Buyid

Buyid Dynasty
آل بویِه
Āl-e Buye

 

 

934–1055[1]
 

 

The Buyid dynasty in 970
Capital Shirāz
Languages Persian (mother tongue)[2]
Arabic
Religion Shī‘ah Islam[3]
Government Hereditary monarchy
Emir/Shāhanshāh
 -  934-949 'Imad al-Daula
 -  1048-1055 Al-Malik al-Rahim
Historical era Middle Ages
 -  Established 934
 -  'Imad al-Daula proclaimed himself "Emir"
 -  'Adud al-Daula proclaimed himself "Shāhanshāh"
 -  Disestablished 1055[1]
Today part of
History of Iran
ANCIENT
Proto-Elamite 3200–2700 BCE
Elam 2700–539 BCE
Mannaeans 850–616 BCE
IMPERIAL
Median Empire 678–550 BCE
  (Scythian Kingdom 652–625 BCE)
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Seleucid Empire 312–63 BCE
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Sasanian Empire 224–651
  (Dabuyid dynasty 642–759/760)
  (Paduspanids 665–1598)
  (Bavand dynasty 665–1349)
MIDDLE AGES
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
Justanids
791–974
Samanid Dynasty
819–999
Saffarid Dynasty
867–1002
Ziyarid Dynasty
928–1043
Sallarid dynasty
941–1062
Sajid dynasty
889/890–929
Buyid Dynasty
934–1055
Ilyasids
932–968
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Kakuyids 1008–1141
Great Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Atabegs of Yazd 1141–1319
Ghurid Dynasty 1148–1215
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Kurt Dynasty 1244–1396
Ilkhanate Empire 1256–1335
Chobanid Dynasty
1335–1357
Muzaffarid Dynasty
1335–1393
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1336–1432
Sarbadars
1337–1376
Afrasiab dynasty 1349–1504
Timurid Empire 1370–1405
Qara Qoyunlu
1406–1468
Timurid Dynasty
1405–1507
Agh Qoyunlu
1468–1508
EARLY MODERN
Safavid Empire 1501–1736
  (Hotaki Dynasty 1722–1729)
Afsharid Empire 1736–1747
Zand Dynasty
1760–1794
Afsharid Dynasty
1747–1796
Qajar Empire 1796–1925
MODERN
Pahlavi Dynasty 1925–1979
Interim Government 1979–1980
Islamic Republic 1980–present

The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (Persian: آل بویهĀl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, were a Shī‘ah[4] dynasty of Daylimite[5][6] or Kurdish[7] origin from Daylaman in Gilan.[8] They founded a confederation that controlled most of modern-day Iran and Iraq in the 10th and 11th centuries. During the 10th and 11th centuries, just prior to the invasion of the Seljuq Turks, the Buyids were the most influential dynasty in the Middle East.[9]

History

The founders of the Būyid confederation were ‘Alī ibn Būyah and his two younger brothers, al-Hassan and Aḥmad. Originally a soldier in the service of the Ziyārīds of Ṭabaristān, ‘Alī was able to recruit an army to defeat a Turkish general from Baghdad named Yaqut in 934. Over the next nine years the three brothers gained control of the remainder of the 'Abbāsid Caliphate. While they accepted the titular authority of the caliph in Baghdad, the Būyid rulers assumed effective control of the state.

The first several decades of the Būyid confederation were characterized by large territorial gains. In addition to Fars and Jibal, which were conquered in the 930s, and central Iraq, which submitted in 945, the Būyids took Ray (943),[10] Kermān (967), Oman (967), the Jazīra (979), Ṭabaristān (980), and Gorgan (981). After this, however, the Būyids went into a slow decline, with pieces of the confederation gradually breaking off and local dynasties under their rule becoming de facto independent.

The approximate century of Būyid rule, coupled with the rise of other Iranian dynasties in the region, represents a period in Iranian history sometimes called the 'Iranian Intermezzo' since it was an interlude between the rule of the 'Abbāsid Arabs and the Seljuq Turks.[11] Indeed, as Dailamite Iranians the Būyids consciously revived symbols and practices of Persia's Sassānid dynasty.[12] In fact, beginning with 'Adud al-Dawla they used the ancient Sassānid title Shāhanshāh (Persian: شاهنشاه‎), literally "king of kings".[13][14]

The Buyid confederation was split between and governed by multiple members of the dynasty. In 945, Amir Mu'izz al-Dawla seized Baghdad and gained nominal control over the caliphs.[15] The title used by the Buyid rulers was amīr, meaning "governor" or "prince". Generally one of the amīrs would be recognized as having seniority over the others; this individual would use the title of amīr al-umarā',[14] or senior amīr. Although the senior amīr was the formal head of the Būyids, he did not usually have any significant control outside of his own personal amirate; each amir enjoyed a high degree of autonomy within his own territories. As mentioned above, some of the stronger amīrs used the Sassanid title of Shāhanshāh. Succession of power was hereditary, with fathers dividing their land among their sons.


The Būyid army consisted of their fellow Dailamite Iranians, who served as foot soldiers, and of the Turkish cavalry that had played a prominent role in the 'Abbāsid military.[16] The Dailamites and Turks often quarreled with each other in an attempt to be the dominant force within the army.[17] To compensate their soldiers the Būyid amīrs often distributed iqtā's, or the rights to a percentage of tax revenues from a province, although the practice of payment in kind was also frequently used.[18]

Like most Daylamites at the time, the Būyids were originally Zaydī or Fiver Shī'as. After taking power in Iran and Iraq, however, they began to lean closer to Twelver Shī'ism, possibly due to political considerations.[19] In fact, the Būyids rarely attempted to enforce a particular religious view upon their subjects except when in matters where it would be politically expedient. The Sunnī 'Abbāsids retained the caliphate, although they were deprived of all secular power. In addition, in order to prevent tensions between the Shī'a and Sunni from spreading to government agencies, the Būyid amirs occasionally appointed Christians to high offices instead of Muslims from either sect.[20]

The Fall

During the mid-11th century, the Buyid amirates gradually fell to the Ghaznavid and Seljuq Turks. In 1029, Majd al-Dawla, who was facing an uprising by his Dailami troops in Ray, requested assistance from Mahmud of Ghazna.[21] When Sultan Mahmud arrived, he deposed Majd al-Dawla, replaced him with a Ghaznavid governor and ended the Buyid dynasty in Ray.[22][23]

In 1055, Tughrul conquered Baghdad, the seat of the caliphate, and ousted the last of the Buyid rulers.[24] Like the Buyids, the Seljuqs kept the Abbasid caliphate as the titular ruler.[25]

Religion

Buyids were Shia and have been called Twelver Shia. However, it is more likely that they began as Zaydi Shia'.[26] As the reason of this turning from Zaydis to Twelver Moojen Momen suggests that since the Buyids were not descendants of Ali, the first Shia Imam, Zaydis Shi'ism doctrine would have urged them to install an Imam from Ali's family. For that reason Buyids tended toward Twelver Shia' which its occulted Imam was more politically attractive to them.[26]

Buyid rulers

Major rulers

Generally, the three most powerful Buyid amirs at any given time were those in control of Fars, Jibal and Iraq. Sometimes a ruler would come to rule more than one region, but no Buyid rulers ever exercised direct control of all three regions.

Daylamids of Fars

Power in Fars seized by the Shabankara Kurdish Chief Fadluya

Daylamids of Rey

To the Ghaznavids.

Daylamids of Iraq

To the Seljuqs.

Minor rulers

It was not uncommon for younger sons to found collateral lines, or for individual Buyid members to take control of a province and begin ruling there. The following list is incomplete.

Buyids of Basra

To the Buyids of Fars.

Buyids of Hamadan

To the Kakuyids.

Buyids of Kerman

To the Buyids of Fars.

Buyids of Khuzistan

To the Buyids of Fars.

Family tree

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ali 'Imad al-Daula
934–949
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hasan Rukn al-Daula
935–976
 
 
 
 
 
Ahmad Mu'izz al-Daula
945–967
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ali Fakhr al-Daula
976–980
 
Panah Khosro 'Adud al-Daula
949–983
 
Abu-Mansur Mu'ayyed al-Daula
980–983
 
Bakhtiar 'Izz al-Daula
966–978
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abu Taher Shmas al-Daula
997–1021
 
Abu Taleb Majd al-Daula
997–1029
 
Shirzil Sharaf al-Daula
983–989
 
Marzuban Samsam al-Daula
989–998
 
Fana Khosro Baha' al-Daula
998–1012
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sama' al-Daula
1021–1024
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abu'l-Fawaris Qawam al-Daula
1012–1028
 
Abushoja' Sultan al-Daula
1012–1024
 
Abu Ali Musharrif al-Daula
987–989
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abu Kalijar Emad al-Daula
1024–1048
 
Abu Taher Jalal al-Daula
1025–1044
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
1048–1062
 
Abu Nasr Khosro Firuz
1048–1055
 

See also

[6] The Buyid Domination as the Historical Background for the Flourishing of Muslim Scholarship During the 4th/10th Century by Dr. M. Ismail Marcinkowski*

References

Another excellent discussion of the Buyids is Harvard professor Roy Mottahedeh's Loyalty and Leadership in an Early Islamic Society

External links

  • "Buyids" Tilman Nagel
  • Encyclopedia Iranica: DEYLAMITES
  • [2] The Buyid Domination as the Historical Background for the Flourishing of Muslim Scholarship During the 4th/10th Century by Dr. M. Ismail Marcinkowski
  • The Buwaihids in Iran and Iraq

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