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Economy of the British Virgin Islands

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Title: Economy of the British Virgin Islands  
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Economy of the British Virgin Islands

Economy of British Virgin Islands
Road Town, Tortola
Currency U.S. dollar (USD)
1 Apr - 31 Mar
Trade organisations
CARICOM (Associate member)
GDP $1.095 billion (2008 est.)
GDP rank 177th (nominal) / 190th (PPP)
GDP growth
4% (2012 est.)[1]
GDP per capita
$42,300 (2010 est.)
GDP by sector
agriculture: 1.8%, industry: 6.2%, services: 92% (2005 est.)
2.3% (2011 est.)[2]
Population below poverty line
NA% (2004)
Labour force
12,770 (2004)
Labour force by occupation
agriculture: 0.6%, industry: 40%, services: 59.4% (2005 est.)
Unemployment 8.7% (2010 est.)
Main industries
tourism, financial services
Exports $38.5 million (2011 est.)
Export goods
rum, fresh fish, fruits, animals; gravel, sand
Main export partners
United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, US (2004)
Imports $275.1 million (2011 est.)
Import goods
building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
Main import partners
United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, US (2004)
Public finances
$106 million (2014 est.)[3]
Revenues $302,000,000 (2014 est.)[3]
Expenses $327,000,000 (2014 est.)[3]
Economic aid recipient: $NA (2004)
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

The economy of the British Virgin Islands is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean. Although tiny in absolute terms, because of the very small population of the British Virgin Islands, in 2010 the Territory had the 19th highest GDP per capita in the world according to the CIA World factbook.[4] In global terms the size of the Territory's GDP measured in terms of purchasing power is ranked as 215th out of a total of 229 countries.[5] The economy of the Territory is based upon the "twin pillars" of financial services, which generates approximately 60% of government revenues,[6] and tourism, which generates nearly all of the rest.

Historically the British Virgin Islands has normally produced a Government budget surplus, but during the financial crisis of 2007–2008 the Territory began to run at a deficit, which continued after the global recession receded. In 2011 the Territory had its largest ever budget deficit, of US$29 million (approximately 2.6% of GDP).[2] By 2012 public debt had quadrupled from pre-crisis levels to approximately US$113 million (approximately 10.3% of GDP).[7] Nearly 84% of that public debt was attributable to a new public hospital built in Road Town between 2003 and 2014.[8] The Economist argues that deteriorating economic conditions in the British Virgin Islands are caused "not [by] sagging revenues but public-sector profligacy".[9] By 2014 public debt had been reduced to US$106 million and the annual deficit reduced to US$25 million (including budgeted capital expenditure).[3]


  • Tourism 1
  • Financial services 2
    • History of financial services 2.1
  • Agriculture 3
  • Dollarisation 4
  • Footnotes 5


In 2006 a total of 825,603 people visited the islands (of whom 443,987 were cruise ship passengers), mainly from the United States. The bulk of the tourism income in the British Virgin Islands is generated by the yacht chartering industry. The Territory has relatively few large hotels compared to other tourism centres in the Caribbean. The British Virgin Islands also entertain cruise ships, although these generate relatively little revenue. However, cruise ship passengers are an important source of revenue for taxi drivers, who represent a politically important voice in the Territory.

Between 2007 and 2011 tourist visitors to be the British Virgin Islands declined by approximately 12.4%, largely due to the global recession which particularly affected North America, a key source of visitors for the Territory.[2]

Financial services

In the mid-1980s, the government began offering offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate an estimated 51.4% of Government revenues.

According to official statistics 447,801 BVI companies were 'active' (i.e. incorporated and not yet struck-off, liquidated or dissolved) as at 30 June 2012.[10] There are no recent official statistics on total numbers of incorporations (including struck, liquidated and dissolved companies) but these are estimated at approximately 950,000. Many of these companies were originally formed under the International Business Companies Act, 1984, but have now been consolidated into the BVI Business Companies Act, 2004. In 2000, KPMG were commissioned by the British Government to produce a report on the offshore financial industry generally, and the report indicated that nearly 45% of the offshore companies in the world were formed in the British Virgin Islands.[11] The British Virgin Islands is now one of the world's leading offshore financial centres, and boasts one of the highest incomes per capita in the Caribbean.

In addition to basic company incorporations, the British Virgin Islands also forms limited partnerships and trusts (including signature "VISTA" trusts) but these have not proved to be as popular as companies.

On 12 April 2007 the Financial Times reported that the British Virgin Islands was the second largest source of foreign direct investment in the world (behind Hong Kong) with over US$123,000,000,000.[12] Almost all of these sums are directly attributable to investment through the Territory's offshore finance industry.

The British Virgin Islands also promotes a number of regulated financial services products. The most important of these is the formation and regulation of offshore investment funds. The Territory is also the second largest domicile for formation of offshore investment funds (behind the Cayman Islands) with 2,422 licensed open-ended funds as at 30 June 2012[10] (there is no official statistics for closed-ended funds which are not regulated in the British Virgin Islands).

The British Virgin Islands also operates as a domicile for captive insurance services, but a prolonged period of overzealous Government regulation combined with the Government's increasing pressure to hire only locals ("belongers") in the insurance industry decimated the industry. Official reports from the Financial Services Commission reflect as of 30 June 2012 only 161 captives remain registered in the jurisdiction.[10]

History of financial services

Former president of the BVI's Financial Services Commission, Michael Riegels, recites the anecdote that the offshore finance industry commenced on an unknown date in the 1970s when a lawyer from a firm in New York telephoned him with a proposal to incorporate a company in the British Virgin Islands to take advantage of a double taxation relief treaty with the United States.[13] Within the space of a few years, hundreds of such companies had been incorporated.[14]

This eventually came to the attention of the United States government, who unilaterally revoked the Treaty in 1981.[15]

In 1984 the British Virgin Islands, trying to recapture some of the lost offshore business, enacted a new form of companies legislation, the International Business Companies Act, under which an offshore company which was exempt from local taxes could be formed. The development was only a limited success until 1991, when the United States invaded Panama to oust General Manuel Noriega. At the time Panama was one of the largest providers of offshore financial services in the world, but the business fled subsequent the invasion, and the British Virgin Islands was one of the main beneficiaries.


Livestock raising is the most important agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet domestic food requirements. Fewer than 0.6% are estimate to work in agriculture.[16] Despite its tiny economic impact, agriculture has its own dedicated Government minister (unlike financial services).


Because of traditionally close links with the U.S. Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands has used the US dollar as its currency since 1959.[17]

See generally: Dollarisation


  1. ^ "Territory's 2013 Budget Approved". BVI Platinum News. 19 December 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c "2013 Budget Address". BVI Government. 
  3. ^ a b c d "2014 Budget Estimates". Government of the Virgin Islands. Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  4. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Virgin Islands
  5. ^ CIA Factbook - GDP by country
  6. ^ "New Company Incorporations Down But Premier Remains Optimistic". 14 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-15. 
  7. ^ "National debt grows by $73M over last decade; public sector too big – Financial Secretary". BVI News. 24 January 2013. 
  8. ^ "New hospital responsible for nearly 84% of national debt". Caribbean Medical News. 26 April 2013. 
  9. ^ "Treasure islands in trouble".  
  10. ^ a b c "Q2 2012 BVIFSC Statistical Bulletin". 
  11. ^ Review of Financial Regulation in the Crown Dependencies (Cmnd Paper 4855 of 2000).  
  12. ^ / Lex - The Russians are coming
  13. ^ "The IBC Act – the building of a nation".  
  14. ^ British Virgin Islands Commercial Law.  
  15. ^ The British Virgin Islands was not alone in this regard; this was part of a policy of mass-repeal by the United States of double tax relief treaties with "microstates".
  16. ^  
  17. ^ Legal Tender (Adoption of United States Currency) Act, 1959
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