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Economy of Kazakhstan

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Title: Economy of Kazakhstan  
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Economy of Kazakhstan

Economy of Kazakhstan
Business center in Astana
Currency Tenge ()

Increase$243.6 billion (PPP, 2013)[1]

Increase$224.9 billion (nominal, 2013)[2]
GDP rank 53rd (PPP, 2013)
GDP growth
Increase5.0% (Real, 2013)[3]
GDP per capita
Increase$14,100 (PPP, 2013)[4]
GDP by sector
agriculture: 5.2%; industry: 37.9%; services: 56.95% (2011 est.)
5.2% (CPI, 2012 est.)
Population below poverty line
5.3% (2011)
28.8[5] (2008, low)
Labour force
9.022 million (2013 est.)[6]
Labour force by occupation
agriculture: 25.8%; industry: 11.9%; services: 62.3% (2012 est.)
Unemployment Decrease5.3% (2013)[7]
Main industries
oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, construction materials
Exports Increase$86.93 billion (2012)
Export goods
oil and oil products 59%, ferrous metals 19%, chemicals 5%, machinery 3%, grain, wool, meat, coal
Main export partners
 China 21.0%
 Russia 9.9%
 France 9.3%
 Germany 6.9%
 Italy 5.0%
 Canada 4.8%
 Ukraine 4.7%
 Romania 4.1% (2012 est.)[9]
Imports Increase$42.82 billion (2012 est.)
Import goods
machinery and equipment, metal products, foodstuffs
Main import partners
 Russia 31.6%
 China 26.6%
 Germany 6.0%
 Ukraine 4.4% (2012 est.)[10]
Decrease$105.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Public finances
Decrease12% of GDP (2012 est.)
Revenues $43.08 billion (2012 est.)
Expenses $48.04 billion (2012 est.)
  • Standard & Poor's:[11]
    BBB+ (Domestic)
    BBB (Foreign)
    BBB+ (T&C Assessment)
    Outlook: Stable[12]
  • Moody's:[12]
    Outlook: Stable
  • Fitch:[12]
    Outlook: Positive
Foreign reserves
Decrease$28.29 billion (31 December 2012)
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

The economy of Kazakhstan is the largest economy in Central Asia. It possesses enormous oil reserves as well as minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production, as well as developed space infrastructure, which took over all launches to the International Space Station from the Space Shuttle. The mountains in the south are important for apples and walnuts; both species grow wild there. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some military items. The breakup of the USSR and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since 1991, with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. In 1995-97 the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened, resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. The December 1996 signing of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium agreement to build a new pipeline from western Kazakhstan's Tengiz Field to the Black Sea increases prospects for substantially larger oil exports in several years. Kazakhstan's economy turned downward in 1998 with a 2.5% decline in GDP growth due to slumping oil prices and the August financial crisis in Russia. A bright spot in 1999 was the recovery of international petroleum prices, which, combined with a well-timed tenge devaluation and a bumper grain harvest, pulled the economy out of recession.

Current GDP per capita shrank by 26% in the Nineties.[13] However since 2000, Kazakhstan's economy grew sharply, aided by increased prices on world markets for Kazakhstan's leading exports—oil, metals and grain. GDP grew 9.6% in 2000, up from 1.7% in 1999. Since 2001, GDP growth has been among the highest in the world. In 2006, extremely high GDP growth had been sustained, and grew by 10.6%.[14] Business with booming Russia and China, as well as neighboring Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) nations have helped to propel this amazing growth. The increased economic growth also led to a turn-around in government finances, with the budget moving from a cash deficit of 3.7% of GDP in 1999 to 0.1% surplus in 2000.


  • Macro-economic trend 1
  • Economic Growth & GDP 2
  • Oil & Gas 3
  • Mining 4
  • Trade 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Macro-economic trend

In the 2014 Economic Freedom Index published by the Heritage Foundation in Washington, DC, Kazakhstan has gained 22 points over the past 17 years, which is noted by the authors as among the 20 best improvements recorded by any country.[15] Kazakhstan ranks 11th out of 42 countries in the Asia–Pacific region, and its overall score is above the world and regional averages.[15]

This chart shows trends in the gross domestic product of Kazakhstan at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund, with figures in millions of Kazakhstani tenge.[16]
Year Gross Domestic Product US Dollar Exchange Inflation Index
Per Capita Income
(as % of USA)
1995 78,014,200 61.11 Tenge 64 3.81
2000 102,599,902 142.26 Tenge 100 3.53
2005 147,453,000 132.88 Tenge 140 9.01

For purchasing-power parity comparisons, the US Dollar is exchanged at 59.95 Tenges only. Mean wages comprised $6.93 per man-hour in 2009.

Kazakhstan has managed its monetary policy well. Its principal challenge in 2001 was to manage strong foreign-currency inflows without sparking inflation. Inflation had, in fact, stayed under control, registering 9.8% in 2000, and appeared likely to be under 10% in 2001. Because of its strong economic performance and financial health, Kazakhstan became the first former Soviet republic to repay all of its debt to the IMF by paying back $400 million in 2000; 7 years ahead of schedule. Overall foreign debt amounts to about $12.5 billion, $4 billion of it owed by the government. This amounts to 6.9% of GDP, well within manageable levels.

The upturn in economic growth, combined with the results of earlier reforms in taxation and in the financial sector, dramatically improved government finances from the 1998 budget deficit level of 4.2% of GDP to a slight surplus in 2000. Government tax-revenues grew from 16.4% of GDP in 1999 to 20.6% of GDP in 2000. In 2000, Kazakhstan adopted a new tax-code in an effort to consolidate these gains. Its strong financial position also allowed the government to reduce the value-added tax (VAT) from 20% to 16% and to reduce social (payroll) taxes as of July 2001. Kazakhstan's stronger budget-position and strong export-earnings earned it credit-rating upgrades from Moody's, S&P, and Fitch during 2001.

Kazakhstan instituted a pension reform program in 1998 that was partly based on the model of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).

According to the Republic of Kazakhstan Agency for Statistics, in January–March 2010 production of GDP amounted to 3,881.6 billion tenge and an increase of 7.1%.

Economic Growth & GDP

Kazakhstan's GDP grew 6% in real terms during the period from January to November 2013.[17]

Kazakhstan's real GDP growth is projected to reach 5.0% in 2014, the main driving force of the economy in Kazakhstan in 2014 is the consumer sector; the consumption in Kazakhstan is mainly boosted by the retail lending.[18]

According to the Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan the Kazakhstan's GDP growth in the first quarter of 2014 was 3.8%.[19]

The Government of Kazakhstan signed a Framework Partnership Agreement with IBRD, IFC, MIGA on May 1, 2014; according to this Agreement the World Bank will allocate $ 2.5 billion to Kazakhstan, for the diversification of the economy and reaching the sustainable development.[20]

Oil & Gas

Oil and gas is the leading economic sector. In 2000, Kazakhstan produced 35,252,000 metric tons of oil (700,000 barrels per day), a 17.4% increase over 1999's 30,025,000 tons. It exported 28,883,000 tons of oil in 2000, up 38.8% from 20,813,000 tons in 1999. Production in 2001 has been growing at roughly 20%, on target to meet the government's forecast of 40,100,000 tons of oil (800,000 barrels per day). In 2000, production reached 11.5 km³ of natural gas, up from 8.2 km³ in 1999.

Kazakhstan has the potential to be a world-class oil exporter in the medium term. The landmark foreign investment in Kazakhstan is the TengizChevroil joint venture, owned 50% by ChevronTexaco, 25% by ExxonMobil, 20% by KazMunaiGas of Kazakhstan, and 5% by LukArco of Russia.[21] The Karachaganak natural gas and gas condensate field is being developed by BG, Agip, ChevronTexaco, and Lukoil. The Agip-led Offshore Kazakhstan Consortium has discovered potentially huge Kashagan oil field in the northern Caspian. Kazakhstan's economic future is linked to oil and gas development. GDP growth will depend on the price of oil, as well as the ability to develop new deposits.


Kazakhstan is a leading producer of many mineral commodities, including uranium, ferrochrome, titanium sponge, cadmium, magnesium, rhenium, copper, bauxite, gallium and zinc.[22]

It is the leading country in the world for uranium production volumes, with 35% of global production,[23] and it has the world's second biggest uranium reserves after Australia.[24]


Graphical depiction of Kazakhstan's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.
Kazakh exports in 2006

Sherin Suzhikova, Counselor of Kazakhstan's Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Chao yon-chuan, Secretary-General of the Taiwan External Trade Development Council, signed an agreement on 13 October 2006 in Taipei to improve economic relations through "exchanges of market information and visits by trade professionals." TAITRA has an office in Almaty, Kazakhstan.[25]

In 2006, North Dakota's then Lieutenant Governor Jack Dalrymple led an 18-member delegation of the North Dakota Trade Office representing seven North Dakota companies and Dickinson State University on a trip to Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Russia. North Dakota exports mostly machinery to Kazakhstan, the eighth largest destination for North Dakotan exports; machinery exports increased from $22,000 to $25 million between 2000 and 2005.[26]

See also


  1. ^ Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  2. ^ Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  3. ^ Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  4. ^ Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  5. ^ CIA World Factbook: Field listing, Distribution of family income – Gini index
  6. ^ Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  7. ^ Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  8. ^ "Doing Business in Kazakhstan 2013".  
  9. ^ "Export Partners of Kazakhstan".  
  10. ^ "Import Partners of Kazakhstan".  
  11. ^ "Sovereigns rating list". Standard & Poor's. Retrieved 26 May 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c Rogers, Simon; Sedghi, Ami (15 April 2011). "How Fitch, Moody's and S&P rate each country's credit rating". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2011. 
  13. ^
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ a b "2014 Economic Freedom Index: Kazakhstan". The Heritage Foundation. 
  16. ^
  17. ^ "Kazakhstan's GDP grows 6% in 11 months". TengriNews. 
  18. ^ "Kazakhstan's real GDP growth is projected to reach 5% in 2014". 
  19. ^ "The Kazakhstan's GDP growth in the first quarter of 2014". 
  20. ^ "$2.5 billion will be allocated by the World Bank for the diversification of the Kazakhstans' economy". 
  21. ^
  22. ^ [2], USGS Mineral Information - Europe and Central Eurasia
  23. ^ [3], World Nuclear Association - Uranium and Nuclear Power in Kazakhstan
  24. ^ [4], World Nuclear Association Uranium Resources - Supply of Uranium
  25. ^ Taiwan, Kazakhstan sign agreement on economic cooperation Taiwan Headlines
  26. ^ Lt. Gov. Dalrymple, N.D. Companies To Attend Trade Mission To Kazakhstan, Ukraine And Russia ,, 16 October 2006

External links

  • World Bank Summary Trade Statistics Kazakhstan
  • U.S. Department of Energy Country Analysis Brief
  • Kazakhstan Plans to Build Highway Connecting China and Europe
  • Kazakh central bank misspells 'bank' on money
  • International Business; China Pays Dearly for Kazakhstan Oil
  • Kazakh President's Daughter Chides Steel Baron Mittal
  • Commercial gold and copper discoveries in Kazakhstan
  • Kazakhstan Changes Energy Strategy on the Way to WTO
  • Kazakhstan to be top oil producer by 2011: Nazarbayev
  • "Agriculture in Kazakhstan"
  • Tariffs applied by Kazakhstan as provided by ITC's Market Acces Map, an online database of customs tariffs and market requirements.
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