle of view is often more suitable for architectural photography.

While full-frame DSLRs offer advantages for wide-angle photography, smaller-sensor DSLRs offer some advantages for telephoto photography because the smaller angle of view of small-sensor DSLRs enhances the telephoto effect of the lenses. For example, a 200 mm lens on a camera with a crop factor of 1.5 has the same angle of view as a 300 mm lens on a full-frame camera. The extra "reach", for a given number of pixels, can be helpful in specific areas of photography such as wildlife or sports.[6]

Lower size sensors also allow for the use of a wider range of lenses, since some types of optical impurities (specifically vignetting) are most visible around the edge of the lens. By only using the center of the lens, these impurities are not noticed. In practice, this allows for the use of lower cost glass without corresponding loss of quality.[7]

Finally, full frame sensors allow for sensor designs that result in lower noise levels at high ISO and a greater dynamic range in captured images. Pixel density is lower on full frame sensors. This means the pixels can be either spaced further apart from each other, or each photodiode can be manufactured at a slightly larger size. Larger pixel sizes can capture more light which has the advantage of allowing more light to be captured before over saturation of the photodiode. Additionally, less noise is generated by adjacent pixels and their emf fields with larger photodiodes or greater spacing between photodiodes. For a given number of pixels, the larger sensor allows for larger pixels or photosites that provide wider dynamic range and lower noise at high ISO levels.[8] As a consequence, full-frame DSLRs may produce better quality images in certain high contrast or low light situations.

Production costs for a full-frame sensor can exceed twenty times the costs for an APS-C sensor. Only 20 full-frame sensors will fit on an 8-inch (200 mm) silicon wafer, and yield is comparatively low because the sensor's large area makes it very vulnerable to contaminants—20 evenly distributed defects could theoretically ruin an entire wafer. Additionally, when full-frame sensors were first produced, they required three separate exposures during the photolithography stage, tripling the number of masks and exposure processes.[9] Modern photolithography equipment now allows single-pass exposures for full-frame sensors, but other size-related production constraints remain much the same.

Some full-frame DSLRs intended mainly for professional use include more features than typical consumer-grade DSLRs, so some of their larger dimensions and increased mass result from more rugged construction and additional features as opposed to this being an inherent consequence of the full-frame sensor.

Past and present full-frame digital cameras


The Nikon E2/E2s (1994),[21] E2N/E2NS (1996)[22] and E3/E3S (1998)[23] digital SLRs as well as the similar Fujifilm Fujix DS-505/DS-515, DS-505A/DS-515A and DS-560/DS-565 models used a reduction optical system (ROS) to compress a full-frame 35 mm field onto a smaller 2/3-inch (11 mm diagonal) CCD imager. They were therefore not digital SLRs with full-frame sensors, however had an angle of view equivalent to full-frame digital SLRs for a given lens; they had no crop factor with respect to angle of view.[24]

Nikon has designated its full frame cameras as FX format and its smaller sensor cameras as the DX format.


Other technologies

Features of some full frame DSLR cameras

Camera Size Weight Megapixel count Autofocus FPS Burst Rate ISO Range File Type Wi-Fi Options Lens Mount
Canon EOS 6D 144.5 x 110.5 x 71.2 mm 755 g 20.2 MP 11 Points (1 cross type) 4.5 fps 100-25600 jpeg, raw Built-in Wi-Fi and GPS Canon EF
Nikon D600 141 x 113 x 82 mm 850 g 24.3 MP 39 Points (9 cross type) 5.5 fps 100-6400 jpeg, raw WU - 1b wireless mobile adapter (optional) Nikon F
Sony SLT-A99 147 x 111.2 x 78.4 mm 812 g 24.3 MP 19 Points (11 cross type) 6 fps 100-25600 jpeg, raw N/A Sony A
Canon EOS 5D III 152 x 116.4 x 76.4 mm 950 g 22.3 MP 61 Points (41 cross type) 6 fps 100-25600 jpeg, raw Wireless file transmitter WFT-E7(Optional) Canon EF
Nikon D800/e 146 x 123 x 81.5 mm 1,000 g 36.3 MP 51 Points (15 cross type) 4 fps 100-6400 jpeg, raw Nikon WT$ wireless transmitter (optional) Nikon F


Prototype full-frame digital SLRs

  • Pentax MZ-D "MR-52" (presented in 2000, based on Pentax MZ-S, with the same sensor as Contax N, it never went into production)[28]
  • Sony Alpha flagship model "CX62500" (presented at PMA 2007, early prototype of what one-and-a-half years later became the DSLR-A900 (aka "CX85100"), though with many detail differences)[29][30]
  • In early 2015, Ricoh announced development of a Pentax full-frame DSLR for release later in the year, and at the CP+ show in Yokohama Japan, a mock-up was displayed that suggested the camera's potential specifications, including: an IR port for remote release, an anti-aliasing filter simulation mode, and an articulating rear LCD.[31]

See also


  1. ^ Nigel Atherton, Steve Crabb, Tim Shelbourne (2006). An Illustrated A to Z of Digital Photography: People And Portraits. Sterling Publishing Co. Inc.  
  2. ^ Ross Hoddinott (2006). Digital Macro Photography. Sterling Publishing Co. Inc.  
  3. ^ "/Film Interview: IMAX Executives Talk ‘The Hunger Games: Catching Fire’ and IMAX Misconceptions". Slash Film. December 2, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Retrofocus Design Problems: A Synopsis". Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  5. ^ "The Canon Camera Story: 2001-2004". November 2004. Retrieved 2009-09-26. 
  6. ^ Barbara Gerlach (2007). Digital Nature Photography: The Art and the Science. Focal Press. p. 67.  
  7. ^ Bourne, Scott. "Seven Myths About the Need for Full Frames". Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  8. ^ "Full-frame sensors". Photocrati. Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  9. ^ "Canon's Full-Frame CMOS Sensors: The Finest Tools for Digital Photography" (PDF) (Press release).  
  10. ^ "Nikon D3x press announcement as of November 30th, 2008". 2008-11-30. Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  11. ^ "Sony Alpha DSLR-A850 press announcement as of August 27th, 2009". 2009-08-27. Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  12. ^ "Nikon D3s press announcement as of October 14th, 2009". 2009-10-14. Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  13. ^ "Canon U.S.A. Introduces The New Canon EOS-1D X Digital SLR Camera, Re-Designed From The Inside Out" (Press release). Canon U.S.A. October 18, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  14. ^ "When There Is No Second Chance: The New Nikon FX-Format D4 Multi-Media Digital SLR is The Definitive Unification Of Speed And Precision" (Press release). Nikon Inc. January 5, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Expectations Surpassed: The 36.3-Megapixel Nikon D800 Is The Multimedia HD-SLR That Shatters Conventional Resolution Barriers For Maximum Fidelity" (Press release). Nikon Inc. February 6, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2012. 
  16. ^ "Sony introduces full-frame α99" (Press release). Sony. September 12, 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Performance that Fuels the Passion: The New Nikon D600 Puts FX-Format in Focus for Photo Enthusiasts" (Press release). Nikon Inc. September 13, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Canon Announces Its Smallest and Lightest Full-Frame Digital SLR Camera For Serious Photographers" (Press release). Canon U.S.A., Inc. September 17, 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2012. 
  19. ^ "Concentrate on the Clarity: The New Nikon D610 FX-Format D-SLR Places Emphasis on the Image Making Experience" (Press release). Nikon Inc. October 8, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013. 
  20. ^ "Fall in Love Again: New Df D-SLR is Undeniably a Nikon with Legendary Performance and Timeless Design" (Press release). Nikon Inc. November 4, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Technical information on Nikon E2/E2s and Fujifilm Fujix DS-505/DS-515 at MIR - Photography in Malaysia". Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  22. ^ "Technical information on Nikon E2N/E2Ns and Fujifilm Fujix DS-505A/DS-515A at MIR - Photography in Malaysia". Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  23. ^ "Technical information on Nikon E3/E3s and Fujifilm Fujix DS-560/DS-565 at MIR - Photography in Malaysia". Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  24. ^ Jarle Aasland, Nikon E2N,
  25. ^ a b Leica M9, Leica Camera AG
  26. ^ "Leica announces M-Monochrom black-and-white 18MP rangefinder".  
  27. ^
  28. ^ Asahi Optical Historical Club (2001) "MR-52" 6 Megapixel digital SLR
  29. ^ – Charlie White (2007-03-08). """Charlie White's Gizmodo PMA March 8th, 2007 report on Sony press announcement in regard to Sony Alpha flagship model "CX62500. Retrieved 2010-12-30. 
  30. ^ Matthias Paul, Sony Alpha CX model codes overview Forum article in German Minolta-Forum as of September 30th, 2009
  31. ^ Britton, Barney and Rishi Sanyal. "CP+ 2015: Up close and personal with Ricoh's full-frame Pentax mockup". Digital Photography Review. Retrieved 5 April 2015. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.