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This article is about the Brazilian club from Rio de Janeiro. For the state fluminenses reside at, see Rio de Janeiro (state).
For other uses, see Fluminense (disambiguation).

Full name Fluminense Football Club
Nickname(s) Flu
Time de Guerreiros (Team of Warriors)
Tricolor Carioca (Carioca Tri-color)
Founded July 21, 1902 (1902-07-21) (112 years ago)
Stadium Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro
Ground Capacity 78,838
President Peter Siemsen
Head coach Vanderlei Luxemburgo
League Brasileirão
2012 Brasileirão, 1st
Website Club home page
Home colors
Away colors
Third colors

Fluminense Football Club (Brazilian Portuguese: [flumiˈnẽsi ˈfu̇t-ˌbȯl ˈkləb]), commonly known Fluminense and referred to as Flu, is a Brazilian professional football club based in Laranjeiras, a bairro in the city of Rio de Janeiro. It plays in the Campeonato Carioca, the State of Rio de Janeiro's premier state league, as well as the Brasileirão, the top tier of the Brazilian football league system. Fluminense is the reigning Brazilian champion, having won the 2012 Brasileirão.

The club was founded on July 21, 1902 by the sons of Carioca aristocrats, being led by Oscar Cox, a Brazilian sportsman, in the bairro of Flamengo, a direct contrast between the aristocratic founders and the modest ground it was founded on. Cox was elected as the club's first president. Fluminense is a demonym for people who reside in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Although football is the club's original endeavor, the club is today an umbrella organization for several teams in more than 16 different sport activities.

The club is one of Brazil's most successful clubs, having won the Brasileirão on four occasions. Fluminense has also won one Copa do Brasil. They have won the Campeonato Carioca 31 times and the Torneio Rio – São Paulo on two occasions. The club managed to perform a double in 1984 and 2012, winning both the Carioca and the Brasileirão. Fluminense was also runner-up in the Copa Libertadores and Copa Sudamericana in 2008 and 2009, respectively.

Flu play their home games at the Estádio Jornalista Mário Filho, better known as the Maracanã, which currently holds up to 78,838 spectators. Fluminense's home kit is maroon-and-green vertical striped shirts, with white shorts, accompanied by white socks; this combination has been used since 1920. Adidas are the kit manufacturers. Fluminense holds many long-standing rivalries, most notably against Botafogo, Flamengo, and Vasco da Gama. It has contributed the fifth-most players to Brazil's national football team.


Fluminense Football Club was founded on July 21, 1902 in Rio de Janeiro by Oscar Cox, a Brazilian of English heritage.[1] in the then aristocratic neighborhood of Laranjeiras.[2] Fluminense was formed by sons of the elite who had come into contact with football while studying in Europe.[3] The first official match was played against now defunct Rio FC, and ended 8–0 to Fluminense.[1] The club's first title came in 1906, when Fluminense won the Campeonato Carioca.[1]

In 1911, disagreement between Fluminense players led to the formation of Flamengo's football team.[1] The so-called Fla-Flu derby is considered one of the biggest in the history of Brazilian football.[4] Three years later, in Fluminense's stadium, the Brazilian national football team debuted, against touring English club Exeter City[1] It was also there that they won their first title, in the 1919.[5]

By 1924, Fluminense had 4,000 members, a stadium for 25,000 people, and facilities that impressed clubs in Europe.[6] Nonetheless, Fluminense's long association with the rich tainted its history with racism.[7] In an unfortunate event in 1914, Carlos Alberto, a mulatto playing for Fluminense, decided to cover himself in face powder to disguise the color of his skin. This ultimately led to one of the club's nicknames, pó de arroz, which is the Portuguese for 'white powder'.[7][8] After 1925, Fluminense began pressuring for the professionalization of football,[9] but it was not until the 1950s that the club started to accept black players in its squad,[7] however, in 1945 they hired a black coach, Gentil Cardoso.

The following years saw an expansion of the club's hegemony in Rio. Fluminense would remain unsurpassed in terms of state championships until 2009.[10] International acclaim came in 1949 with the awarding of the Olympic Cup, and was further fostered in 1952 with Fluminense's first intercontinental honor, the Copa Rio.[1][11] The club established itself regionally with victory in two Torneio Rio-São Paulo cups in 1957 and 1960.[1] National honors followed in 1970, 1984, 2010 and 2012 with Taça de Prata and Série A cups, respectively.,[1] also taking the Cup in Brazil in 2007.

From the 1950s, with the creation of the Rio-São Paulo Tournament, the forerunner of what eventually would become the national championship, Fluminense established itself regionally by winning the tournament title in the years of 1957 and 1960.

From the 1960s, the first national championships began to be played in Brazil. Fluminense's first national title came in 1970, in that time, Brazil had the best players in world football, and all of them played in Brazilians clubs. Although not counted in its squad with the main players of the season in Brazil, Fluminense won the Brazilian champion surpassing the great strengths of the time in Santos, Palmeiras and Cruzeiro.

In the 1970s, Fluminense signed up several famous players like Roberto Rivellino. This time, called as "maquina tricolor", it won the state championship in the years of 1975 and 1976. In the national championship, Fluminense lost in the semifinal matches to Internacional in 1975 and Corinthians in 1976.

Fluminense again became the Brazilian champion in 1984. This time, they won the state Championship in the years of 1983, 1984 and 1985 with players like Romerito, Ricardo Gomes, Deley, and the "Casal Vinte": Assis and Washington.

At the end of the 1980s, Copa do Brasil was created, inspired by the Cups tournament played in European countries. Fluminense reached the final of the Copa do Brasil for the first time in 1992, losing the final match to Internacional de Porto Alegre.

A disastrous campaign led to the club's relegation from Série A in 1996. A set of off-field political maneuvers, however, allowed Fluminense to remain in Brazil's top domestic league,[12] only to be relegated the next year.[13] Completely out of control, the club was relegated from Série B to Série C in 1998.[14] In 1999, Fluminense won the Série C championship and was to be promoted to Série B when it was invited to take part in Copa João Havelange,[15] a championship that replaced the traditional Série A in 2000. In 2001, it was decided that all clubs which took part in Copa João Havelange's so-called Blue Group should be kept in Série A,[16] and so Fluminense Football Club found its way back to the top, where it has been ever since.

In 2002, 2005 and 2012, Fluminense won again the Campeonato Carioca. In 2005 Fluminense reached the final of the Copa do Brasil again, having lost the final match to Paulista Futebol Clube.

In 2007, Fluminense won the Copa do Brasil, after beating Figueirense in the final match, and was admitted in the Copa Libertadores again after 23 years.[1][17] The club's campaign led it into the finals and included remarkable matches against Arsenal de Sarandí, São Paulo and Boca Juniors.[18][19][20] Fluminense lost the cup to LDU Quito in a penalty shootout.[21]

After signing up 27 players and going through 5 different managers in 2009, Fluminense found itself struggling to avoid another relegation from Série A.[22] With less than one-third of the championship left, the mathematical probability of the club's relegation was of 98%.[23] At this point, manager Cuca decided to sack some of the more experienced players and gave Fluminense's youngsters a chance.[24] That, along with Fred's recovery from a serious injury and substantial support from the fans, allowed not only a sensational escape from relegation, but also placed Fluminense in the final of the Copa Sudamericana.[25][26] For the second year in a row, the club contested a continental cup. In a repeat of the previous year's Copa Libertadores, Fluminense lost the cup to LDU Quito.[27]

In 2010, Fluminense won the Brazilian championship for the third time in its history, marking their third national championship after 1970 and 1984). It was also the fourth title for coach Muricy Ramalho in a decade: Ramalho had won the title three times in a row with São Paulo from 2006 to 2008. Darío Conca was named the Brazilian Championship's Player of Season, while Fred and Washington were decisive players in Fluminense's winning campaign.

On May 23, 2012, Fluminense lost the semifinal qualification match to Boca Juniors from Argentina, for the continental club football cup, Copa Libertadores.[28] Later that year, on November 11, they won their fourth Brazilian championship after defeating the near-relegated Palmeiras 3–2.[29] Fluminense won the Série A for the fourth time on November 11, 2012.[30]


Fluminense has taken part in 36 of the 38 official Serie A championships organized in Brazil since 1971.[31] Since the number of participating teams has changed considerably over time, any accurate performance measurement must take this variable into account. In the two tables below, the performance field for a given position p in a universe of n teams was calculated using the formula:

x = \frac{n-p}{n} \times 100

This allows for an asymptotic limit of 100%, since p will never be zero.

Year Position Participants Performance Year Position Participants Performance
1971 16 20 20% 1981 11 44 75%
1972 14 26 46% 1982 5 44 89%
1973 23 40 42% 1983 18 44 59%
1974 24 40 40% 1984 1 41 98%
1975 3 42 93% 1985 22 44 50%
1976 4 54 93% 1986 6 48 87%
1977 26 62 58% 1987 7 16 56%
1978 22 74 70% 1988 3 24 87%
1979 52 94 45% 1989 15 22 32%
1980 11 44 75% 1990 15 20 25%
Year Position Participants Performance Year Position Participants Performance
1991 4 20 80% 2001 3 28 89%
1992 14 20 30% 2002 4 26 85%
1993 28 32 12% 2003 19 24 21%
1994 15 24 37% 2004 9 24 62%
1995 4 24 83% 2005 5 22 77%
1996 23 24 4% 2006 15 20 25%
1997 25 26 4% 2007 4 20 80%
1998 Série B 2008 14 20 30%
1999 Série C 2009 16 20 20%
2000 3 25 88% 2010 1 20 95%
2011 3 20
2012 1 20

Fluminense Football Club has an average performance of 57% in Brasileirão, with a standard deviation of 28%.


Companies that Fluminense Football Club currently has sponsorship deals with include:

  • Brazil Unimed – It is the club's sponsor since 1999.[32]
  • Germany Adidas – The company supplies football team kits, as well as Olympic sports equipment.


Highest attendances – Maracanã[33]

  • 1. Fluminense 0–0 Flamengo, 1963 194,603 ¹
  • 2. Fluminense 3–2 Flamengo, 1969 171,599
  • 3. Fluminense 1–0 Botafogo, 1971 160,000
  • 4. Fluminense 0–0 Flamengo, 1976 155,116
  • 5. Fluminense 1–0 Flamengo, 1984 153,520
  • 6. Fluminense 1–1 Corinthians, 1976 146,043

¹: paying 177,656, a record of persons present at Maracanã stadium.

Highest means of public competition for Fluminense

  • Largest average attendance in the Copa Libertadores (RJ): 52,801 (49,011 pags., 2008)
  • Largest average attendance in the Copa Sudamericana (RJ): 29,357 (27,318 pags., 2009)
  • Largest average attendance in international tournaments (RJ): 48,797 (37,541 pags., Copa Rio, 1952)
  • Largest average attendance in national championships (RJ): 43,541 pags. (1976)
  • Largest average attendance in the Tournament Roberto Gomes Pedrosa (RJ): 40,408 pags. (1970)
  • Largest average attendance in the Brazil Cup (RJ): 27,123 pags. (2007)
  • Largest average attendance in the Rio-São Paulo Tournament (RJ): 33,018 pags. (1960)
  • Largest average attendance in the state championship: 47,814 pags. (1969, all stages)
  • Largest average attendance in the state championship in the Maracana Stadium: 93,560 pags. (1969, 10 Matches)


The supporters of Fluminense Football Club are usually related to the upper classes of Rio de Janeiro.[34] However, the popularity of the club reaches beyond the city limits. Recent polls have estimated the number of supporters to be between 1.3% and 3.7% of the Brazilian population.[35] Considering a population of 185 million people,[36] that would account for numbers between 2.73 and 6.84 million.

The best attendance ever observed in a match of Fluminense was registered on December 15, 1963 in a rally against Flamengo. On that day, an impressive amount of 194,000 people showed up at the Maracanã stadium.[37] This occasion remains as the stadium's record for a match between clubs.[38]

Notable supporters of Fluminense include composers Cartola and Chico Buarque,[39][40] FIFA president of honor João Havelange,[4] musician Ivan Lins,[41] poet and actor Mário Lago,[42] journalist and songwriter Nelson Motta[43] and dramatist, journalist and writer Nelson Rodrigues.,[43] 1970 FIFA World Cup winner Gérson, Paris Saint Germain's top defense player Thiago Silva, former Minister of Culture and international artist Gilberto Gil,[44] Silvio Santos, the owner of SBT, the second largest Brazilian television network,[45] and the Academy Award nomenee Fernanda Montenegro.[46]


Some of the trophies won by Fluminense, exhibited at the club: (left): Campeonato Brasileiro Série A and Copa Rio amongst others; (right) The Copa do Brasil won in 2007.




  • Torneio Rio-São Paulo (2): 1957, 1960
  • Taça Brasil South Zone (1): 1960
  • Taça Ioduran – Rio-São Paulo (1): 1919


  • Campeonato Carioca (31): 1906, 1907¹, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1917, 1918, 1919, 1924, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1940, 1941, 1946, 1951, 1959, 1964, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1980, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1995, 2002, 2005, 2012

Fluminense derbies

  • Fla-Flu, also called Classic of Crowds,[47] played with Flamengo;
  • Giants' Classic, played with Vasco;
  • Grandpa Derby, played with Botafogo;
  • Fluminense vs. America, played with America;
  • Vs Fluminense. Bangu, the Bangu Atlético Clube.

According to the site, the average public paying the principal classics of Fluminense played in the Estádio do Maracanã is 60,107 against Flamengo, Vasco against the 43,735 of 34,359 against Botafogo of 25,127 against America and of 22,527 against Bangu, medium plus the public that these gifts could be about 20% higher, given the issues of the distribution of gratuities in the Maracanã .[48]

Corinthians vs Fluminense, the great Fluminense interstate derby

Considering the interstate clashes, the derby against Sport Club Corinthians Paulista is perhaps the most representative among the various confrontations with big Brazilian clubs played by Fluminense, given the fact that these clubs often intersect at decisive moments in their stories, either by the end Rio Cup, the direct contest in several Tournaments Rio-São Paulo since 1940, or by the qualifying rounds of the Championship or Cup of Brazil,[49][50] in the great struggle of the 2010 Série A when the two clubs played the title since the beginning of the championship with Corinthians having lost the Championship to Cruzeiro in the final round, as did the reverse in 2011, when the Corinthians was the champion and the Tricolor, a champion of the symbolic second round of the league, the third, with nine matches in the history of this derby provides more than 55,000 fans at Maracanã stadium or the Morumbi, with an average attendance of 30,266 at the Maracana paying until August 2009.[48]


Current squad

As of August 2013.[51][52][53][54][55][56]

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
2 Brazil DF Bruno
3 Brazil DF Gum
4 Brazil DF Leandro Euzébio
5 Brazil MF Edinho (vice-captain)
6 Brazil DF Carlinhos
7 Brazil MF Jean
8 Brazil MF Diguinho
9 Brazil FW Fred (captain)
12 Brazil GK Diego Cavalieri
13 Brazil DF Digão
14 Brazil DF Elivelton
15 Brazil DF Anderson
16 Brazil MF Felipe
17 Colombia MF Edwin Valencia
19 Brazil MF Wágner
No. Position Player
21 Brazil FW Marcos Júnior
22 Brazil FW Rhayner
23 Brazil FW Rafael Sóbis
25 Brazil DF Wellington Silva
27 Brazil FW Michael
29 Brazil FW Biro Biro
30 Brazil FW Kenedy
31 Brazil FW Samuel
32 Portugal MF Fábio
33 Brazil GK Klever
34 Brazil DF Wellington Carvalho
35 Brazil DF Igor Julião
37 Brazil MF Rafinha
38 Brazil MF Eduardo
Brazil FW Marcelinho

Players with Dual Nationality

Out or on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
- Brazil GK Silezio (for the loan Sport Recife)
- Brazil MF Raphael Augusto (for the loan Legia Warsaw)
- Brazil MF Marquinhos (for the loan Tupi)
- Brazil MF Tartá (for the loan Vitória)
- Brazil MF Higor (for the loan Avaí)
- Argentina FW Alejandro Martinuccio (for the loan Cruzeiro)
No. Position Player
- Brazil FW Matheus Carvalho (for the loan Joinville)
- Brazil MF Cássio (for the loan Hajduk Split)
- Brazil MF Lucas Patinho (for the loan Sporting Lisboa)
Brazil FW Rafael Assis (for the loan Tupi)
Brazil FW Bruno Veiga (for the loan Duque de Caxias)

Fluminense youth team

U-20 team

As of June 26, 2012.

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Brazil GK Leanderson
Brazil GK Cristhian
Brazil GK Matheus Phillipe
Brazil DF Igor Julião
Brazil DF Wellington Carvalho
Brazil DF Ighort
Brazil DF Gustavo
Brazil DF Kassiano
Brazil DF Ygor Nogueira
Brazil DF Kassiano
Brazil DF Breno
Brazil DF Magdiel
Brazil DF Fernando
Brazil DF Ronan
Brazil MF Cyro
Brazil MF Diego Gonçalves
Brazil MF João Clériston
Brazil MF Luiz Fernando
Brazil MF Willian
Brazil MF Marlon
No. Position Player
Brazil MF Matheus Silva
Brazil MF Mateus Regis
Brazil MF Emerson
Brazil MF Lucas Henrique
Brazil MF Gustavo Scarpa
Brazil MF Marcos
Brazil MF Gabriel Proença
Brazil MF Rafael
Brazil MF Robert
Brazil MF Roger
Brazil MF Ronan David
Brazil MF Anderson Ribeiro
Brazil FW Biro Biro
Brazil FW José Lucas
Brazil FW Bruno Santos
Brazil FW Denilson
Brazil FW Henrique
Brazil FW Igor Garcia
Brazil FW Kenedy
Brazil FW Matheus Antônio
Brazil FW Peterson

First-team staff

As of May 19, 2011.
Position Name Nationality
Head coach Vanderlei Luxemburgo  Brazilian
Assistant coach Leomir  Brazilian
Fitness coaches Flávio Vignoli  Brazilian
Jefferson Souza  Brazilian
Goalkeeping coach Victor Hugo  Brazilian

Notable players

The most notable players for Fluminense Football Club so far have been:[57]

Head coaches


Players with most appearances

Name Matches
Brazil Castilho 699
Brazil Pinheiro 603
Brazil Telê Santana 556
Brazil Altair 549
Brazil Escurinho 490
Brazil Rubens Galaxe 462
Brazil Denílson 433
Brazil Assis (Defender) 424
Brazil Waldo 403
10º Brazil Marcão (Midfielder) 397

Top goalscorers

Name Goals Years
Brazil Waldo 319 1954–1961
Brazil Orlando Pingo de Ouro 188 1945–1955
Brazil Telê Santana 165 1950–1961
Brazil Hércules 164 1935–1942
England Welfare 163 1913–1923
Afghanistan Russo 150 1933–1944
Brazil Preguinho 129 1925–1939
Brazil Washington 124 1983–1989
Brazil Ézio 119 1991–1995
10º Brazil Magno Alves 111 1998–2002

Coaches with most appearances

Name Matches
Brazil Zezé Moreira 467
Uruguay Ondino Viera 300
Brazil Abel Braga 202
Brazil Renato Gaúcho 178
Brazil Tim 166
Brazil Nelsinho Rosa 156
Brazil Carlos Alberto Parreira 146
Brazil Sylvio Pirillo 138
Brazil Luís Vinhaes 137
10º Brazil Paulo Emílio 126


External links

  • Official Website (English)
  • Flickr: Fluminense Oficial's Photostream – Downloadable Fluminense Photos (English)
  • Fluminense Football Club News at (English)
  • Fluminense F.C. Page at (English)
  • Official Fluminense F.C. Facebook Fan Page (English)
  • Fluminense F.C. Fan Page at Soccerway (English)
  • Statistics on major competitions (Portuguese)
  • Statistics on all matches between 1902 and 2006 (Portuguese)
  • NETFLU – Hourly News about Fluminense Football Club (Portuguese)
  • YOUNG FLU – Most Famous Organized Fans Fan Page (Portuguese)
  • Statistics on the 2009 Série A championship (Portuguese)
  • Fluminense F.C. Daily news in Portuguese (Portuguese)
  • Fluminense Uruguay Fan Page (Spanish)
  • Official Fluminense Football Club Page at FIFA(English)
  • Fluminense Football Club Page at ESPN Global(English)
  • Fluminense F.C. at Page The World Game: News,Results & Tables(English)

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