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Crown prince

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Title: Crown prince  
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Subject: Thailand, Miangul Aurangzeb, Salman of Saudi Arabia, Emperor Xuānzong of Tang, In the news/Candidates/October 2011
Collection: Heirs to the Throne, Kings, Noble Titles, Princes, Royal Titles
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Crown prince

Throngs before the Imperial Palace in Japan awaiting the appearance of the Crown Prince Hirohito for the recent proclamation of his official recognition as the heir apparent to the Japanese Imperial Throne -- New York Times, 1916.

A crown prince or crown princess is the heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. The wife of a crown prince is also titled crown princess.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Christian/Western traditional titles 2
  • Crown prince in Arabian Peninsula 3
  • Other specific traditions 4
  • See also 5
  • Sources and references 6

Description

The term is now borne as a title mainly in Asia, Scandinavia, and the Middle East; but it may also be used generically to refer to the person or position of the heir apparent in other kingdoms. However, heirs apparent to non-imperial and non-royal monarchies (i.e., wherein the hereditary sovereign holds a title below that of king/queen, e.g., grand duke or prince), crown prince is not used as a title, although it is sometimes used as a synonym for heir apparent.

In Europe, where Prince Sigvard, Duke of Uppland, was Gustaf VI Adolf's eldest living son, and Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland, his eldest living dynastic son during those years).

In some monarchies, those of the Middle East for example, in which primogeniture is not the decisive factor in dynastic succession, a person may not possess the title or status of crown prince by right of birth, but may obtain (and lose) it as a result of an official designation made on some other legal or traditional basis, e.g., former Crown Prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan.

Compare heir apparent and heir presumptive. In Scandinavian kingdoms, the heir presumptive to the crown holds a different title than the heir apparent; Hereditary Prince (German: Erbprinz, French: prince héréditaire). That is also the title borne by the heirs apparent of Luxembourg and Liechtenstein, and by the heir apparent or presumptive of Monaco. In the Germanic monarchies abolished in 1918, hereditary prince, rather than crown prince, was also the title borne by the heirs apparent of the kingdoms of Bavaria, Hanover, Saxony and Württemberg, as well as those of grand duchies, of sovereign duchies and principalities, and of mediatized princely families.

Christian/Western traditional titles

Many monarchies use or did use unique titles for their heirs apparent, often of historical origin:

Some monarchies have used (although not always de jure) a territorial title for heirs apparent which, though often perceived as a crown princely title, is not automatically hereditary. It generally requires a specific conferral by the sovereign, which may be withheld.

Current and past titles in this category include:

Crown prince in Arabian Peninsula

Other specific traditions

Egypt, Prince of the Sa'id, meaning Prince of Upper Egypt

Persia (Iran), Pahlavi dynasty and Qajar dynasty, the full style was Vala Hazrat-i-Humayun Vali Ahd, Shahzada (given name), (in Persian: والاحضرت همایون ولایتعهد) i.e. His August Imperial Highness the Heir Apparent, Prince ...;

  • the above component vali ahd (or Velayat Ahd) meaning 'successor by virtue of a covenant' (or various forms and etymological derivations) was adopted by many oriental monarchies, even some non-Muslim, e.g. Walet as alternative title for the Nepali (Hindu) royal heir apparent; first used Crown Prince Trailokya in the middle of the nineteenth century, taken from the Mughal title 'Vali Ahd'

Hindu tradition (Indian subcontinent):

  • Yuvaraja was part of the full title in many princely states of India, e.g.
    • in Jammu & Kashmir, the heir apparent was styled Maharaj Kumar Shri Yuvaraj (personal name) Singhji Bahadur
  • Tika
  • Nepal, where the King was styled Maharajadhiraja:
    • the heir apparent was styled: Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Yuvarajadhiraj ('Young King of Kings', i.e. Crown Prince) (personal name) Bir Bikram Shah Deva;
    • the eldest son of the heir apparent was styled: Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Nava Yuvaraj ('Young Crown Prince') (personal name) Bir Bikram Shah Deva

East Asian traditions:

  • The cognates of Chinese Huang Taizi (皇太子, "Great Imperial Son")
Japanese Kōtaishi (lit. Crowned Prince)"Crowned Princess" refers to one(who married the Crowned Prince): 皇太子妃 (こうたいし ひ) kotaishihi.

, Korean Hwangtaeja (황태자) , Vietnamese Hoàng Thái Tử -- if a son of the reigning emperor. In case the heir is a grandson, the title Huang Taisun (皇太孫),

Kōtaison,
Hwangtaeson (황태손), and Hoàng Thái Tôn, literally "Great Imperial Grandson", are used
  • During the Joseon Dynasty in Korea, the crown prince was referred as Dong-gung(동궁, 東宮) due to the location of his residence from the main palace; or wangseja (王世子 왕세자). He was not necessarily the first-born son, wonja (元子 원자).

Southeast Asian traditions:

Equivalents in other cultures:

See also

Sources and references

  • RoyalArk- see each present country
  • Heraldica.org- here napoleonic section
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