World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Borrowed chord

Article Id: WHEBN0000648960
Reproduction Date:

Title: Borrowed chord  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Chromaticism, Augmented sixth chord, Altered chord, Chords, Secondary dominant
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Borrowed chord

A I chord, C major, followed by a VII chord, B major, borrowed from the parallel minor, C minor. Shown first in C major then minor.

A borrowed chord (also called mode mixture and[1] modal interchange) is a chord borrowed from the parallel key (minor or major scale with the same tonic). Borrowed chords are typically used as "color chords", providing variety through contrasting scale forms, major and the three forms of minor.[2] Similarly, chords may be borrowed from the parallel modes, the various modes beginning on the same tonic as a scale, for example Dorian with D major.[1]

Six chords borrowed from the parallel minor key are commonly found in the Baroque, Classical and Romantic eras (shown here in C major):

Diminished supertonic triad (iio):             D  - F  - A
Half-diminished supertonic seventh (iiØ7):     D  - F  - A - C
"Flat three" (III):                          E - G  - B
Minor subdominant (iv):                        F  - A - C
"Flat six" (VI):                             A - C  - E
Fully diminished leading-tone seventh (viio7): B  - D  - F  - A

The following three chords are also found in Romantic era, albeit rarely:

Minor subdominant seventh (iv7):       F  - A - C  - E
Major-minor subdominant seventh (IV7): F  - A  - C  - E
Dominant flat ninth (V9):              G  - B  - D  - F  - A

The major-minor subdominant seventh, which contains an A, is borrowed from the parallel ascending melodic minor scale.

If the root of the borrowed chord is not in the original key, then the chord is named by the accidental. For instance, in a major key, a chord built on the parallel minor's sixth degree is a "flat six chord" written VI.

I - VII - VI - VII in C About this sound Play  .

Chord progressions may be constructed with borrowed chords, including two progressions common in rock music, I - VII - VI - VII, common everywhere, and I - VI - IV, used a lot by bands including Genesis, Yes and Nirvana.[1] VII is from Mixolydian and VI is found in both Aeolian and Phrygian.[1] The VII-I cadence with VII substituting for V is common, as well as II-I, III-I, and VI-I.[3] In popular music, the major triad on the lowered third scale degree (III), the major triad on the lowered sixth scale degree (VI) and the major triad on the lowered seventh scale degree, or "flat seven" (VII, in C major: B, D, F) are common.

A common borrowed chord from a parallel major key is the Picardy third.

"Backdoor progression ii-V" in C: ii-VII7-I About this sound Play  . VII7 is borrowed from the parallel minor rather than Mixolydian as VII may be.

In major the typical chords borrowed from minor are iv, VI, VII, and in jazz, the iio.[4] The VII is also known as the subtonic. The lowered-sixth occurs in many of the chords borrowed from minor and is a, "distinctive characteristic," of borrowed chords.[2] Borrowed chords have typical inversions or common positions, for example iio6 and iiø{}^6_5, and progress in the same manner as the diatonic chords they replace except for VI, which progresses to V(7).[2]

See also

Sources

  1. ^ a b c d Romeo, Sheila (1999). Complete Rock Keyboard Method: Mastering Rock Keyboard, p.42. ISBN 0-88284-982-4.
  2. ^ a b c Benward & Saker (2009). Music in Theory and Practice, Vol II, p.71. ISBN 978-0-07-310188-0.
  3. ^ Romeo (1999), p.43.
  4. ^ Schonbrun, Marc (2006). The Everything Music Theory Book, p.138. ISBN 1-59337-652-9.

External links

  • "Mode Mixture", Robert J. Frank, Theory on the Web.
  • "Glossary: Terms Used in Writing Skills", Berklee.
  • Mike Campese. Guest Column: "Modal Interchange", Guitar Nine Records.
  • "Altered Chords in Jazz: Modal Interchange - Altered Chords", Taming the Saxophone.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.