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Close-mid front unrounded vowel

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Title: Close-mid front unrounded vowel  
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Close-mid front unrounded vowel

Close-mid front unrounded vowel
e
IPA number 302
Encoding
Entity (decimal) e
Unicode (hex) U+0065
X-SAMPA e
Kirshenbaum e
Braille ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Sound
 ·

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is e.

The IPA prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of this article follows this preference. However, a large number of linguists prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
ʊ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ø̞
əɵ̞
ɤ̞
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
äɒ̈
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

 •  • chart •  chart with audio •

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[1] meter [ˈmëˑtɐr] 'meter' Near-front. Allophone of /eə/ in less stressed words and in stressed syllables of polysyllabic words. In the latter case, it is in free variation with the diphthongal realization [ëə̯ ~ ë̯ə ~ ëə].[1] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic Egyptian ليه [leː] 'why' See Egyptian Arabic phonology
Gulf ليش [leːʃ] See Arabic phonology
Levantine
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic h [heː] 'yes' Prominent in the Urmia, Nochiya and Jilu dialects. Can be closer to [i] for some speakers. Lowered to [] in other varieties.
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2]
Catalan[3] séc [s̠ek] 'fold' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese /bei6 [pei˨˨] 'nose' See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin /fēi [feɪ̯˥] 'to fly' See Standard Chinese phonology
Wu /ge [ɡe˩˧] 'lean'
Danish Standard[4][5][6][7][8] hæl [ˈheːˀl] 'heel' Also described as open-mid ɛ[9] - the way it is most often transcribed. It is mid [] in the conservative variety.[10] See Danish phonology
Dutch Belgian[11] vreemd [vreːmt] 'strange' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [eɪ]. See Dutch phonology
Northeastern
Standard
Netherlandic
English Australian[12] bed [bed] 'bed' See Australian English phonology
General Indian[13] play [pl̥e(ː)] 'play'
General Pakistani[14] Can be a diphthong [eɪ] instead, depending on speaker.
Multicultural London[15]
Scottish[16]
Singaporean[17]
Tyneside[18]
Ulster[19] Pronounced [ɛː~iə] in Belfast.
Cardiff[20] kit [ke̠t] 'kit' Near-front;[20] corresponds to /ɪ/ in other dialects.
Faroese eg [eː] 'I'
French[21] beauté [bot̪e] 'beauty' See French phonology
Galician tres [t̪ɾes] 'three'
[22] მეფ [mɛpʰej] 'king'
German Standard[23] Seele     'soul' See German phonology
Hindustani दे / دے [d̪eː] 'give!' See Hindustani phonology
Icelandic[24][25][26] vinur [ˈveːnөr] 'friend' Most often transcribed /ɪ/. See Icelandic phonology
Italian[27] stelle [ˈs̪t̪elle] 'stars' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[28] [ˈkɾe] 'thigh'
Korean 베다/beda [ˈpeːda] 'to cut' See Korean phonology
Limburgish Most dialects[29][30][31] leef [leːf] 'dear' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Rural Weerts[32] beek [beːk] 'stream' Corresponds to /iə/ in the city dialect. The vowel transcribed /eː/ in the city dialect is actually a centering diphthong /eə/.[33]
Luxembourgish[34] drécken [ˈdʀekən] 'to push' Allophone of /e/ before velar consonants; in free variation with [ɛ].
Malay bebek [bebeʔ] 'duck' See Malay phonology
North Frisian ween [ʋeːn] 'blue'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[35] le [l̪eː] 'laugh' Often diphthongized to [eə̯]. See Norwegian phonology
Polish[36] dzień     'day' Allophone of /ɛ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[37] mesa [ˈmezɐ] 'table' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਸੇਬ [seːb] 'apple'
Romanian Muntenian dialects[38] vezi [vezi] 'eyelash' Corresponds to mid [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[39] шея     'neck' Occurs only before soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[40] Allophone of /a/.[40]
Slovak Dialects spoken near the river Ipeľ[41] dcéra [ˈt͡seːrä] 'daughter' Most commonly realized as mid [e̞ː] in standard Slovak.[42] See Slovak phonology
Standard[43]
Swedish se     'see' See Swedish phonology
Vietnamese tê [te] 'numb' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian skeel [skeːɫ] 'cross-eyed'
Yoruba[44]
Zapotec Tilquiapan[45] Occurs mostly after [i], otherwise the vowel is central [ɘ].

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Lass (1987), p. 119.
  2. ^ Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
  4. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  5. ^ Grønnum (2005:268)
  6. ^ Grønnum (2003)
  7. ^ Basbøll (2005:45)
  8. ^ "John Wells's phonetic blog: Danish". 5 November 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2015. 
  9. ^ Allan, Holmes & Lundskær-Nielsen (2000:17)
  10. ^ Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  11. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  12. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  13. ^ Wells (1982:626)
  14. ^ Mahboob & Ahmar (2004:1010)
  15. ^ Gimson (2014:91)
  16. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  17. ^ Deterding (2000:?)
  18. ^ Watt & Allen (2003:268–269)
  19. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). 
  20. ^ a b Coupland (1990:93)
  21. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  22. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:261–262)
  23. ^ Kohler (1999:87), Mangold (2005:37)
  24. ^ Árnason (2011:60)
  25. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  26. ^ Haugen (1958:65)
  27. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:119)
  28. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  29. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  30. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  31. ^ Verhoeven (2007:221)
  32. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107)
  33. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107, 109)
  34. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  35. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  36. ^ Jassem (2003:106)
  37. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  38. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  39. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:44)
  40. ^ a b Fast Mowitz (1975:2)
  41. ^ Kráľ (1988:92)
  42. ^ Pavlík (2004:93)
  43. ^ Pavlík (2004:95)
  44. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969:166)
  45. ^ Merrill (2008:109–10)

Bibliography

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  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press,  
  • Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1966), A Grammar of Yoruba, [West African Languages Survey / Institute of African Studies], Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  •  
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56,  
  • Coupland, Nikolas (1990), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, p. 93,  
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94,  
  • Deterding, David (2000), "Measurements of the /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ vowels of young English speakers in Singapore", in Brown, Adam; Deterding, David; Low, Ee Ling, The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 93–99 
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  • Fast Mowitz, Gerhard (1975), Sistema fonológico del idioma achual, Lima: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano 
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  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74,  
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  •  
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  • Mahboob, Ahmar; Ahmar, Nadra H. (2004), "Pakistani English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W., A handbook of varieties of English 1, Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1003–1015 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden,  
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