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Ernst Abbe

Ernst Karl Abbe
Born (1840-01-23)23 January 1840
Eisenach, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Died 14 January 1905(1905-01-14) (aged 64)
Jena, German Empire
Residence Germany
Nationality German
Fields Physicist
Institutions University of Jena
Alma mater University of Göttingen
University of Jena
Doctoral advisor Wilhelm Eduard Weber
Karl Snell
Doctoral students Heinrich Friedrich Weber
Other notable students Gottlob Frege
Known for Abbe refractometer
Abbe number

Ernst Karl Abbe (23 January 1840 – 14 January 1905) was a German physicist, optical scientist, entrepreneur, and social reformer. Together with Otto Schott and Carl Zeiss, he laid the foundation of modern optics. Abbe developed numerous optical instruments. He was a co-owner of Carl Zeiss AG, a German manufacturer of research microscopes, astronomical telescopes, planetariums and other optical systems.

Contents

  • Personal life 1
  • Life work 2
  • Bibliography 3
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
  • Footnotes 6
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9

Personal life

Else Snell

Abbe was born 23 January 1840 in

  • Paselk, Richard A. "The Evolution of the Abbe Refractometer". Retrieved 11 May 2008. 
  • Basic Principles of Refractometers (and Polarimeters)
  • .  
  • Ernst Abbe at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  • Molecular Expressions's biography
  • Works by Ernst Abbe at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by or about Ernst Abbe at Internet Archive
  • Abbe Refractometer by Carl Zeiss made in 1904

External links

  • Sella, Andrea (November 2008). "Abbé's refractometer". Royal Society of Chemistry. Chemistry World. p. 67. Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 

Further reading

  • Pfeiffer, Wolfgang (1991). "Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung". In Hast, Adele; Pascal, Diane B.; Berney, Kate; Barbour, Philippe A.; Griffin, Jessica. International Directory of Company Histories. III: Health & Personal Care Products – Materaials. Chicago, IL: St James Press. pp. 445–447.  
  • Joint Committee of Civil Engineers, American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, and American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (1994). Glossary of the Mapping Sciences. New York, NY: American Society of Civil Engineers.  
  • Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abbe, Ernst". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak – Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.  
  • Helmholtz, Hermann; Fripp, Henry Edward (July 1876). "On the Limits of the Optical Capacity of the Microscope". The Monthly Microscopical Journal 16 (1): 15–39.  
  • Günther, Norbert (1970). "Abbe, Ernst". In Gillispie, Charles Coulston.  
  • Debus, Allen G.; Calinger, Ronald S.; Collins, Edward J.; Kennedy, Stephen J., eds. (1968). "Abbe, Ernst Karl". World Who's Who in Science: A Biographical Dictionary of Notable Scientists from Antiquity to the Present. Chicago, IL: A. N. Marquis Company.  
  • Blasius, Ewald (1953). "Abbe, Ernst Carl". Neue Deutsche Biographie (in German). Berlin, Germany: Duncker & Humblot.  
  • Abbe, Ernst (1883). Crisp, Frank, ed. "The Relation of Aperture and Power in the Microscope (continued)". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 2 (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 3 (1): 790–812.  
  • Abbe, Ernst (1881). Crisp, Frank, ed. "On the Estimation of Aperture in the Microscope". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 1 (3): 388–423.  
  • Abbe, Ernst (1876). Lawson, Henry, ed. Translated by Fripp, H. E.. "A Contribution to the Theory of the Microscope and the Nature of Microscopic Vision". Proceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' Society (London, UK: Williams & Northgate) 1: 200–261. 
  • Abbe, Ernst (1874). "Neue Apparate zur Bestimmung des Brechungs und Zerstreuungsvermögens fester und flüssiger Körper" [New Equipment for Determining the Refraction and Dispersion Property of Solids and Liquids]. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft [Jenaische Journal of Natural Science] (in German) (Jena, Germany: Mauke's Verlag) 8: 96–174. 

References

  1. ^ a b c d Blasius 1953, p. 2-3
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Debus et al. 1968, p. 2
  3. ^ a b Günther 1970, p. 6
  4. ^ a b c d e Günther 1970, p. 7
  5. ^ a b c d e Hoiberg 2010, p. 11
  6. ^ Abbe 1874
  7. ^ a b c d e Pfeiffer 1991, p. 445
  8. ^ Joint Committee of Civil Engineers, American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, and American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 1994
  9. ^ a b Abbe 1881
  10. ^ Helmholtz & Fripp 1876
  11. ^ Abbe 1876
  12. ^ Abbe 1883
  13. ^ Günther 1970, p. 9

Footnotes

  1. ^ Some sources give his wife's name as Elisabeth.[2]
  2. ^ The dates of his job appointments at the University of Jena, including his appointment as director of the Jena Observatory has some uncertainty, as sources give different dates, as following. 1870: assistant lecturer on mechanics and experimental physics; 1873: associate professor; 1877: director of the Jena Observatory meteorological and astronomy departments.[2]

Notes

See also

  • —— (1921). Sozialpolitische Schriften [Socio-political Writings] (in German). Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer.  
  • ——; Lummer, Otto; Reiche, Fritz (1910). Die Lehre von der Bildentstehung im Mikroskop [The Theory of Image Formation in the Microscope] (in German). Braunschweig, Germany: F. Vieweg und Sohn.  
  • —— (1904). Gesammelte Abhandlungen [Collected Essay] (in German). 5 volumes, released from 1904 until 1940. New York, NY: Hildesheim.  
  • ——; Rudolph, P. (1897). "Anamorphotisches Linsensystem" [Anamorphic Lens System]. German Pat (in German). 99722. 
  • —— (1895). Motive und Erläuterungen zum Entwurf eines Statuts der Carl Zeiss-Stiftung [Motives and Explanations on the Draft Statute of the Carl Zeiss Foundation] (in German). Vopelius. 
  • —— (1895). Double Prism for Totally-Reflecting Refractometers. Google Patents. 
  • —— (1890). "Messapparate für Physiker" [Measuring Equipment for Physicists]. Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde [Journal of Instrument ?] (in German) 10: 446–447. 
  • —— (1886). ]About Enhancements of the Microscope Using New Types of Optical Glass [Über Verbesserungen des Mikroscope mit Hilfe neuer Arten optischen Glases (in German). 
  • —— (1886). "The new microscope". S Ber Jena Ges Med 2: 107–108. 
  • —— (1884). ——, ed. "On the Mode of Vision with Objectives of Wide Aperture". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 4 (1): 20–27.  
  • —— (1884). ——, ed. "Note on the Proper Definition of the Amplifying Power of a Lens or Lens-System". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 4 (1): 348–351.  
  • —— (1883). ——, ed. "The Relation of Aperture and Power in the Microscope (continued)". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 2 (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 3 (1): 790–812.  
  • —— (1882). ——, ed. "The Relation of Aperture and Power in the Microscope (continued)". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 2 (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 2 (1): 460–473.  
  • —— (1882). ——, ed. "The Relation of Aperture and Power in the Microscope". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 2 (3): 300–309.  
  • —— (1882). ——, ed. "Miniatured Images". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 2 (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 2: 693–696. 
  • —— (1881). ——, ed. "Abbe's Stereoscopic Eye-piece". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 2 (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 1: 298–299. 
  • —— (1881). ——, ed. "On the Conditions of Orthoscopic and Pseudoscopic Effects in the Binocular Microscope". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 2 (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 1 (2): 203–211.  
  • —— (1881). ——, ed. "On the Estimation of Aperture in the Microscope". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 1 (3): 388–423.  
  • —— (1881). ——, ed. """Conditions of Microstereoscopic Vision – "Penetration. 2 1. London, UK: Williams & Norgate. pp. 680–689. 
  • —— (1881). ——, ed. "Origin of Homogeneous Immersion". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 2 (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 1: 131–134. 
  • —— (1881). "Beschreibung eines neuen stereoskopischen Oculars" [Description of a New Stereoscopic Eye-piece]. Repertorium für Experimental-Physik für Physikalische Technik [Repertory for Experimental Physics of Physical Technology] (in German) (Munich, Germnay: Druck und Verlag Von R. Oldenbourg) 17: 197–224. 
  • —— (1881). ——, ed. "Penetrating Power of Objectives". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 2 (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 1: 831–832. 
  • —— (1881). ——, ed. "Illumination for Binocular Microscopes with High Powers". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 2 (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 1: 690–692. 
  • —— (1881). ——, ed. "The Essence of Homogeneous Immersion". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 2 (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 1: 526. 
  • —— (1880). ——, ed. "Conditions of Aplanatism for Wide-angled Pencils". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. 2 (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 1: 831. 
  • —— (1880). ——, ed. "Some Remarks on the Apertometer". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 3: 20–31.  
  • —— (1880). Crisp, Frank, ed. "Conditions on Aplanatism of Systems of Lenses". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 3: 509–515. 
  • —— (21 February 1879). "Über die Bestimmung der Brechungs-Verhältnisse fester Körper mittelst des Refractometers" [The Determination of the Refractive Ratios of Solids by Means of Refractometers]. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft [Jenaische Journal of Natural Science] (in German) (Jena, Germany: Verlag Von Gustav Fischer): 35–44. 
  • —— (2 May 1879). "Über die Bestimmung von Zeit und Polhöhe aus Beobachtungen in Höhenparallen" [The Determination of Time and Latitude Observations Made in Höhenparallen]. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft [Jenaische Journal of Natural Science] (in German) (Jena, Germany: Verlag Von Gustav Fischer): 57–66. 
  • —— (1879). ——, ed. "On New Methods for Improving Spherical Correction applied to the Construction of Wide-angled Object-glasses". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 2 (7): 812–824.  
  • —— (11 June 1879). Crisp, Frank, ed. "On Stephenson's System of Homogeneous Immersion for Microscope Objectives". Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (London, UK: Williams & Norgate) 2 (3): 256–265.  
  • —— (1878). "Über die Grenzen der geometrischen Optik" [Beyond the Limits of Geometric Optics]. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft [Jenaische Journal of Natural Science] (in German) (Jena, Germany: Verlag Von Gustav Fischer): 71–109. 
  • —— (1878). "Über die Bedingungen des Aplanatismus der Linsensysteme" [The Conditions Under Which Aplanatism of the Lens Systems]. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft [Jenaische Journal of Natural Science] (in German) (Jena, Germany: Verlag Von Gustav Fischer): 129–142. 
  • —— (1878). "Über Blutkörper-Zählung" [About Counting Blood Cells]. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft [Jenaische Journal of Natural Science] (in German) (Jena, Germany: Verlag Von Gustav Fischer): 98–105. 
  • —— (1878). "Über mikrometrische Messung mittelst optischer Bilder" [About Micrometric Measurement by Means of Optical Images]. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft [Jenaische Journal of Natural Science] (in German) (Jena, Germany: Verlag Von Gustav Fischer): 11–17. 
  • —— (1875). ——, ed. "Extracts from Dr. H. E. Fripp's Translation of Professor Abbe's Paper on the Microscope (Cont.)". The Monthly Microscopical Journal (London, UK: Williams & Northgate) 14: 245–254. 
  • —— (1875). ——, ed. "Extracts from Dr. H. E. Fripp's Translation of Professor Abbe's Paper on the Microscope". The Monthly Microscopical Journal (London, UK: Williams & Northgate) 14: 191–201. 
  • —— (1876). Lawson, Henry, ed. Translated by Fripp, H. E.. "A Contribution to the Theory of the Microscope and the Nature of Microscopic Vision". Proceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' Society (London, UK: Williams & Northgate) 1: 200–261. 
  • —— (1875). "A New Illuminating Apparatus for the Microscope". The Monthly Microscopical Journal (London, UK: Robert Hardwicke) 13 (2): 77–82.  
  • —— (1874). "Neue Apparate zur Bestimmung des Brechungs und Zerstreuungsvermögens fester und flüssiger Körper" [New Equipment for Determining the Refraction and Dispersion Property of Solids and Liquids]. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft [Jenaische Journal of Natural Science] (in German) (Jena, Germany: Mauke's Verlag) 8: 96–174. 
  • —— (1873). "Beiträge zur Theorie des Mikroskops und der mikroskopischen Wahrnehmung" [Contributions to the Theory of the Microscope and of Microscopic Perception]. Archiv für Mikroskopische Anatomie [Archive for Microscopic Anatomy] (in German) (Bonn, Germany: Verlag von Max Cohen & Sohn) 9 (1): 413–468.  
  • Abbe, Ernst (1873). "Über einen neuen Beleuchtungsapparat am Mikroskop" [About a New Illumination Apparatus to the Microscope]. Archiv für mikroskopische Anatomie [Archive for Microscopic Anatomy] (in German) (Bonn, Germany: Verlag von Max Cohen & Sohn) 9: 469–480.  

Abbe was a pioneer in optics, lens design, and microscopy, and an authority of his time. He left us with numerous publications of his findings, inventions, and discoveries. Below is a list of publications he authored including many links to the scanned Google Books pages.

Bibliography

The crater Abbe on the Moon was named in his honour.

[13].Schriften der Heidelberger Aktionsgruppe zur Demokratie und Zum Freien Sozialismus in the 1947 book Alfred Weber state as a model and idealized by Prussian His social views were so respected as to be used by the [5] During his association with

In order to produce high quality objectives, Abbe made significant contributions to the diagnosis and correction of optical aberrations, both spherical aberration and coma aberration, which is required for an objective to reach the resolution limit of Eq. 1. In addition to spherical aberration, Abbe discovered that the rays in optical systems must have constant angular magnification over their angular distribution to produce a diffraction limited spot, a principle known as the Abbe sine condition.[9] So monumental and advanced were Abbe's calculations and achievements that Frits Zernike based his phase contrast work that he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1953, and Hans Busch used them to work on the development of the electron microscope.[4]

In 1876, Abbe was offered a partnership by Zeiss and began to share in the considerable profits.[4] Although the first theoretical derivations of Eq. 1 were published by others, it is fair to say that Abbe was the first to reach this conclusion experimentally. In 1878, he built the first homogenous immersion system for the microscope.[2] The objectives that the Abbe Zeiss collaboration were producing were of ideal ray geometry, allowing Abbe to find that the aperture sets the upper limit of microscopic resolution, not the curvature and placement of the lenses. Abbe's first publication of Eq. 1 occurred in 1882.[12] In this publication, Abbe states that both his theoretical and experimental investigations confirmed Eq. 1. Abbe's contemporary Henry Edward Fripp, English translator of Abbe's and Helmholtz's papers, puts their contributions on equal footing. He also perfected the interference method by Fizeau, in 1884.[2] Abbe, Zeiss, Zeiss' son, Roderich Zeiss, and Otto Schott formed, in 1884, Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Genossen. This company, which in time would in essence merge with Zeiss Optical Works, was responsible for research and production of 44 initial types of optical glass.[7] Working with telescopes, he built image reversal system in 1895.[2]

although in a publication in 1874 by Helmholtz[10] (another early appearance of this formula), Helmholtz states this formula was first derived by Joseph Louis Lagrange, who had died 61 years prior. Helmholz was so impressed as to offer a professorship at the University of Berlin, which he refused due to his ties to Zeiss.[4] Abbe was in the camp of the wide aperturists, arguing that microscopic resolution is ultimately limited by the aperture of the optics, but also argued that depending on application there are other parameters that should be weighted over the aperture in the design of objectives. In Abbe's 1874 paper, titled "A Contribution to the Theory of the Microscope and the nature of Microscopic Vision",[11] Abbe states that the resolution of a microscope is inversely dependent on its aperture, but without proposing a formula for the resolution limit of a microscope.

d = \frac{\lambda}{2 NA}

 

 

 

 

(Eq. 1)

Abbe is credited by many for discovering the resolution limit of the microscope, and the formula (published in 1873)

Abbe was the first to define the term numerical aperture,[9] as the sine of the half angle multiplied by the refractive index of the medium filling the space between the cover glass and front lens.

In 1866, he became a research director at the Zeiss Optical Works, and in 1868 he invented the apochromatic lens, a microscope lens which eliminates both the primary and secondary color distortion.[5] By 1870, Abbe invented the Abbe condenser, used for microscope illumination.[5] In 1871, he designed the first refractometer, which he described in a booklet published in 1874.[6][2] He developed the laws of image of non-luminous objects by 1872.[2] Zeiss Optical Works began selling his improved microscopes in 1872, by 1877 they were selling microscopes with homogenous immersion objective, and in 1886 hi apochromatic objective microscopes were being sold.[7] He created the Abbe number, a measure of any transparent material's variation of refractive index with wavelength and Abbe's criterion, which tests the hypothesis, that a systematic trend exists in a set of observations (in terms of resolving power this criterion stipulates that an angular separation cannot be less than the ratio of the wavelength to the aperture diameter, see angular resolution).[8] Already a professor in Jena, he was hired by Carl Zeiss to improve the manufacturing process of optical instruments, which back then was largely based on trial and error.

Ernst Abbe, relief at his grave
German stamp of 1968
The resolution limit formula engraved in an Ernst Abbe memorial in Jena
Microscope by Carl Zeiss (1879) with optics by Abbe

Life work

[1]. He also was a member of the Saxon Academy of Sciences. He was relieved of his teaching duties at the University of Jena in 1891. Abbe died 14 January 1905 in Jena.Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities In 1889, he became a member of the [nb 2][5] in 1878.Jena astronomical and meteorological observatory He became director of the [2] He attained full professor status by 1879.[2] with whom he had two daughters.[nb 1] In 1871, he married Else Snell, daughter of the mathematician and physicist Karl Snell, one of Abbe's teachers,[5][1] in Jena.mathematics and mechanics, physics of experimental professor On 8 August 1863 he qualified as a university lecturer at the University of Jena. In 1870, he accepted a contract as an associate [4] in 1824 and still exists today).Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (an association of citizens interested in physics and chemistry that was founded by Frankfurt and at Physikalischer Verein in observatoryThis was followed by two short assignments at the Göttingen [4].Göttingen seven, who also happened to be one of the Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Bernhard Riemann While at school, he was influenced by [3] in Göttingen on 23 March 1861.PhD During his time as a student, Abbe gave private lessons to improve his income. His father's employer continued to fund him. Abbe was awarded his [1] (1859–1861).Göttingen (1857–1859) and Jena By the time he left school, his scientific talent and his strong will had already become obvious. Thus, in spite of the family's strained financial situation, his father decided to support Abbe's studies at the Universities of [3] He came from a humble home — his father was a foreman in a spinnery. Supported by his father's employer, Abbe was able to attend secondary school and to obtain the general qualification for university entrance with fairly good grades, at the Eisenach Gymnasium, which he graduated from in 1857.[2]

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