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Estonian Reform Party

Estonian Reform Party
Eesti Reformierakond
Leader Taavi Rõivas
Founded 18 November 1994
Headquarters Tõnismägi 9
Tallinn 10119
Youth wing Estonian Reform Party Youth
Membership  (2014) 12,972
Ideology Liberalism[1]
Conservative liberalism[2]
Political position Centre-right[3]
International affiliation Liberal International
European affiliation Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
European Parliament group Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
Colours Yellow and blue
30 / 101
European Parliament
2 / 6
Politics of Estonia
Political parties

The Estonian Reform Party (Estonian: Eesti Reformierakond) is a liberal[3][4][5] political party in Estonia. The party is led by Taavi Rõivas, the current Prime Minister of Estonia, and has 30 members in the 101-member Riigikogu, making it the largest party in the legislature. The Estonian Reform Party has participated in the government of Estonia for all but three years since its foundation in 1994.

The party was founded by then-President of the Bank of Estonia Siim Kallas as a split from National Coalition Party Pro Patria. At the 1995 election, it won 19 seats in the Riigikogu, making it the second largest party. The Reform Party replaced the Estonian Centre Party in government in autumn 1995, and remained there until 1996. In 1999, the party lost a seat, but returned to the cabinet in coalition with the Pro Patria Union and the People's Party Moderates. The party has remained in various coalitions since then, with Andrus Ansip as Prime Minister since 2005. At the 2007 election, the party won 31 seats, becoming the largest party for the first time, and increased its seat tally again in 2011, with 33 seats. It narrowly won the 2015 general election, losing 3 mandates compared to its 2011 result, ending up with 30 seats.

As the Reform Party has participated in most of the government coalitions in Estonia since the mid-1990s, its influence has been significant, especially regarding Estonia's free market and low taxes policies. The party has been a full member of Liberal International since 1996, having been an observer member between 1994–1996, and a full member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Party. The founder and the first chairman of the Reform Party, Siim Kallas, was a Commissioner of the European Commission between 2004 and 2014. He was also one of the five Vice Presidents of the Barroso Commission.


  • History 1
    • Siim Kallas 1.1
    • Andrus Ansip 1.2
    • Taavi Rõivas 1.3
  • Ideology 2
  • Political support 3
  • Organisation 4
  • Election results 5
  • In government 6
  • See also 7
  • Footnotes 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10


The Estonian Reform Party was founded on 18 November 1994,[6] joining together the Reform Party — a splinter from the Pro Patria National Coalition (RKEI) — and the Estonian Liberal Democratic Party (ELDP). The new party, which had 710 members at its foundation,[6] was led by Siim Kallas, who had been President of the Bank of Estonia and previously uninvolved in politics. Kallas was untainted by association with Mart Laar's government, but was widely seen as a proficient central bank governor, having overseen the successful introduction of the Estonian kroon.[7] The party formed ties with the Free Democratic Party of Germany, the Liberal People's Party of Sweden, Finland's Swedish People's Party, and Latvia's Latvian Way.[6]

Siim Kallas

Siim Kallas was leader of the Reform Party from 1994 to 2004. He was Prime Minister of Estonia from 2002-03.

In the party's first parliamentary election, in March 1995, it won 19 seats: catapulting it into second place, behind the Coalition Party. Tiit Vähi tried to negotiate a coalition with the Reform Party, but the talks broke down over economic policy,[8] with the Reform Party opposing agricultural subsidies and supporting the maintenance of Estonia's flat-rate income tax,[7] While the Coalition Party formed a new government with the Centre Party at first, a taping scandal involving Centre Party leader Edgar Savisaar led to the Reform Party replacing the Centre Party in the coalition in November 1995.[9] Kallas was appointed as Minister of Foreign Affairs, with five other Reform Party members serving in the cabinet. The Reform Party left the government in November 1996 after the Coalition Party signed a cooperation agreement with the Centre Party without consulting them.[9]

At the 1999 election, the Reform Party dropped one seat to 18, finishing third behind the Centre Party and the conservative Pro Patria Union.[10] The ER formed a centre-right coalition with the Pro Patria Union and the Moderates, with Mart Laar as Prime Minister and Siim Kallas as Minister of Finance, and with Toomas Savi returned as Speaker.[10] Although the coalition was focused on EU and NATO accession, the Reform Party successfully delivered its manifesto pledge to abolish corporate tax:[10] one of its most notable achievements.[11] After the October 1999 local elections, the three parties replicated their alliance in Tallinn.[12]

The party served in government again from March 1999 to December 2001 in a tripartite government with Pro Patria Union and People's Party Moderates, from January 2002 to March 2003 with the Estonian Centre Party, from March 2003 to March 2005 with Res Publica and People's Union, from March 2005 to March 2007 with the Centre Party and People's Union, from March 2007 to May 2009 with the Pro Patria and Res Publica Union and the Social Democratic Party. From May 2009 the Reform Party was in a coalition government with the Pro Patria and Res Publica Union.

Andrus Ansip

Former Prime Minister of Estonia Andrus Ansip

Andrus Ansip was Prime Minister of Estonia from April 2005 to March 2014. After the 2007 parliamentary election the party held 31 out of 101 seats in the Riigikogu, after receiving 153,040 votes (28% of the total), an increase of +10%, resulting in a net gain of 12 seats.

Taavi Rõivas

Taavi Rõivas - current PM of Estonia

Following the resignation of Andrus Ansip, a new cabinet was installed on 24 March 2014, with Taavi Rõivas of the Reform Party serving as Prime Minister in coalition with the Social Democratic Party (SDE).[13]

In the 2014 European elections held on 25 May 2014, the Reform Party won 24.3% of the national vote, returning 2 MEPs.[14]

In the 2015 parliamentary election held on 1 March 2015, the Reform Party received 27.7% of the vote and 30 seats in the Riigikogu.[15]


Ideologically, the Reform Party has consistently advocated market liberalism.[11] The Reform Party is the most economically liberal in the political landscape of Estonia.

  • The party supports Estonian 0% corporate tax on re-invested income and wants to eliminate the dividend tax.
  • The party wanted to cut flat income tax rate from 22% (in 2007) to 18% by 2011. Due to economic crisis the campaign for cutting income tax rate was put on hold with the tax rate at 21% in 2008 and 2009.
  • The party used to oppose VAT general rate increase until late spring 2009 when it changed its position in the light of dire economic crisis and the need to find more money for budget. VAT was increased from 18% to 20% on 1 July 2009.
  • The party wants subject learned during conscription to be put into the national defence class in high-school.[16]

Political support

The Estonian Reform Party is the strongest party in the area surrounding Tallinn, in north-western Estonia, and is also the largest party across Tartu County in the east, as illustrated by this map of the 2007 election results.

The party is supported predominantly by young, well-educated, urban professionals. Unlike the Centre Party, which has disproportionate appeal amongst the Russian minority, and the Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica, which is overwhelmingly backed by ethnic Estonians, the Reform Party attracts votes from equally across populations.[17] The Reform Party's vote base is heavily focused in the cities; although it receives only one-fifth of its support from Tallinn, it receives three times as many votes from other cities, despite them being home to fewer than 40% more voters overall.[17]

Its voter profile is significantly younger than average,[18] while its voters are well-educated, with the fewest high school drop-outs of any party.[17] Its membership is the most male-dominated of all the parties,[19] yet it receives the support of more female voters than average.[18] Reform Party voters also tend to have higher incomes, with 43% of Reform Party voters coming from the top 30% of all voters by income.[17]


The Reform Party has been a full member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (formerly the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party, ELDR) since December 1998.[20] In the European Parliament, the party's one MEP — Kristiina Ojuland — sits in the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) group, while its member of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe — currently Margus Hanson — sits in the ALDE group in the Assembly. The Reform Party has been a full member of the Liberal International since 1996, having been an observer member from 1994 to 1996.

The party claims to have 10,000 members.[21]

The party's

  • (Estonian) Reform Party official site
  • Estonian Reform Party faction description of the party on the Riigikogu website

External links

  • Bugajski, Janusz (2002). Political Parties of Eastern Europe: A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era. London: M.E. Sharpe.  
  • Europa Publications (1998). Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. London: Routledge.  
  • Nørgaard, Ole (1999). The Baltic States After Independence. London: Edward Elgar Publishing.  
  • Berglund, Sten; Ekman, Joakim; Aarebrot, Frank H. (2004). The Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe. London: Edward Elgar Publishing.  
  • Kulik, Anatoly; Pshizova, Susanna (2005). Political Parties in Post-Soviet Space: Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, and the Baltics. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.  


  1. ^ Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  2. ^ NSD, European Election Database
  3. ^ a b World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish. 2010. p. 1060.  
  4. ^ Elena Semenova; Michael Edinger; Heinrich Best (2013). Parliamentary Elites in Central and Eastern Europe: Recruitment and Representation. Routledge. p. 101.  
  5. ^ Elisabeth Bakke (2010). Central and East European party systems since 1989. Central and Southeast European Politics since 1989 (Cambridge University Press). pp. 78–79.  
  6. ^ a b c Bugajski (2002), p. 64
  7. ^ a b Nørgaard (1999), p. 75
  8. ^ Dawisha, Karen; Parrott, Bruce (1999). The Consolidation of Democracy in East-Central Europe. London: Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 352.  
  9. ^ a b Europa Publications (1998), p 336
  10. ^ a b c Bugajski (2002), p. 52
  11. ^ a b Berglund et al (2004), p 67
  12. ^ Bugajski (2002), p. 53
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ "Eesti Rahvus Ringhääling". Eesti Rahvus Ringhääling. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  17. ^ a b c d Berglund et al (2004), p 65
  18. ^ a b Kulik and Pshizova (2005), p. 153
  19. ^ Kulik and Pshizova (2005), p. 151
  20. ^ "History : ELDR 1976 - 2009".  
  21. ^ "Organisatsioon" (in Eesti). Estonian Reform Party. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  22. ^ "Noortegku" (in Eesti). Estonian Reform Party Youth. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 


See also

Name Ministry Picture
Taavi Rõivas Prime Minister's Office
Jürgen Ligi Ministry of Finance
Urve Tiidus Ministry of Culture
Anne Sulling Ministry of Environment
Keit Pentus-Rosimannus Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Hanno Pevkur Ministry of Internal Affairs

Current ministers from the Reform Party in government:

In government

Election Votes % Seats +/– Position Government
1995 87,531 16.2
19 / 101
19 2nd Opposition
1999 77,088 14.9
18 / 101
1 3rd Coalition
2003 87,551 17.7
19 / 101
1 3rd Coalition
2007 153,044 27.8
31 / 101
12 1st Coalition
2011 164,255 28.6
33 / 101
2 1st Coalition
2015 158,885 27.7
30 / 101
3 1st Coalition

Election results


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