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Friar

A group of friars; novices of the Order of Augustinian Recollects at the Monastery of Marcilla, Navarre

A friar is a member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability. The most significant orders of friars are the Dominicans, Franciscans, and Carmelites.[1]

Contents

  • Friars and monks 1
  • Etymology 2
  • Orders 3
    • Four great orders 3.1
    • Lesser orders 3.2
  • Uses by other Christian traditions 4
  • Other name use 5
  • See also 6
  • Notes 7

Friars and monks

Friars are different from province, and so they will typically move around, spending time in different houses of the community within their province.

Etymology

The English term Friar is derived from the Norman French word frere ("brethren"), from the Latin frater ("brother"), which was widely used in the Latin New Testament to refer to members of the Christian community. "Fray" is sometimes used in former Spanish colonies such as the Philippines or the American Southwest as a title, such as in Fray Juan de Torquemada.

Orders

In the Roman Catholic Church, there are two classes of orders known as friars, or mendicant orders: the four "great orders" and the so-called "lesser orders".

Four great orders

The four great orders were mentioned by the Second Council of Lyons (1274), and are:

  • The Carmelites, founded ca. 1155.[3] They are also known as the "White Friars" because of the white cloak which covers their brown habit. They received papal approval from Honorius III in 1226 and later by Innocent IV in 1247. The Carmelites were founded as a purely contemplative order, but became mendicants in 1245. There are two types of Carmelites, those of the Ancient Observance (O.Carm.) and those of the Discalced Carmelites (O.C.D.), founded by St. Teresa of Avila in the 16th century.
Conventual Franciscans in their variant grey habits
  • The Franciscans, founded in 1209. They are also known as the "Friars Minor". The Franciscans were founded by St. Francis of Assisi and received oral papal approval by Innocent III in 1209 and formal papal confirmation by Honorius III in 1223. Today the Friars Minor is composed of three branches: the Order of Friars Minor (Brown Franciscans), Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (Brown Friars with long pointed hoods) and the Order of Friars Minor Conventual wearing grey or black habits.
  • The Dominicans, founded ca. 1216. They are also known as the "Friar Preachers", or the "Black Friars", from the black mantle ("cappa") worn over their white habit. The Dominicans were founded by St. Dominic and received papal approval from Honorius III in 1216 as the "Ordo Praedicatorum" under the Rule of St. Augustine. They became a mendicant order in 1221.
  • The Augustinians, founded in 1244 (the "Little Union") and enlarged in 1256 (the "Grand Union"). They are also known as the "Hermits of St. Augustine", or the "Austin Friars". Their rule is based on the writings of Augustine of Hippo. The Augustinians were assembled from various groups of hermits as a mendicant order by Pope Innocent IV in 1244 (Little Union). Additional groups were added by Alexander IV in 1256 (Grand Union).

Lesser orders

Some of the lesser orders are:

Uses by other Christian traditions

Orders of friars (and sisters) exist in other Christian traditions, including the Order of Lutheran Franciscans, the Order of Ecumenical Franciscans and the Order of Lesser Sisters and Brothers. In the Anglican Communion there are also a number of mendicant groups such as the Anglican Friars Preachers and The Society of St. Francis.

Other name use

Several high schools, as well as Providence College, use friars as their mascot. The MLB's San Diego Padres have the Swinging Friar.

The University of Michigan's oldest a cappella group is a male octet known as The Friars.[4]

The University of Pennsylvania has a senior honor society known as Friars.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ https://www.osv.com/MyFaith/EverydayCatholic/CatholicDictionary.aspx
  2. ^ Catholic encyclopedia entry for "friar"
  3. ^ http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03354a.htm
  4. ^
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