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Demographics of Zimbabwe

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Demographics of Zimbabwe

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Zimbabwe, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Population

The population of Zimbabwe has grown during the twentieth century in accordance with the model of a developing country with high birth rates and falling death rates, resulting in relatively high population growth rate (around 3% or above in the 1960s and early 1970s). After a spurt in the period 1980-1983 following independence, a decline in birth rates set in. Since 1991, however, there has been a jump in death rates from a low of 10 per 1000 in 1985 to a high of 25 per 1000 in 2002/2003. It has since subsided to just under 22 per 1000 (estimate for 2007) a little below the birth rate of around 27 per 1000.[1][2] The high death rate is due to the impact of AIDS, which is by far the main cause of death. This leads to a small natural increase of around 0.5%. However, outward migration rates of around 1.5% or more have been experienced for over a decade, therefore actual population changes are uncertain. Because of the high number of unaccounted emigrants, the recent increase of emigration and the death toll from AIDS, the total population might be declining to as low as 8 million according to some estimates.[3]

Census data

Historical data of Southern Rhodesia

Census
Year Black White Coloured Asian
1911 744,559 23,606 2,912
1921 862,319 33,620 1,998 1,250
Estimates
Year Black White
1890 700,000
1910 900,000 20,000
1927 922,000 38,200
1930 1,300,000
1945 1,400,000? 140,000
1946 1,640,000 80,500

Current estimates

Based on a 2010 revision of World Population Prospects, the population of Zimbabwe was estimated by the United Nations at 12,576,000 in 2010. About 38.9% comprised youths under 15, while another 56.9% grouped persons aged between 15 and 65 years. Only around 4.2% of citizens were apparently over 65.[4]
Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 2 747 42.0 54.8 3.2
1955 3 204 43.8 52.9 3.3
1960 3 752 45.3 51.4 3.4
1965 4 422 47.7 49.0 3.3
1970 5 206 48.1 48.7 3.2
1975 6 170 48.4 48.5 3.1
1980 7 289 48.9 48.1 3.0
1985 8 855 47.9 49.1 3.0
1990 10 469 46.1 50.9 3.0
1995 11 685 44.3 52.5 3.2
2000 12 509 41.7 54.9 3.4
2005 12 571 40.1 56.1 3.8
2010 12 571 38.9 56.9 4.2

Vital statistics

Registration of vital events is in Zimbabwe not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.

[4]
Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 144 000 52 000 92 000 48.3 17.4 30.9 6.80 115
1955-1960 167 000 56 000 111 000 48.1 16.2 31.8 7.00 105
1960-1965 197 000 61 000 136 000 48.2 15.0 33.3 7.30 97
1965-1970 229 000 66 000 162 000 47.5 13.7 33.7 7.40 90
1970-1975 271 000 72 000 199 000 47.6 12.6 35.0 7.40 83
1975-1980 320 000 76 000 244 000 47.6 11.3 36.3 7.30 74
1980-1985 363 000 78 000 285 000 44.9 9.6 35.3 6.74 64
1985-1990 381 000 83 000 299 000 39.5 8.6 30.9 5.66 56
1990-1995 390 000 108 000 281 000 35.2 9.8 25.4 4.77 55
1995-2000 381 000 176 000 205 000 31.5 14.5 16.9 4.05 65
2000-2005 372 000 220 000 152 000 29.7 17.5 12.1 3.74 68
2005-2010 370 000 190 000 180 000 29.4 15.1 14.3 3.47 59
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)


Fertility and Births

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[5] [6]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1982-1984 6,66 5,33 7,28
1985-1988 5,31 3,86 6,06
1994 31,6 4,29 30,5 3,09 32,0 4,85
1999 30,8 3,96 31,3 2,96 30,5 4,57
2005-2006 31,0 3,8 28,5 2,6 32,0 4,6
2010-2011 34 4,1 34 3,1 34 4,8

Ethnic groups

According to 2012 Census report, 99.7% of the population is of African origin.[7] Of the rest of the population, the great bulk - perhaps 30,000 persons[8][9][10] - are white Zimbabweans of European ancestry, a minority which had already diminished in size prior to independence.[11]

The vast black majority has grown at a projected annual rate of 4.3% since 1980.[12] Although present figures are difficult to ascertain, the white community once reproduced itself at an annual rate (under 1.5%) similar to that of most totals in developed nations.[13] Of the two major ethnolinguistic categories, Shona speakers formed a decisive plurality and occupied the eastern two-thirds of Zimbabwe.[14] Ndebele speakers constitute about 16%, and none of the other indigenous ethnic groups came to as much as 2% in recent decades.[15] African speakers of nonindigenous languages included migrant workers from Malawi, Zambia, and Mozambique.[16]

Three-quarters of white Zimbabweans are of British or British diasporan origin; at various times many immigrated from South Africa and elsewhere.[13] After World War II, Zimbabwe (then Southern Rhodesia) received a substantial influx of emigrants from the United Kingdom - a handful previously resided in other colonies such as Pakistan and Kenya. Also represented on a much smaller scale were individuals of Afrikaner, Greek, and Portuguese origin.[11] After Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, Ian Smith's administration removed technical obstacles to immigration from southern Europe.[13]

A heavily urbanised Coloured (or Goffal) population is descended partially from early unions between Rhodesian settlers and local African females. Many, however, can also trace their ancestry to the Dutch/Khoisan mulatto clans of the Cape. With the exception of a select few who were brought to Zimbabwe as railroad workers, most Asians in Zimbabwe arrived from India pursuing employment or entrepreneurship. An educated class, they have traditionally engaged in retail trade or manufacturing.[13]

Languages

Zimbabwe has 16 official languages: Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa.[17] English is also one of the official language of Zimbabwe and is widely used in administration, law and schools, though less than 2.5%, mainly the white and Coloured (mixed race) minorities, consider it their native language. The rest of the population speak Shona (70%) and Ndebele (20%) Kalanga (2%), etc.[18] Shona has a rich oral tradition, which was incorporated into the first Shona novel, Feso by Solomon Mutswairo, published in 1956.[19] English is spoken primarily in the cities, but less so in rural areas. Television news is broadcast in English, Shona and Ndebele though the local languages time slot falls out of prime viewing time, but radio broadcasts in English, Ndebele, Shona, Kalanga, Nambya, Venda, Suthu and Tonga. English, Ndebele and Shona are given far more airtime.

Religions

Sixty two percent of Zimbabweans attend Christian churches.[20] The largest Christian churches are Anglican, Roman Catholic, and Methodist. However like most former European colonies, Christianity is often mixed with enduring traditional beliefs. Besides Christianity, ancestral worship (Amadlozi) is the most practiced non-Christian religion which involves ancestor worship and spiritual intercession. Under 1% of the population is Muslim, although many Zimbabweans are influenced by Islamic food laws.

Refugee crisis

The economic meltdown and repressive political measures in Zimbabwe has led to a flood of refugees into neighboring countries. An estimated 3.4 million Zimbabweans, a quarter of the population, had fled abroad by mid 2007.[21] Some 3 million of these have gone to South Africa.[22]

Aside from those who fled into the neighbouring countries, an estimated 570,000 people are displaced within the borders of the country, many of whom remain in transit camps and have limited access to assistance. Most of the displaced have been victims of the Operation Murambatsvina in 2005 and continuing evictions and violent farm seizures. Their plight is virtually impossible to assess, as there has been no national survey of people displaced since 2005.[23]

Health

According to the [24] An association of doctors in Zimbabwe have made calls for President Mugabe to make moves to assist the ailing health service.[25] Zimbabwe has a very high HIV infection rate. In 2001 it was measured at its highest level ever of 33.7% for people aged 15–49.

Demographic statistics from the CIA World Factbook

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated:

Ethnic groups

African 99.7%; Whites, Asian & others less than 1%.[7]

Languages

English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects

Religions

syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%

Population

13,182,908 (July 2013 est.)

Population growth rate

4.357% (2012 est.)

Birth rate

32.19 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Death rate

12.38 deaths/1,000 population (2012 est.)

Net migration rate

23.77 migrants/1,000 population (2012)

there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities.

Urbanization

urban population: 3.8% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

(2011 est.)

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.70 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female

Percentage of population malnourished

45 percent

AIDS

adult prevalence rate

15.3% (2007)
33.7% (2001 est.)
25% (1999 estimate).

people living with HIV/AIDS

1.3 million(2007 est.)
2.3 million (2001 est.)

deaths

140,000 (2007 est.)
200,000 (2001 est.)
160,000 annually (1999 estimate).

Life expectancy at birth

(2012 est.)

total population: 51.82 years
male: 51.95 years
female: 51.68 years

(2010)

total population: 47.55 years
male: 47.98 years
female: 47.11 years

(2000)

total population: 37.78 years
male: 39.18 years
female: 36.34 years

Total fertility rate

Official fertility rates over the last decade were 3.6 (2002 Census),[26] 3.8 (2006 survey also says women actually wanted on average 3.3 children)[27] and 3.8 (2012 Census).[7]

Physicians density

0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density

1.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

15.7% (2005)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight

10.1% (2011)

Education expenditures

2.5% GDP (2011)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 90.7% (2003 est.), 85% (2000 est.)
male: 94.2% (2003 est.), 90% (2000 est.)
female: 87.2% (2003 est.), 80% (1995 est.)

Nationality

  • noun: Zimbabwean(s)
  • adjective: Zimbabwean

See also

Zimbabwe

References

  1. ^ Statesman's Yearbook 2007, Palgrave Macmillan, New York
  2. ^ CIA Factbook 2007, CIA Publications, Washington D.C.
  3. ^ Article from The Independent
  4. ^ a b Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  5. ^ http://microdata.worldbank.org/catalog/1421
  6. ^ http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR251/OD43.pdf
  7. ^ a b c http://www.zimstat.co.zw/dmdocuments/Census/CensusResults2012/National_Report.pdf
  8. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/11/02/zimbabwe-only-white-minster-says-insults-against-whites-continue-at-top/
  9. ^ http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3df4becc1c.html
  10. ^ http://www.newzimbabwe.com/pages/nitelife18.16206.html
  11. ^ a b Raeburn, Michael. We are everywhere: Narratives from Rhodesian guerillas. pp. 1–209. 
  12. ^ http://www.indexmundi.com/zimbabwe/population_growth_rate.html
  13. ^ a b c d Nelson, Harold. Zimbabwe: A Country Study. pp. 80–137. 
  14. ^ "The People of Zimbabwe". Retrieved 2007-11-13. 
  15. ^ Famighetti, Robert. The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1996. p. 837. 
  16. ^ http://www.postcolonialweb.org/zimbabwe/politics/losers.html
  17. ^ The following languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda and Xhosa, are the officially recognised languages of Zimbabwe. (CONSTITUTION OF ZIMBABWE (final draft)).
  18. ^ ,.Zimbabwe GAP Adventures
  19. ^ Mother Tongue: Interviews with Musaemura B. Zimunya and Solomon Mutswairo University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
  20. ^ "MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2007-11-13. 
  21. ^ The ObserverRefugees flood from Zimbabwe
  22. ^ Sokwanele Civic Action GroupZimbabwean refugees suffer in Botswana and South Africa
  23. ^ Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), Internal displacement in Zimbabwe
  24. ^ The World Health Organization. "Annex Table 1 - Basic indicators for all Member States". The World Health Report 2006 (PDF). 
  25. ^ Peta Thornycroft (2006-04-10). "In Zimbabwe, life ends before 40". Harare:  
  26. ^ http://www.zimstat.co.zw/dmdocuments/Census/Census.pdf
  27. ^ http://www.zimstat.co.zw/dmdocuments/Census/ZDHSOLD/ZDHS2006.pdf

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2007 edition".

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