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Fathi Shaqaqi

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Title: Fathi Shaqaqi  
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Subject: Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine, Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Palestinian political violence, List of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel, 2002–06, Palestinian mathematicians
Collection: 1951 Births, 1995 Deaths, 20Th-Century Mathematicians, 20Th-Century Physicians, Assassinated Palestinian People, Birzeit University Alumni, Deaths by Firearm in Malta, Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine Members, Mansoura University Alumni, Palestinian Mathematicians, Palestinian People Imprisoned Abroad, Palestinian People Murdered Abroad, Palestinian Physicians, Palestinian Refugees, Palestinian Sunni Muslims, Pediatricians, People from Rafah Governorate, People Killed in Mossad Operations, People Murdered in Malta
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Fathi Shaqaqi

Fathi Shaqaqi
فتحي الشقاقي
Secretary-General of the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine
In office
Preceded by Office established
Succeeded by Ramadan Shalah
Personal details
Born Fathi Ibrahim Abdul Aziz Shaqaqi
Rafah, Gaza Strip
Died 26 October 1995 (aged 44)
Sliema, Malta
Nationality Palestinian
Political party Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine
Children 3
Residence Damascus, Syria
Alma mater Birzeit University (B.Math.)
Mansoura University (M.D.)
Profession Mathematician
Religion Sunni Islam

Fathi Shaqaqi (Arabic: فتحي الشقاقي‎; 1951 – 26 October 1995) was the co-founder and Secretary-General of the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine.


  • Early life and career 1
  • Leader of Islamic Jihad 2
  • Assassination 3
  • Legacy 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Early life and career

Fathi Shaqaqi was born to a refugee family of eight children in the slum of Shubeira in Rafah in the southern Gaza Strip.[1][2] His family was originally from Zarnuqa near Ramlah, where they had lived for generations and his grandfather had served as the Imam of the local mosque.[3] The Shaqaqi family fled Zarnuqa during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War in fear of Israeli massacres, and were not permitted to return.[3] His mother died when he was fifteen. Fathi Shaqaqi's brother Khalil, after teaching in several universities in the United States, Kuwait and Bahrain, moved after the Oslo Peace Accords to the West Bank and is founding director of the Nablus-based Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research, established in 1993.[3]

Most of his early education was at the local United Nations school. He attended Bir Zeit University on the West Bank, where he studied physics and mathematics.[4] In 1970–1974, he taught mathematics at a school for orphans in East Jerusalem. In 1974 he moved to Egypt to study medicine at Mansoura University, specializing in pediatrics. Upon receiving his medical degree in 1981, he worked in a general practice at Augusta Victoria Hospital in Jerusalem. He later openend a medical clinic in Gaza.[1]

Leader of Islamic Jihad

During his studies at Birzeit University Shaqaqi became an admirer of Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, a leader of the Muslim Brotherhood and founder of Hamas.[1] While studying medicine in Egypt he was an acquaintance of Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman, leader of al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya and Egyptian Islamic Jihad, and Salah Sariya, a radical Palestinian executed in 1976 on the charge of having plotted the assassination of President of Egypt Anwar Sadat.[1] He also became a follower of the ideas of Sayyid Qutb[1] and Hassan al-Banna.[2] He also read Marxist literature, including allegedly the entire works of Karl Marx.[2] The teachings of Qutb, who was executed by President of Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1966 for supposedly plotting an Islamist revolution, convinced Shkaki that the "corrupt and dependent secular governments" of the Arab world had to be replaced by Islamic societies.[2] Shaqaqi came to believe that the PLO opposition to Israeli occupation was worthless and that only an Islamist movement could achieve any political or military success against Israel.[2] By the later 1970s Shaqaqi broke with both the Muslim Brotherhood and secular Palestinian nationalist groups, dismayed that the former spoke too little about Palestine and the latter too little on Islam.[5] Shortly after the Iranian Revolution, Shaqaqi wrote a book "Khomeini, The Islamic Solution and the Alternative", which praised Ayatollah Khomeini and his approach to an Islamic state.[1][3] In Shaqaqi's view the Khomeini victory "demonstrated that even against an enemy as powerful as the Shah, a jihad of determined militants could overcome all obstacles."[6] The book sold 10,000 copies in two days.[7] It was banned by the Egyptian government and Shaqaqi was arrested.

In 1981, along with

  • "Palestinians mark 12th anniversary of Fathi Shaqaqi martyrdom" in .wmv

External links

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Atkins, Stephen E. (2004). Encyclopedia of Modern Worldwide Extremists and Extremist Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 301–303.  
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Robert Fisk (31 October 1995). "Obituary: Dr Fathi Shkaki".  
  3. ^ a b c d Reuter, Christopher (2004). My Life is a Weapon: A Modern History of Suicide Bombing.  
  4. ^ a b c "Fathi Shiqaqi". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 29 August 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Fisk, Robert (30 January 1995). "The doctor who finds death a laughing matter".  
  6. ^ Horowitz, David (2006). Unholy Alliance: Radical Islam And the American Left. Regnery Publishing. pp. 95–96.  
  7. ^ a b c Richards, Charles (15 December 1992). "Intifada's gentle man of war: The leader of Palestine's Islamic Jihad tells Charles Richards in Damascus why he thinks violent acts against the Israelis are justified".  
  8. ^ Marlowe, Lara (6 February 1995). "INTERVIEW WITH A FANATIC".  
  9. ^ a b Fletcher, Holly (10 April 2008). "Palestinian Islamic Jihad".  
  10. ^ a b Shay, Shaul. The Axis Of Evil: Iran, Hizballah, And The Palestinian Terror. Transaction Publishers. pp. 76–77.  
  11. ^ "Interview with the General Secretary of the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine: Dr. Fathi Shikaki". Inquiry (Islamic Committee for Palestine). January 1993. 
  12. ^ "Who Are the Islamic Jihad?".  
  13. ^ Atkins, Stephen E. (2004). Encyclopedia of Modern Worldwide Extremists and Extremist Groups. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 239–240.  
  14. ^ a b c Rudolf, Rachel M.; Van Engeland, Anisseh (28 March 2013). "The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine: a Wild Card in Palestinian Politics?". From Terrorism to Politics. Ashgate Publishing. pp. 97–117.  
  15. ^ a b Rudoren, Jodi (3 May 2014). "Islamic Jihad Gains New Traction in Gaza".  
  16. ^ Fisk, Robert (30 October 1995). "Ugly end for man who laughed at death".  
  17. ^ "Palestinians swear revenge for assassination". Herald Journal (Gaza City). 28 October 1995. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  18. ^ Reich, Bernard; Goldberg, David H. (2008). Historical Dictionary of Israel. Scarecrow Press. pp. 373–375.  
  19. ^ Yossi Melman, Meir Javedanfar, The Nuclear Sphinx of Tehran: Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and the State of Iran, Basic Books (2007) 2008 p.177.
  20. ^ a b Ronen Bergman The Secret War with Iran: The 30-Year Clandestine Struggle Against the World's Most Dangerous Terrorist Power, Simon & Schuster 2008 p.275.
  21. ^ Gordon Thomas, Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad, Macmillan (1999) 2010 pp.115-123.
  22. ^ Yossi Melman,'Mossad, MI6, the CIA and the case of the assassinated scientist,' The Independent, 30 November 2010
  23. ^ Ian Lesser, John Arquilla, Bruce Hoffman, David F. Ronfeldt, Michele Zanini, Countering the New Terrorism, Rand Corporation 1999 p.62 n.50.
  24. ^ Malta and the Accused Mathaba
  25. ^ Gordon Thomas,'Mossad's licence to kill,', Telegraph, 17 Feb 2010
  26. ^ David, Steven R. (2003). "Israel’s Policy of Targeted Killing" (PDF). Ethics & International Affairs 17 (1). Retrieved 26 July 2012. 
  27. ^ Leader of Islamic Jihad Reported Killed in Malta
  28. ^ Gordon Thomas,'Mossad's licence to kill,', Telegraph, 17 Feb 2010
  29. ^ Bio of Fathi Shiqaqi from the Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs, Jerusalem


See also

[15] the group has enjoyed a revival in its military and political strength with increased Syrian and Iranian support, and in some Gaza precincts, Shaqaqi's picture is more prominent than that of the Hamas prime minister.Arab Spring Following the [10] He was succeeded as Secretary-General of the PIJ by fellow co-founder [2] Shaqaqi left behind a wife and three children, two boys and a girl.


Mossad Director-General Shabtai Shavit was reportedly on the ship from where he personally directed the operation. The Maltese police were only able to identify Shaqaqi's body three days later.

Accounts vary slightly in details. In the Telegraph version by Gordon Thomas, two men, Gil and Ran, arrived in Malta on a late-afternoon flight, after receiving new passports respectively in Rome and Athens from local assistants (sayan), and checked into the Diplomat Hotel where Shaqaqi was staying. Another local sayan provided Ran with a motorcycle, which he told hotel staff he planned to use for touring the island. At the same time, a freighter from Haifa radioed the Maltese harbour authorities that it had developed engine trouble and would need to anchor off the island for repairs. A team of Mossad communications technicians on board sent the agents instructions through a radio in Gil's suitcase. These two kidon then drove up on the motorcycle while Shaqaqi was strolling along the waterfront and one of them, Gil, shot him six times in the head, a 'kidon signature'.[28] Bergman writes that Shaqaqi was out shopping, and was shot twice in the forehead and once in the back of the head, with a pistol fitted with a silencer and a device to catch the spent cartridges, and that the motorbike in question had been stolen the day before.[20]

Shaqaqi was gunned down on 26 October 1995 in front of the Diplomat Hotel in Sliema, Malta by a hit team composed of two Mossad gunmen from a Bayonet unit that had previously killed Gerald Bull and Atef Bseiso.[19][20][21][22][23] The assassination happened a few days after Shaqaqi conducted an interview with journalist Ibrahim Hamidi of Al-Hayat Newspaper. Shaqaqi had been travelling under the false name Dr. Ibrahim Ali Shawesh.[24] He was on his way back from Tripoli after visiting Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi who promised to help finance Shaqaqi’s factions.[25] His assassination produced disarray in Islamic Jihad since no competent successor could replace Shaqaqi.[26] Islamic Jihad sources in Gaza confirmed that Shiqaqi had been traveling from Libya to his home in Damascus and made a stopover in Malta.[27]


[5] By 1995 it was according to Fisk "perhaps the fiercest of all Israel's modern-day enemies."[18] As the leader of the PIJ, Shaqaqi masterminded several

[1].Hafez al-Assad President of Syria In 1990 he settled in Damascus under the protection of [9].Iranian Revolutionary Guards, and received training from the Hezbollah While in Lebanon the PIJ established a close relationship with the Shia Islamist group [5] Many were recruited from the predecessor of the PIJ, originally known as the [12][1] The PIJ recruited former members of militant Palestinian organizations.


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