World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Casino Royale (2006 film)

Article Id: WHEBN0000930379
Reproduction Date:

Title: Casino Royale (2006 film)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 60th British Academy Film Awards, KRS Film Distributors, 12th Empire Awards, Daniel Craig, Chris Cornell
Collection: 2000S Action Thriller Films, 2000S Spy Films, 2006 Films, American Action Thriller Films, American Films, Best Film Empire Award Winners, British Films, Casino Royale (2006 Film), Columbia Pictures Films, Czech Action Films, Czech Films, English-Language Films, Film Scores by David Arnold, Films About Terrorism, Films Based on British Novels, Films Directed by Martin Campbell, Films Produced by Barbara Broccoli, Films Produced by Michael G. Wilson, Films Set in Italy, Films Set in London, Films Set in Madagascar, Films Set in Miami, Florida, Films Set in Montenegro, Films Set in Prague, Films Set in the Bahamas, Films Set in Uganda, Films Set in Venice, Films Shot in Italy, Films Shot in London, Films Shot in the Bahamas, Films Shot in the Czech Republic, Films Shot in Venice, Gambling Films, German Action Films, German Films, German Thriller Films, James Bond Films, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Films, Parkour in Film, Pinewood Studios Films, Reboot Films, Screenplays by Paul Haggis, Terrorism in Fiction, Trading Films
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Casino Royale (2006 film)

Casino Royale
A man in a business suit with a loose tie holding a gun. Behind him is a silhouette of a woman showing a building with a sign reading
British cinema poster for Casino Royale, designed by Empire Design
Directed by Martin Campbell
Produced by
Screenplay by
Based on Casino Royale 
by Ian Fleming
Music by David Arnold
Cinematography Phil Meheux
Edited by Stuart Baird
Distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Columbia Pictures
Release dates
  • 14 November 2006 (2006-11-14) (London, premiere)
Running time
144 minutes
Country United Kingdom
United States
Czech Republic
Language English
Budget $150 million
Box office $599 million[2]

Casino Royale (2006) is the twenty-first film in the Eon Productions James Bond film series and the first to star Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. Directed by Martin Campbell and written by Neal Purvis, Robert Wade and Paul Haggis, the film marks the third screen adaptation of Ian Fleming's 1953 novel of the same name. Casino Royale is set at the beginning of Bond's career as Agent 007, just as he is earning his licence to kill. After preventing a terrorist attack at Miami International Airport, Bond falls in love with Vesper Lynd, the treasury employee assigned to provide the money he needs to bankrupt a terrorist financier, Le Chiffre, by beating him in a high-stakes poker game. The story arc continues in the following Bond film, Quantum of Solace (2008), with implicit and explicit references to characters and events in Skyfall (2012) and Spectre (2015).

Casino Royale reboots the series, establishing a new timeline and narrative framework not meant to precede or succeed any previous Bond film,[3][4] which allows the film to show a less experienced and more vulnerable Bond.[5] Additionally, the character Miss Moneypenny is, for the first time in the series, completely absent.[6] Casting the film involved a widespread search for a new actor to portray James Bond, and significant controversy surrounded Craig when he was selected to succeed Pierce Brosnan in October 2005. Location filming took place in the Czech Republic, the Bahamas, Italy and the United Kingdom with interior sets built at Pinewood Studios. Although part of the storyline is set in Montenegro, no filming took place there. Casino Royale was produced by Eon Productions for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures, making it the first Eon-produced Bond film to be co-produced by the latter studio.

Casino Royale premiered at the Odeon Leicester Square on 14 November 2006. It received largely positive critical response, with reviewers highlighting Craig's performance and the film's departure from the tropes of previous Bond films. It earned over $599 million worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing James Bond film until the release of Skyfall in 2012.


  • Plot 1
  • Cast 2
  • Production 3
    • Casting 3.1
    • Filming 3.2
    • Effects 3.3
    • Music 3.4
  • Release 4
    • Box office 4.1
    • Home media 4.2
    • Cuts and censorship 4.3
  • Reception 5
    • Critical response 5.1
    • Top ten lists 5.2
    • Accolades 5.3
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8


After killing Dryden, a traitorous Solange Dimitrios. After answering a phone call, Solange reveals that her husband is flying to Miami, so Bond leaves to pursue him. In Miami, 007 kills Dimitrios and follows his henchman, Carlos, to Miami International Airport. There, Bond foils Le Chiffre's plan to destroy the prototype Skyfleet airliner by stopping the fuel truck Carlos was planning to crash into the aeroplane and then attaches the remote detonator, which was going to be used to blow up the truck, to the unwitting Carlos killing him instantly. Left with a huge loss and under pressure to recoup his terrorist clients' money, Le Chiffre sets up a high-stakes Texas hold 'em tournament at the Casino Royale in Montenegro. Hoping that a defeat would force Le Chiffre to aid the British government in exchange for protection from his creditors, MI6 enters Bond into the tournament. On the train to Montenegro, Bond meets Vesper Lynd, a British Treasury agent whose role is to protect the government's interests, specifically the $10 million buy-in.

In Montenegro, Bond meets a local MI6 contact, René Mathis, who manages to have both the crooked Chief of Police and Le Chiffre's lieutenant arrested, placing more pressure on Le Chiffre. In the tournament, Bond loses his initial stake on a misplayed hand, and Vesper refuses to give him $5 million to continue playing. Frustrated by his failure, Bond resolves to assassinate Le Chiffre. Before he can, a fellow player, Felix Leiter, reveals himself as a CIA agent. Leiter offers to stake Bond in exchange for custody of Le Chiffre.

Back in the game, Bond rapidly re-establishes his stack. Le Chiffre attempts to have Bond killed by having his girlfriend Valenka poison Bond's drink. In an attempt to stop the poison, Bond uses a defibrillator in his Aston Martin to combat the poison but he begins to pass out in the process or doing so. He manages to survive, however, with the help of Vesper who attaches the machine to Bond which restarts his heart. After returning from his Aston Martin, Bond wins the tournament, and the winnings are deposited into a Swiss bank account. Soon afterward, Le Chiffre's henchmen abduct Vesper and use her as bait to capture Bond. Le Chiffre tortures Bond for the bank account's password, but he is interrupted by Mr White, who kills Le Chiffre for being untrustworthy. Bond awakens in a hospital on Lake Como and has Mathis, whom Le Chiffre falsely identified as a double agent, arrested. Bond admits to Vesper that he is in love with her, and posts his resignation to M.

The couple travel to


  • Daniel Craig as James Bond: A British MI6 officer who, after being assigned 00-status, is sent on a mission to arrest a bomb-maker in Madagascar, where he stumbles upon Le Chiffre's terrorist cell and is then sent to defeat him in a high-stakes poker game at Casino Royale.
  • Eva Green as Vesper Lynd: An agent for HM Treasury assigned to supervise Bond and finance him in a high-stakes poker game.
  • Mads Mikkelsen as Le Chiffre: A banker who services many of the world's terrorists. He is a mathematical genius and expert chess player and uses these skills when playing poker.
  • Judi Dench as M: The head of MI6. Although she feels she has promoted Bond too soon and chides him for his rash actions, she acts as an important maternal figure in his life. Dench was the only cast member carried through from the Pierce Brosnan films.
  • Jeffrey Wright as Felix Leiter: A CIA operative participating in the poker tournament while assisting Bond. This is the first Eon-produced Bond film in which Leiter is played by a black actor. (The only other black actor to portray Leiter was Bernie Casey in Never Say Never Again, which was not produced by Eon.)
  • Giancarlo Giannini as René Mathis: Bond's contact in Montenegro.
  • Simon Abkarian as Alex Dimitrios: Another contractor in the international terrorist underworld and associate of Le Chiffre, based in the Bahamas.
  • Caterina Murino as Solange Dimitrios: Dimitrios' wife, whom Bond seduces, causing her unintentionally to reveal one of his plans. After Bond kills Dimitrios, she is found tortured and killed.
  • Ivana Miličević as Valenka: Le Chiffre's girlfriend and henchwoman, who accompanies him to the poker game.
  • Isaac de Bankolé as Steven Obanno: A leader of the Lord's Resistance Army, introduced to Le Chiffre by Mr. White to account his finances.
  • Jesper Christensen as Mr. White: A liaison for an unnamed criminal organisation.
  • Sébastien Foucan as Mollaka: A bomb-maker pursued by Bond through a construction site in Madagascar.
  • Tsai Chin as Madame Wu: A professional veteran poker player. Chin portrayed Ling, a Bond girl in You Only Live Twice.
  • Tobias Menzies as Villiers: M's young secretary at MI6 Headquarters. The character's last name, which is a reference to James Villiers, who portrayed Bill Tanner in For Your Eyes Only or the character of Amherst Villiers in the original novel.[7]
  • Ludger Pistor as Mendel: A Swiss banker responsible for all monetary transactions during and after the poker tournament.
  • Claudio Santamaria as Carlos: A terrorist employed by Le Chiffre to blow up an aircraft.
  • Richard Sammel as Gettler: An assassin who works for an unnamed criminal organisation and contacts Vesper in Venice.
  • Clemens Schick as Kratt: Le Chiffre's bodyguard, who often accompanies his boss wherever he travels.
  • Joseph Millson as Carter: An MI6 agent who accompanies Bond in Madagascar.
  • Ben Cooke as Williams: An MI6 agent who debriefs Bond in London.
  • Malcolm Sinclair as Dryden: A corrupt MI6 Section Chief, and Bond's second official target.
  • Darwin Shaw as Fisher: Dryden's underground contact. M sends Bond to kill him, his first official target. Bond tracks him down (in Lahore, Pakistan in deleted scenes), nearly drowns him, and then shoots him dead.
  • Veruschka as Gräfin von Wallenstein: a countess participating in the poker tournament.
  • Alessandra Ambrosio as Tennis Girl.
  • Diane Hartford as Card Player.

Casino Royale includes a cameo by British entrepreneur Richard Branson (seen being frisked at Miami International Airport). The cameo was cut out of the in-flight versions shown on British Airways' in-flight entertainment systems, as was a shot of the Virgin Atlantic aircraft Branson supplied.[8]


Casino Royale was previously produced as a 1954 television episode and a 1967 satirical film. Eon Productions gained the rights for Casino Royale in 1999 after Sony Pictures Entertainment exchanged them for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's rights to Spider-Man.[9] In March 2004, Neal Purvis and Robert Wade began writing a screenplay for Pierce Brosnan as Bond, aiming to bring back the flavour of Ian Fleming's original Bond novels.[10] Paul Haggis' main contribution was to rewrite the climax of the film. He explained, "the draft that was there was very faithful to the book and there was a confession, so in the original draft the character confessed and killed herself. She then sent Bond to chase after the villains; Bond chased the villains into the house. I don't know why but I thought that Vesper had to be in the sinking house and Bond has to want to kill her and then try and save her."[11]

Director Quentin Tarantino expressed interest in directing an adaptation of Casino Royale,[12] although he did not follow this up with Eon. He claims to have worked behind the scenes with the Fleming family, and believed this was the reason why filmmakers finally went ahead with Casino Royale.[13] Tarantino also said, he would have set it in the 1950s, like the novel, would have filmed it in black-and-white and would have only made it with Pierce Brosnan as Bond. In February 2005, Martin Campbell was announced as the film's director.[14] Later in 2005, Sony led a consortium that purchased MGM, allowing Sony to gain distribution rights starting with the film.[15]

Eon believed that they had relied too heavily on CGI effects in the more recent films, particularly Die Another Day, and were keen to accomplish the stunts in Casino Royale "the old fashioned way".[16] In keeping with this drive for more realism, screenwriters Purvis, Wade and Haggis wanted the script to follow as closely as possible to the original 1953 novel, keeping Fleming's darker storyline and characterisation of Bond.[17]


Pierce Brosnan had originally signed a deal for four films when he was cast in the role of James Bond. This was fulfilled with the production of Die Another Day in 2002. At this stage Brosnan was approaching his 50th birthday. Brosnan kept in mind that fans and critics were not happy with Roger Moore playing Bond until he was 58 and speculation began that the producers were seeking to replace Brosnan with a younger actor.[18] Brosnan officially announced he was stepping down in February 2004. At one point producer Michael G. Wilson claimed there was a list of over 200 names being considered for his replacement.[19] Croatian actor Goran Višnjić auditioned for the role the same day as Craig, but was reportedly unable to master a British accent.[20] New Zealander Karl Urban was considered, but was unable to make the screen test due to filming commitments.[21] According to Martin Campbell, Henry Cavill was the only actor in serious contention for the role, but at 22 years old, was considered too young.[22] Sam Worthington and Dougray Scott were also considered.[23]

In May 2005 Daniel Craig announced that MGM and producers Michael G. Wilson and Barbara Broccoli had assured him that he would get the role of Bond, and Matthew Vaughn told reporters that MGM offered him the opportunity to direct, but Eon Productions at that point had not approached either of them.[24] A year beforehand, Craig rejected the offer, as he felt the series had descended into formula: only when he read the script did he become interested. Craig read all of Fleming's novels to prepare for the part, and cited Mossad and British Secret Service agents who served as advisors on the set of Munich as inspiring because, "Bond has just come out of the service and he's a killer. [...] You can see it in their eyes, you know immediately: oh, hello, he's a killer. There's a look. These guys walk into a room and very subtly they check the perimeters for an exit. That's the sort of thing I wanted."[25]

On 14 October 2005 Eon Productions, Sony Pictures Entertainment and MGM announced at a press conference in London that Craig would be the sixth actor to portray James Bond. A tuxedo-clad Craig boarded a Royal Marines Rigid Raider from HMS Belfast before travelling to HMS President where he was introduced to the world's press.[26][27] Significant controversy followed the decision, with some critics and fans expressing doubt the producers had made the right choice. Throughout the entire production period, Internet campaigns such as "" expressed their dissatisfaction and threatened to boycott the film in protest.[28] Craig, unlike previous actors, was not considered by the protesters to fit the tall, dark, handsome and charismatic image of Bond to which viewers had been accustomed.[29] The Daily Mirror ran a front page news story critical of Craig, with the headline, The Name's Bland – James Bland.[30]

The next important casting was that of the lead Bond girl, Vesper Lynd. Casting director Debbie McWilliams acknowledged that Hollywood actresses Angelina Jolie and Charlize Theron were "strongly considered" for the role and that Belgian actress Cécile de France had also auditioned, but her English accent "wasn't up to scratch."[31] Audrey Tautou was also considered, but not chosen because of her role in The Da Vinci Code, which was released in May 2006.[32] It was announced on 16 February 2006 that Eva Green would play the part.[33]


A man wearing a grey shirt, jeans and sunglasses sits on a boat at sea. Besides him, a man wearing a black shirt, red cap and sunglasses talks to another which is mostly off the picture.
Craig in Venice during filming.

Principal photography for Casino Royale commenced on 3 January 2006 and concluded on 20 July 2006. The film was primarily shot at Barrandov Studios in Prague, with additional location shooting in the Bahamas, Italy and the United Kingdom. The shoot concluded at Pinewood Studios.[34]

Initially, Michael G. Wilson confirmed that Casino Royale would either be filmed or take place in Prague and South Africa. However, Eon Productions encountered problems in securing film locations in South Africa.[35] After no other locations became available, the producers had to reconsider their options. In September 2005, Martin Campbell and director of photography Phil Meheux were scouting Paradise Island in the Bahamas as a possible location for the film.[36] On 6 October 2005, Martin Campbell confirmed that Casino Royale would film in the Bahamas and "maybe Italy". In addition to the extensive location filming, studio work including choreography and stunt coordination practice was performed at the Barrandov Studios in Prague and at Pinewood Studios where the film used several stages as well as the paddock tank and the 007 Stage. Further shooting in the UK was scheduled for Dunsfold Aerodrome in Surrey, the cricket pavilion at Eton College (although that particular scene was cut from the completed movie) and the Millbrook Vehicle Proving Ground in Bedfordshire.[29]

The Grandhotel Pupp, Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic.

After Prague, the production moved to the Bahamas. Several locations around New Providence were used for filming during February and March, particularly on Paradise Island. Footage set in Mbale, Uganda, was filmed at Black Park, a Country Park in Buckinghamshire, on 4 July 2006. Additional scenes took place at Albany House, an estate owned by golfers Ernie Els and Tiger Woods.[37] The crew returned to the Czech Republic in April, and continued there, filming in Prague, Planá and Loket, before completing in the town of Karlovy Vary in May. A famous Czech spa, Karlovy Vary [38] was used as the exterior of the Casino Royale, with the Grandhotel Pupp serving as "Hotel Splendide".[39] The main Italian location was Venice, where the majority of the film's ending is set. Other scenes in the latter half of the film were shot in late May and early June at the Villa del Balbianello on the shores of Lake Como.[40] Further exterior shooting for the movie took place at properties such as the Villa la Gaeta, near the lakeside town of Menaggio.[29]

A recreation of the Body Worlds exhibit provided a setting for one scene in the film. Among the Body Worlds plastinates featured in that scene were the Poker Playing Trio (which plays a key role in one scene) and Rearing Horse and Rider. The exhibition's developer and promoter, German anatomist Gunther von Hagens, also has a cameo appearance in the film,[41] although only his trademark hat is actually visible on screen.


In designing the credit sequence for the film, the graphic designer Daniel Kleinman was inspired by the cover of the 1953 British first edition of Casino Royale, which featured Ian Fleming's original design of a playing card bordered by eight red hearts dripping with blood. Kleinman said, "The hearts not only represent cards but the tribulations of Bond's love story. So I took that as inspiration to use playing card graphics in different ways in the titles," like a club representing a puff of gun smoke, and slashed arteries spurting thousands of tiny hearts.[42] In creating the shadow images of the sequence, Kleinman digitised the footage of Craig and the film's stuntmen on the Inferno visual effects system, at Framestore CFC in London; the actors' silhouettes were incorporated into more than 20 digitally animated scenes depicting intricate and innovative card patterns. Kleinman decided not to use the female silhouettes commonly seen throughout the Bond title sequences, considering that the women did not fit with both the film's spirit and the storyline following Bond falling in love.[43]

For the rest of the film, Chris Corbould, the special effects and miniature effects supervisor, returned to a more realistic style of film making and significantly reduced digital effects. According to Corbould, "CGI is a great tool and can be very useful, but I will fight to the tooth and nail to do something for real. It's the best way to go".[34] Three scenes involving primarily physical effects in the film were the chase at a building site in Madagascar, the Miami Airport chase sequence, and the sinking Venetian house, with sets located on the Grand Canal and in Pinewood Studios.[34]

First on the schedule were the scenes on the Madagascar building site, shot in the Bahamas on the site of a derelict hotel which Michael G. Wilson had become acquainted with in 1977 during the filming of The Spy Who Loved Me.[34] In the scene, Bond drives a digger toward the building, slamming into the concrete plinth on which Mollaka is running. The stunt team built a model and put forward several ways in which the digger could conceivably take out the concrete, including taking out the pillar underneath. A section of the concrete wall was removed to fit the digger, and reinforced with steel.[34]

The sequence at Miami International Airport was partly shot at the Dunsfold Aerodrome, in Surrey, which is known from British car show Top Gear, with some footage from the Prague and Miami airports.[34] In filming the scene in which the engine thrust of the moving aircraft blows the police car high into the air, second unit directors Ian Lowe, Terry Madden and Alex Witt used a crane with a strong lead cable attached to the rear bumper of the vehicle to move it up and backwards at the moment of full extension away from the plane.[34]

The Skyfleet S570 aircraft in the film was an ex-British Airways 747-200B G-BDXJ which had its engines removed and was modified for its appearance in the film. The modified aircraft had the outboard engines replaced by external fuel tanks, while the inboard engines were replaced by a mock-up pair of engines on each inboard pylon. The cockpit profile was altered to make the 747 look like a prototype of an advanced airliner.[44] The plane used can be seen on the BBC motoring programme Top Gear on the Test Track.

The sinking of the Venetian house at the climax of the film featured the largest rig ever built for a Bond film.[34] For the scene involving Bond following Vesper into the house undergoing renovation supported by inflatable balloons, a tank was constructed at the 007 stage at Pinewood, consisting of a Venetian piazza and the interior of the three-story dilapidated house. The rig, weighing some 90 tons, incorporated electronics with hydraulic valves which were closely controlled by computer because of the dynamic movement within the system on its two axes. The same computer system also controlled the exterior model which the effects team built to one-third scale to film the building eventually collapsing into the Venetian canal. The model elevator within the rig could be immersed in 19 feet (5.8 m) of water, and used banks of compressors to strictly regulate movement.[34]

At the time of filming, Aston Martin were still in the final phases of designing the DBS. The scene involving the car crash was devised using an Aston Martin DB9 that was especially modified to look like Bond's Aston Martin DBS V12 and reinforced to withstand the impact. Due to the low centre of gravity of the vehicle, an 18-inch (450 mm) ramp had to be implemented on the road tarmac at Millbrook Proving Grounds and Adam Kirley, the stunt driver who performed the stunt, had to use an air cannon located behind the driver's seat to propel the car into a roll at the precise moment of impact. At a speed exceeding 70 mph (113 km/h), the car rotated seven times while being filmed, and was confirmed by the Guinness Book of Records on 5 November 2006 as a new world record.[34]


The soundtrack of Casino Royale, released by Sony Classical on 14 November 2006, featured music composed by veteran composer David Arnold, his fourth soundtrack for the Bond film series, while Nicholas Dodd orchestrated and conducted the score. Producers Michael G. Wilson and Barbara Broccoli announced on 26 July 2006 that Chris Cornell, then-former lead singer of Soundgarden and former lead singer of Audioslave, composed and performed the title song, "You Know My Name".[45] The song's main notes are played throughout the film as a substitute for the James Bond theme, to represent Bond's youth and inexperience. The classic theme only plays during the end credits to signal the climax of his character arc.[46]


Casino Royale premiered at the Odeon Leicester Square, the Odeon West End and the Empire simultaneously in London on 14 November 2006. It marked the 60th Royal Film Performance and benefited the Cinema & Television Benevolent Fund (CTBF), whose patron, Queen Elizabeth II, was in attendance with the Duke of Edinburgh. It is the third James Bond premiere that the Queen attended following You Only Live Twice and Die Another Day.[47] Along with the cast and crew, numerous celebrities and 5,000 paying guests were also in attendance with half the proceeds benefiting the CTBF.[48]

Only two days following the premiere, pirated copies appeared for sale in London. "The rapid appearance of this film on the streets shows the sophistication and organisation behind film piracy in the UK," said Kieron Sharp, from the Federation Against Copyright Theft.[49] Pirated copies of the DVD were selling for less than £1.57. Craig himself was offered such a DVD while walking anonymously through the streets of Beijing wearing a hat and glasses in order to avoid being identified.[50]

In January 2007, Casino Royale became the first Bond film ever to be shown in mainland Chinese cinemas. The Chinese version was edited before release, with the reference to the Cold War re-dubbed and new dialogue added during the poker scene explaining the process of Texas hold 'em, as the game is less familiar in China (this addition is reminiscent of dialogue that was added to the 1954 American TV adaptation in order to explain the rules of baccarat, the game featured in the original book). Casino Royale earned approximately $11.7 million in China since its opening on 30 January on 468 screens,[51] including a record opening weekend collection for a non-Chinese film, with $1.5 million.[52]

After critics dubbed Die Another Day "Buy Another Day" because of around 20 product placement deals, Eon limited their promotions for Casino Royale. Partners included Ford Motors, Heineken Pilsener (which Eva Green starred in adverts for), Smirnoff, Omega SA, Virgin Atlantic Airways and Sony Ericsson.[53]

Box office

The film has earned $599,045,960 worldwide. Casino Royale was the 4th highest-grossing film of 2006, and was the highest-grossing instalment of the James Bond series until Skyfall surpassed it in November 2012.[2]

Upon its release in the United Kingdom Casino Royale broke series records on both opening day—£1.7 million[54]—and opening weekend—£13,370,969.[55] At the end of its box office run, the film had grossed £55.4 million, making it the most successful film of the year in the UK,[56] and as of 2011, the tenth highest-grossing film of all time in the country.[57]

On its opening day Casino Royale was on top with $14,741,135, and throughout the weekend grossed a total of $40,833,156, placing it second in the ranking behind Happy Feet ($41.5 million).[58] However, Casino Royale was playing in 370 fewer cinemas and had a better average ($11,890 per cinema, against $10,918 for Happy Feet).[59] It earned $167,445,960 by the end of its run in North America,[2] marking what was at the time the highest grossing film of the series, before being surpassed by Quantum of Solace‍ '​s $168.4 million.[60]

On 18 November 2006 Casino Royale opened at the first position in 27 countries, with a weekend gross of $43,407,886 in the non-UK, Irish, US or Canada markets.[61] The film retained the top spot at the worldwide box office for four weeks.[62]

Home media

Casino Royale was simultaneously released on DVD, UMD and Blu-ray Disc on 16 March 2007.[63] In the UK, Casino Royale was released on 16 March 2007 on DVD and Blu-ray Disc.[64] The DVD and Blu-ray Disc releases broke sales records: the Region 1 Blu-ray Disc edition became the highest selling high-definition title to date, selling more than 100,000 copies since its release.[65] The region 2 DVD edition achieved the record of fastest selling title for its first-week release. The UK DVD has continued to sell well, with 1,622,852 copies sold since 19 March.[66] A copy of the Blu-ray Disc edition of Casino Royale was given out to the first 500,000 PAL PlayStation 3 owners who signed up to the PlayStation Network.[67] The DVD release includes the official music video for the film, and three documentaries detailing how Daniel Craig was chosen for the role of Bond, the filming, and an expanded version of the Bond Girls Are Forever documentary incorporating new interviews with Casino Royale cast members.

A three-disc edition of Casino Royale on DVD was released in the United Kingdom on 31 October 2008, coinciding with the cinema release of the sequel, Quantum of Solace (the following week in the United States). As well as features present from the 2007 release, the collector's edition contains an audio commentary, deleted scenes, featurettes and a storyboard-to-film comparison.[68] A two-disc Blu-ray version also followed in late 2008, featuring additional supplementary materials, enhanced interactivity through BD-Live, and the previous version's 5.1 PCM soundtrack was replaced with a similar 5.1 Dolby TrueHD soundtrack.[69]

Cuts and censorship

Casino Royale was censored for its release in Britain, Germany and the United States. In Britain, the film received BBFC 12 rating after omitting some of Le Chiffre's sadism and James Bond's reactions in the torture scene.[70] In the United States, two fight scenes were censored to achieve a PG-13 rating: the fight between Bond and the traitorous MI-6 agent's contact Fisher, and the fight between Bond and Obanno in the stairway at the Casino Royale.[71] The German edit of the film cuts a sequence where the bomb-planter at the airport breaks a man's neck, instead replacing it with an alternate take.[71] The mainland Chinese cut of the film also trims the torture scene and the stairway fight, as well as a shot of Bond cleaning his wound at the hotel and a boat scene. The fully uncensored version can be found on the Australian, Dutch, French, Hong Kong, Japanese, and Scandinavian Blu-ray and DVD releases, and on more recent UK releases (rated 15).


Critical response

Critics responded positively to the film, in particular Craig's performance and credibility. During production this had been subject to debate by the media and the public, as Craig did not appear to fit Ian Fleming's original portrait of the character as tall, dark and suave.[72] The Daily Telegraph compared the quality of Craig's characterisation of Bond to Sean Connery's and praised the script as smartly written, noting how the film departed from the series' conventions. The Times compared Craig's portrayal of the character to that of Timothy Dalton, and praised the action as "edgy",[73] with another reviewer citing in particular the action sequence involving the cranes in Madagascar.[74] Critics Paul Arendt of BBC Films,[75] Kim Newman of Empire[76] and Todd McCarthy of Variety[77] all described Craig as the first actor to truly embody Ian Fleming's James Bond from the original novel: ironic, brutal and cold.

The film was similarly well received in North America. MSNBC gave the movie a perfect 5 star rating.[78] The film was described as taking James Bond "back to his roots", similar to From Russia with Love,[79] where the focus was on character and plot rather than the high-tech gadgets and visual effects that were strongly criticised in Die Another Day.[77] Rotten Tomatoes gave the movie an aggregate rating of 95%, the highest rating for a wide-release of the year. It is the fourth-highest rating for a Bond film on the site behind Goldfinger which received a 96%,[80] From Russia with Love which received a 96%,[81] and Dr. No, with a 98% score.[82] Metacritic gave the movie a Metascore of 81, signifying "Universal Acclaim."[83] Entertainment Weekly named the film as the fifth best of the series,[84] and chose Vesper Lynd as the fourth best Bond girl in the series.[85] Some newspaper columnists and critics were impressed enough by Craig's performance to consider him a viable candidate for an Academy Award nomination.[86][87][88] Roger Ebert gave the film a four out of four star rating, the first for any of the James Bond films he reviewed. Ebert wrote that "Craig makes a superb Bond ... who gives the sense of a hard man, wounded by life and his job, who nevertheless cares about people and right and wrong," and that the film "has the answers to all my complaints about the 45-year-old James Bond series," specifically "why nobody in a Bond movie ever seems to have any real emotions."[89] Time Out New York's Joshua Rothkopf called Craig "the best Bond in the franchise's history," citing the actor's "crisp, hateful, Mamet-worthy snarl ... This is a screwed-up Bond, a rogue Bond, a bounder, a scrapper and, in the movie's astoundingly bleak coda, an openhearted lover."[90]

Vicky Allan of the Sunday Herald noted Bond himself, and not his love interests, was sexually objectified in this film. A moment where he rises from the sea is reminiscent of Ursula Andress in Dr. No; he feels "skewered" by Vesper Lynd's criticism of him; "and though it would be almost unthinkable now have a female character in a mainstream film stripped naked and threatened with genital mutilation, that is exactly what happens to Bond in [the film]." So although the film backed off from past criticism of Bond girls being sex objects, "the once invincible James Bond becomes just another joint at the meat market."[91] This sentiment is shared by the University of Leicester's James Chapman, author of License to Thrill, who also notes Craig's Bond is "not yet the polished article"; he felt his incarnation of Bond is close to Fleming's because he is "humourless," but is also different because "Fleming's Bond did not enjoy killing; Craig's Bond seems almost to relish it."[92] Andrew Sarris of The New York Observer wrote that this particular Bond film is "the very first that I would seriously consider placing on my own yearly 10-best list. Furthermore, I consider Daniel Craig to be the most effective and appealing of the six actors who have played 007, and that includes even Sean Connery."[93]

Roger Moore wrote, "Daniel Craig impressed me so greatly in his debut outing, Casino Royale, by introducing a more gritty, unrefined edge to the character that I thought Sean might just have to move over. Craig's interpretation was like nothing we'd seen on screen before; Jimmy Bond was earning his stripes and making mistakes. It was intriguing to see him being castigated by M, just like a naughty schoolboy would be by his headmaster. The script showed him as a vulnerable, troubled, and flawed character. Quite the opposite to my Bond! Craig was, and is, very much the Bond Ian Fleming had described in the books – a ruthless killing machine. It was a Bond that the public wanted." So impressed was Moore that he chose to buy the DVD.[94] Raymond Benson, the author of nine Bond novels, called Casino Royale "a perfect Bond film."[95]

However, the film met with mixed reactions from other critics. Rob Gonsalves of gave the film a positive review, but commented, "When you strip the 007 films down for action and 'realism,' you lose the soul of those old beloved Bond movies – they might as well be Jason Bourne movies."[96] John Beifuss of The Commercial Appeal said, "Who wants to see Bond learn a lesson about ego, as if he were Greg Brady in his 'Johnny Bravo' phase?"[97] Anthony Lane of The New Yorker criticised the more imperfect and self-aware depiction of the character, saying, "Even James Bond, in other words, wants to be 007."[98]

Though American radio personality Michael Medved gave the film three stars out of four, describing it as "intriguing, audacious and very original ... more believable and less cartoonish, than previous 007 extravaganzas," he commented that the "sometimes sluggish pacing will frustrate some Bond fanatics."[99] Similarly, a reviewer for The Sun praised the film for its darkness and Craig's performance, but felt that "like the novel, it suffers from a lack of sharpness in the plot" and believed that it required additional editing, particularly the finale.[100] Commentators such as Emanuel Levy concurred, feeling the ending was too long, and that the film's terrorist villains lacked depth, although he praised Craig and gave the film a B+ overall.[101] Other reviewers responded negatively, including Tim Adams of The Observer who felt the film came off uncomfortably in an attempt to make the series grittier.[102]

In December 2006, Casino Royale was named the best film of the year by viewers of Film 2006.[103][104] The sequence with Craig sporting swimming trunks topped the sexiest male celebrity poll of The Sun,[105] and in 2009 Del Monte Foods launched an ice lolly moulded to resemble Craig emerging from the sea.[106] In 2008, Entertainment Weekly named it the 19th best film of the past 25 years.[107]

Top ten lists

The film appeared on many critics' top ten lists of the best films of 2006.[108]


At the 2006 British Academy of Film and Television Arts Awards, Casino Royale won the Film Award for Best Sound (Chris Munro, Eddy Joseph, Mike Prestwood Smith, Martin Cantwell, Mark Taylor), and the Orange Rising Star Award, which was won by Eva Green.[109] The film was nominated for eight BAFTA awards, including the Alexander Korda Award for Best British Film of the Year; Best Screenplay (Neal Purvis, Robert Wade, Paul Haggis); the Anthony Asquith Award for Best Film Music (David Arnold); Best Cinematography (Phil Meheux); Best Editing (Stuart Baird); Best Production Design (Peter Lamont, Simon Wakefield); Best Achievement in Special Visual Effects (Steve Begg, Chris Corbould, John Paul Docherty, Ditch Doy); and Best Actor (Daniel Craig). This made Craig the first actor ever to receive a BAFTA nomination for a performance as James Bond.[110] He also received the Evening Standard British Film Award for Best Actor.[111]

Casino Royale won the Excellence in Production Design Award from the Art Directors Guild,[112] and singer Chris Cornell's "You Know My Name" won the International Press Academy Satellite Award for Best Original Song.[113] The film was nominated for five Saturn Awards— Best Action/Adventure/Thriller Film, Best Actor (Daniel Craig), Best Supporting Actress (Eva Green), Best Writing (Purvis, Wade and Haggis) and Best Music (David Arnold).[114] The 2006 Golden Tomato Awards named Casino Royale the Wide Release Film of the Year.[115] Casino Royale was also nominated for, and has won, many other international awards for its screenplay,[116] film editing,[117] visual effects,[118] and production design.[119] At the 2007 Saturn Awards, the film was declared to be the Best Action/Adventure/Thriller film of 2006.[120] Several members of the crew were also recipients of 2007 Taurus World Stunt Awards, including Gary Powell for Best Stunt Coordination and Ben Cooke, Kai Martin, Marvin Stewart-Campbell and Adam Kirley for Best High Work.[121]

See also


  1. ^ "CASINO ROYALE (2006)". Film & TV Database. London:  
  2. ^ a b c "Casino Royale (2006)".  
  3. ^ Robey, Tim (12 January 2011). "Sam Mendes may have problems directing new James Bond movie".  
  4. ^ "IGN: Interview: Campbell on Casino Royale". IGN Entertainment, Inc. 19 October 2005. Retrieved 22 March 2007. 
  5. ^ "New James Bond Proves Worthy of Double-0 Status".  
  6. ^ Reynolds, Simon (8 July 2011). "Naomie Harris confirmed as 'James Bond 23's Miss Moneypenny". Digital Spy. Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ "BA cuts Branson from Bond movie". BBC News. 21 April 2007. Retrieved 23 October 2008. 
  9. ^ Sterngold, James (30 March 1999). "Sony Pictures, in an accord with MGM, drops its plan to produce new James Bond movies". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2007. 
  10. ^ "Purvis & Wade Talk Bond & Jinx".  
  11. ^ Lawson, Mark (4 December 2007). "Paul Haggis". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 7 December 2007. 
  12. ^ "Kill Bill director aims for Bond". BBC News. 16 May 2004. Retrieved 5 March 2007. 
  13. ^ Heath, Chris (June 2007). "Quentin Tarantino Interview".  
  14. ^ Eon Productions (3 February 2005). "James Bond 21 Is Casino Royale".  
  15. ^ "Consortium Led by Sony Corporation of America, Providence Equity Partners, Texas Pacific Group, Comcast Corporation, and DLJ Merchant Banking Partners Enters into Definitive Agreement to Acquire Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer" (Press release). Sony Corporation. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 29 April 2007. 
  16. ^ Alberge, Dayla (14 March 2006). "Fake stunts banished as new Bond keeps it real". The Times (UK). Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  17. ^ Silberg, Jon (December 2006). "High Stakes for 007".  
  18. ^ "Is Brosnan too old to be 007?". Daily Mail (UK). 9 February 2004. Retrieved 5 August 2008. 
  19. ^ "Michael G. Wilson said 200 actors had been considered". BBC. 14 November 2006. Retrieved 4 April 2007. 
  20. ^ "'"Bond race 'entering final stages. BBC News. 29 September 2005. 
  21. ^ "Karl Urban interview at Supanova Sydney". Cumberland Courier. 29 June 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2012. 
  22. ^ Chavez, Kellvin. "Exclusive interview with Martin Campbell on Zorro and Bond". Latino Review. Archived from the original on 18 April 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2007. 
  23. ^ Fleming, Michael (5 November 2008). "Titans War,"Casting begins for . Variety. Retrieved 8 November 2008. 
  24. ^ "Craig, Vaughn on Bond".  
  25. ^ Grant, Richard (11 October 2008). "Daniel Craig: Quantum of Solace". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 11 October 2008. 
  26. ^ "Daniel Craig confirmed as 006th screen Bond". The Guardian (UK). 14 October 2005. Retrieved 15 May 2007. 
  27. ^ "Film of the arrival". Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  28. ^ "Anti-Craig Bond Fans Call for 'Casino Royale' Boycott". Moono. 23 February 2006. Archived from the original on 19 March 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2007. 
  29. ^ a b c La Monica, Paul R. (6 November 2006). "Blond, James Blond". CNN. Retrieved 2 April 2007. 
  30. ^ "The Name's Bland.. James Bland". Daily Mirror (UK). 15 October 2005. Archived from the original on 14 April 2006. Retrieved 27 December 2006. 
  31. ^ "Casino Royale Bond girl candidates".  
  32. ^ "The New Bond Girls!".  
  33. ^ "'"New Bond Girl Will Be 'Very Much an Equal to Bond.  
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j James Bond: For Real (DVD). Special Treats Productions. 2006. 
  35. ^ Cox, John (8 August 2005). "Eon facing South African detour". Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  36. ^ Cox, John (13 September 2005). "Bond bound for Bahamas". Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  37. ^ "James Bond takes over Ernie and Tiger's pad". Ernie Els Official Website. 12 June 2006. Archived from the original on 18 June 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  38. ^ "Casino Royale: filming locations". 19 June 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012. 
  39. ^ "On set report from Casino Royale getaway chase sequence".  
  40. ^ "007 Nel Bel Paese". Il Giorno (Italy). 25 February 2006. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 20 June 2007. 
  41. ^ "Press Information & Media News". Plastinarium. Retrieved 9 August 2010. 
  42. ^ "Credits design".  
  43. ^ "Design / Casino Royale's Title Sequence".  
  44. ^ "Boeing 747 in Casino Royale". 
  45. ^ Elzer, Steve (26 July 2006). "Chris Cornell Has Written and Will Perform the Main Title Song for Casino Royale" (Press release). Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group. Retrieved 26 July 2006. 
  46. ^ Bregt De Lange and Mario Schuurmans. "Interview with David Arnold at the World Soundtrack Awards 2007". Retrieved 16 March 2008. 
  47. ^ Goodway, Nick (18 November 2006). "Daniel Craig makes his 007 debut at premiere of Casino Royale". Daily Mail (UK). Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  48. ^ "Stars out for Bond royal premiere". BBC News. 14 November 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  49. ^ "Studio claims 007 box office coup". BBC News. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 28 February 2007. 
  50. ^ "The name's Qi, Ling Ling Qi".  
  51. ^ "Casino Royale (2006) – International Box Office".  
  52. ^ Dave McNary (31 January 2007). "China shows 007 the love". Variety. Retrieved 20 March 2007. 
  53. ^ Graser, Marc (14 August 2008). "Brands line up for Bond sequel". Variety. Retrieved 15 August 2008. 
  54. ^ "Studio claims 007 box office coup". BBC. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 8 November 2007. 
  55. ^ Hoyle, Ben; Bale, Joanna (20 November 2006). "Goldfinger is back: Craig is the Bond with a Midas touch". The Sunday Times (UK). Retrieved 8 November 2007. 
  56. ^ "Statistical Yearbook 2006/07" (PDF). UK Film Council. p. 24. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 
  57. ^ "all time top 10 films in uk".  
  58. ^ "Casino Royale grosses $40.6 million".  
  59. ^ "Weekend Box Office Results for November 17–19, 2006 – Box Office Mojo".  
  60. ^ "James Bond movies".  
  61. ^ Bresnan, Conor (20 November 2006). "Around the World Roundup: 'Casino' Cashes In".  
  62. ^ Bresnan, Conor (11 December 2006). "Around the World Roundup: 'Casino' Aces Fourth Weekend".  
  63. ^ "Casino Royale (2-Disc Widescreen Edition)". Retrieved 20 June 2007. 
  64. ^ "Casino Royale and more from Sony!". DVD Times. Archived from the original on 16 December 2006. Retrieved 9 December 2006. 
  65. ^ "Casino Royale Blu-ray Reaches Unit Milestone".  
  66. ^ "Bond Breaks Records".  
  67. ^ "Casino Royale Blu-ray for PS3 early adopters".  
  68. ^ "Casino Royale Collectors Edition DVD Preview".  
  69. ^ "Casino Royale Blu-ray Collector's Edition".  
  70. ^ Movie Censorship: Casino Royale Movie Censorship: Casino Royale
  71. ^ a b DVD Compare: Casino Royale DVD Compare: Casino Royale
  72. ^ "The Ingrid Pitt column: Craig is not Bond".  
  73. ^ Brilliant" Bond seduces critics""". BBC News. 4 November 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  74. ^ Wavell, Stuart (5 November 2006). "Potato Head shoots way to 007 triumph". The Sunday Times (UK). Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  75. ^ Arendt, Paul. "Casino Royale (2006)". BBC. Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  76. ^  
  77. ^ a b McCarthy, Todd (9 November 2006). "Casino Royale". Variety. Archived from the original on 28 March 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  78. ^ Hartl, John. Casino Royale" is Prime Bond""". MSNBC. Retrieved 17 November 2006. 
  79. ^ Honeycutt, Kirk (10 October 2006). "Casino Royale".  
  80. ^ "Goldfinger".  
  81. ^ "From Russia With Love".  
  82. ^ "Dr. No".  
  83. ^ "Casino Royale at Metacritic".  
  84. ^ Svetkey, Benjamin; Joshua Rich (24 November 2006). "Ranking the Bond Films". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 4 March 2008. 
  85. ^ Rich, Joshua (30 March 2007). "The 10 Best Bond Girls". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 30 March 2007. 
  86. ^ Caro, Mark (21 December 2006). "Bond, Oscar Bond". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 9 August 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2008. 
  87. ^ Boedecker, Hal (28 December 2006). "Hey Oscar, have you met James Bond?".  
  88. ^ Hammond, Pete (7 December 2006). "THE SEASON: As critics ramp up, dark horses are at the gate".  
  89. ^ Ebert, Roger (17 September 2007). review"Casino Royale". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 3 July 2008. 
  90. ^ Rothkopf, Joshua (16 November 2006). review"Casino Royale". Time Out New York. Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  91. ^ Allan, Vicky (27 October 2008). "For your eyes only?".  
  92. ^ "Daniel Craig's Bond "relishes killing," professor claims". In the news. 28 October 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2008. 
  93. ^  
  94. ^  
  95. ^ "James Bond Author Raymond Benson Reviews the Ultimate – Cinema Retro – Celebrating Films of the 1960s & 1970s". Cinema Retro. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  96. ^ Rob Gonsalves (20 November 2006). "Casino Royale (2006)". 
  97. ^ "Rotten Reviews for Casino". Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  98. ^ Anthony Lane (20 November 2006). "Of human bondage". The New Yorker. Retrieved 9 August 2010. 
  99. ^  
  100. ^ "The best Bond since Connery". The Sun (London). 20 October 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  101. ^ Levy, Emanuel. "Casino Royale B+". Emanuel Levy. Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  102. ^ Adams, Tim (5 November 2006). "You might be shaken, but this Bond won't leave you stirred". The Observer (UK). Retrieved 21 November 2006. 
  103. ^ "Film 2006: viewers vote Casino Royale top film". London: BBC. 29 December 2006. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013. 
  104. ^ People (31 December 2006). "007 Smash Tops Beeb Movie Poll".  
  105. ^ White, Richard (1 June 2009). "Daniel Craig voted sexiest man". The Sun (London). 
  106. ^ "Daniel Craig in 007 Lolly". The Daily Telegraph (UK). 1 June 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2010. 
  107. ^ "Casino Royale, Daniel Craig". Entertainment Weekly. 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  108. ^ "Metacritic: 2006 Film Critic Top Ten Lists".  
  109. ^ "Awards Database – The BAFTA site". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. February 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2010. 
  110. ^ "Awards Database – The BAFTA site". British Academy of Film and Television Arts. January 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2010. 
  111. ^ "Craig named best actor at Brit film nods".  
  112. ^ "ADG Awards 2006". Alternative Film Guide. Archived from the original on 12 February 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2007. 
  113. ^ "Satellite Awards – 2006". Alternative Film Guide. Archived from the original on 22 February 2007. Retrieved 30 April 2007. 
  114. ^ "Casino Royale receives five Saturn Award nominations".  
  115. ^ take top honors in awards for well-reviewed films"The Queen and Casino Royale"Golden Tomato Awards. . Newsday. 10 January 2007. Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2007. 
  116. ^ "Mystery Writers of America Announces 2007 Edgar Award Nominees". Mystery Writers of America. PR Newswire Association LLC. 19 January 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2007. 
  117. ^ Crabtree, Sheigh (12 January 2007). "10 make cut for ACE noms".  
  118. ^ "Visual Effects Society 5th Annual VES Awards Announced" (PDF) (Press release). Visual Effects Society. 11 February 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2007. 
  119. ^  
  120. ^ Cohen, David S. (10 May 2007). tops Saturns"Superman". Variety. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  121. ^ "The 2007 Taurus World Stunt Awards Ended with a Bang On Sunday Night". Taurus Worlds Stunt Awards. 21 May 2007. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2008. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.