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Boris Yeltsin

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Boris Yeltsin

Boris Yeltsin
Борис Ельцин
1st President of Russia
In office
10 July 1991 – 31 December 1999
Prime Minister
Vice President Alexander Rutskoy (1991–1993)
Preceded by Office established
Succeeded by Vladimir Putin
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR
In office
29 May 1990 – 10 July 1991
Preceded by Vitaly Vorotnikov
Succeeded by Ruslan Khasbulatov (acting)
First Secretary of the Moscow City Committee of the Communist Party
In office
23 December 1985 – 11 November 1987
Preceded by Viktor Grishin
Succeeded by Lev Zaykov
Candidate member of the
26th, 27th Politburo
In office
18 February 1986 – 24 February 1988
Member of the 26th Secretariat
In office
1 July 1985 – 6 March 1986
Full member of the
26th, 27th Central Committee
In office
3 March 1981 – 12 July 1990
Personal details
Born Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin
Борис Николаевич Ельцин

1 February 1931
Butka, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Died 23 April 2007(2007-04-23) (aged 76)
Moscow, Russia
Nationality Russian
Political party Independent (after 1990)
Other political
Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1961-1990)
Spouse(s) Naina Yeltsina
Children Tatyana Borisovna Dyachenko
Elena Borisovna Okulova
Alma mater Ural State Technical University
Religion Russian Orthodoxy[1]

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (Russian: Бори́с Никола́евич Е́льцин; IPA:  ( ); 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

Originally a supporter of Mikhail Gorbachev, Yeltsin emerged under the perestroika reforms as one of Gorbachev's most powerful political opponents. On 29 May 1990 he was elected the chairman of the Russian Supreme Soviet. On 12 June 1991 he was elected by popular vote to the newly created post of President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (SFSR), at that time one of the 15 constituent republics of the Soviet Union. Upon the resignation of Mikhail Gorbachev and the final dissolution of the Soviet Union on 25 December 1991, Yeltsin remained in office as the President of the Russian Federation, the USSR's successor state. Yeltsin was reelected in the 1996 election; in the second round he defeated Gennady Zyuganov from the revived Communist Party by a margin of 13%. However, Yeltsin never recovered his early popularity after a series of economic and political crises in Russia in the 1990s.

He vowed to transform Russia's socialist command economy into a free market economy and implemented economic shock therapy, price liberalization and privatization programs. Due to the method of privatization, a good deal of the national wealth fell into the hands of a small group of oligarchs.[2] Much of the Yeltsin era was marked by widespread corruption, inflation, economic collapse and enormous political and social problems that affected Russia and the other former states of the USSR. Within the first few years of his presidency, many of Yeltsin's political supporters turned against him and Vice President Alexander Rutskoy denounced the reforms as "economic genocide".[3]

Ongoing confrontations with the Supreme Soviet climaxed in the October 1993 Russian constitutional crisis in which Yeltsin illegally ordered the dissolution of the parliament, which then attempted to remove him from office. The military eventually sided with Yeltsin and besieged and shelled the Russian White House, resulting in the deaths of 187 people. Yeltsin then scrapped the existing constitution, temporarily banned political opposition and deepened his economic experimentation. He introduced a new constitution with stronger presidential power and it was approved by referendum on 12 December 1993 with 58.5% of voters in favour.

On 31 December 1999, Yeltsin made a surprise announcement of his resignation, leaving the presidency in the hands of his chosen successor, then-Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. Described by the BBC as the “flawed founder of Russian democracy”,[4] Yeltsin left office widely unpopular with the Russian population.[5]


  • Early life and education 1
  • Communist Party membership 2
  • Moscow 3
  • Rebel 4
  • President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 5
  • President of the Russian Federation 6
    • Yeltsin's first term 6.1
      • Radical reforms 6.1.1
      • Confrontation with parliament 6.1.2
      • Chechnya 6.1.3
      • Privatization and the rise of "the oligarchs" 6.1.4
      • Korean Air Lines Flight 007 6.1.5
      • 1996 presidential election 6.1.6
    • Yeltsin's second term 6.2
      • Resignation 6.2.1
  • Illness 7
  • Life after resignation 8
  • Death and funeral 9
  • Memorials 10
  • Honours and awards 11
  • Bibliography 12
  • See also 13
  • References 14
  • External links 15

Early life and education

Boris Yeltsin (second from left) with childhood friends

Boris Yeltsin was born in the village of Butka, Talitsky District, Sverdlovsk, USSR, on 1 February 1931.[6] In 1932 after the state took away the entire harvest from the recently collectivised Butka peasants, the Yeltsin family moved as far away as they could, to Kazan, more than 1,100 kilometres from Butka, where Boris' father, Nikolai, found work on a construction site. Growing up in rural Sverdlovsk, he studied at the Ural State Technical University (now Urals Polytechnic Institute), and began his career in the construction industry.[7] In 1934 Nikolai Yeltsin was convicted of anti-Soviet agitation and sentenced to hard labour in a gulag for three years.[8]

Following his release in 1936 after serving two years, Nikolai took his family to live in Berezniki in Perm Krai, where his brother Ivan, a blacksmith, had been exiled the year before for failing to deliver his grain quota.[9] Nikolai remained unemployed for a period of time and then worked again in construction. His mother, Klavdiya Vasilyevna Yeltsina, worked as a seamstress. Boris studied at Pushkin High School in Berezniki. He was fond of sports (in particular skiing, gymnastics, volleyball, track and field, boxing and wrestling) despite losing the thumb and index finger of his left hand when he and some friends furtively entered a Red Army supply depot, stole several grenades, and tried to disassemble them.[10]

In 1949 he was admitted to the Ural Polytechnic Institute in Sverdlovsk, majoring in construction, and he graduated in 1955. The subject of his degree paper was "Construction of a Mine Shaft".[11] From 1955 to 1957 he worked as a foreman with the building trust Uraltyazhtrubstroy. From 1957 to 1963 he worked in Sverdlovsk, and was promoted from construction site superintendent to chief of the Construction Directorate with the Yuzhgorstroy Trust. In 1963 he became chief engineer, and in 1965 head of the Sverdlovsk House-Building Combine, responsible for sewerage and technical plumbing. He joined the ranks of the CPSU nomenklatura in 1968 when he was appointed head of construction with the Sverdlovsk Regional Party Committee. In 1975 he became secretary of the regional committee in charge of the region's industrial development. In 1976 the Politburo of the CPSU promoted him to the post of the first secretary of the CPSU Committee of Sverdlovsk Oblast (effectively he became the head of one of the most important industrial regions in the USSR); he remained in this position until 1985.

Communist Party membership

Yeltsin was a member of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) from 17 March 1961[12] to 13 July 1990,[13] and a nomenklatura member from 1968.

In 1977, as a party official in Sverdlovsk, Yeltsin was ordered by Moscow to destroy the Ipatiev House where the last Russian tsar had been killed by Bolshevik troops. The Ipatiev House was demolished in one night on 27 July 1977.[14] Also during Yeltsin's time in Sverdlovsk, a CPSU palace was built which was named "White Tooth" by the residents.[15] During this time, Yeltsin developed connections with key people in the Soviet power structure. In January 1981 Yeltsin was awarded the Order of Lenin, the Soviet Union's highest medal, for 'the service to the Communist Party and the Soviet State and in connection with the 50th birthday'.[6] In March 1981 Yeltsin was elected as a full member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.[6]


On 11 March 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary of the CPSU by the Politburo after the death of Konstantin Chernenko. Gorbachev's primary goal was to revive the Soviet economy; however, he came to believe that fixing the Soviet economy would be nearly impossible without reforming the political and social structure of the USSR.[16] To begin these reforms he immediately began gathering in Moscow a younger and more energetic governing team of Communist Party members. On 4 April 1985 Yeltsin received a call from Gorbachev's leading protege Yegor Ligachev summoning him to Moscow to take up position as Head of the Construction Department of the Party's Central Committee.[17] Less than three months later he was promoted to be Secretary for Construction of the Central Committee, a position within the powerful CPSU Central Committee Secretariat.[6]

On 23 December 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev appointed Yeltsin First Secretary of the CPSU Moscow City Committee, effectively 'Mayor' of the Soviet capital, and as a result, on 18 February 1986, Yeltsin was invited to become a Candidate (non-voting) Member of the Politburo. As a politburo member Yeltsin was also given a country house (dacha) which was previously occupied by Gorbachev who now moved to a much bigger and more luxurious purpose built dacha nearby. During this period, Yeltsin portrayed himself as a reformer and populist (for example, he took a trolleybus to work), firing and reshuffling his staff several times. He became popular among Moscow residents for firing corrupt Moscow party officials.


Boris Yeltsin with Raisa Gorbacheva.

On 10 September 1987, after a lecture from hard-liner Yegor Ligachev at the Politburo for allowing two small unsanctioned demonstrations on Moscow streets, Yeltsin wrote a letter of resignation to Gorbachev who was holidaying on the Black Sea.[18] When Gorbachev received the letter he was stunned – nobody in Soviet history had voluntarily resigned from the ranks of the Politburo. Gorbachev phoned Yeltsin and asked him to reconsider.

On 27 October 1987 at the plenary meeting of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Yeltsin, frustrated that Gorbachev had not addressed any of the issues outlined in his resignation letter asked to speak. He expressed his discontent with both the slow pace of reform in society, the servility shown to the General Secretary, and opposition to him from Ligachev making his position untenable, before requesting to resign from the Politburo, adding that the City Committee would decide whether he should resign from the post of First Secretary of the Moscow Communist Party.[18] Aside from the fact that no one had ever before quit the Politburo, no one in the party had ever addressed a leader of the party in such a manner in front of the Central Committee since Leon Trotsky in the 1920s, who was later assassinated.[18] In his reply, Gorbachev accused Yeltsin of "political immaturity" and "absolute irresponsibility". Nobody in the Central Committee backed Yeltsin.

Within days, news of Yeltsin's actions leaked and rumours of his "secret speech" at the Central Committee spread throughout Moscow. Soon fabricated [18]

Yeltsin was demoted to the position of First Deputy Commissioner for the State Committee for Construction. At the next meeting of the Central Committee on 24 February 1988, Yeltsin was removed from his position as a Candidate member of the Politburo. He was perturbed and humiliated but began plotting his revenge.[20] His opportunity came with Gorbachev's establishment of the Congress of People's Deputies.[21] He recovered, and started intensively criticizing Gorbachev, highlighting the slow pace of reform in the Soviet Union as his major argument.

Yeltsin's criticism of the Politburo and Gorbachev led to a smear campaign against him, in which examples of Yeltsin's awkward behavior were used against him. Speaking at the CPSU conference in 1988, Yegor Ligachev stated: "Boris, you are wrong". An article in Pravda described Yeltsin as drunk at a lecture during his visit to the United States, an allegation which appeared to be confirmed by a TV account of his speech. However, popular dissatisfaction with the regime was very strong, and these attempts to smear Yeltsin only added to his popularity. In another incident, Yeltsin fell from a bridge. Commenting on this event, Yeltsin hinted that he was helped to fall from the bridge by the enemies of perestroika, but his opponents suggested that he was simply drunk.

On 26 March 1989, Yeltsin was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union as the delegate from Moscow district with a hugely decisive 92% of the vote[6] and on 29 May 1989, was elected by the Congress of People's Deputies to a seat on the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. On 19 July 1989, Yeltsin announced the formation of the radical pro-reform faction in the Congress of People's Deputies: the Inter-Regional Group of Deputies, and on 29 July 1989 was elected one of the five co-Chairman of the Inter-Regional Group.[6]

President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Yeltsin on 21 February 1989
Yeltsin, with his personal bodyguard Alexander Korzhakov, stands on a tank to defy the August coup in 1991
Yeltsin on 22 August 1991

On 4 March 1990, Yeltsin was elected to the Congress of People's Deputies of Russia representing Sverdlovsk with 72% of the vote.[22] On 29 May 1990, he was elected chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), in spite of the fact that Gorbachev personally pleaded with the Russian deputies not to select Yeltsin.[23] He was supported by both democratic and conservative members of the Supreme Soviet, which sought power in the developing political situation in the country.

A part of this power struggle was the opposition between power structures of the Soviet Union and the RSFSR. In an attempt to gain more power, on 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR adopted a declaration of sovereignty. On 12 July 1990, Yeltsin resigned from the CPSU in a dramatic speech before party members at the 28th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, some of whom responded by shouting "Shame!"[24]

On 12 June 1991, Yeltsin won 57% of the popular vote in the democratic presidential elections for the Russian republic, defeating Gorbachev's preferred candidate, Nikolai Ryzhkov who got just 16% of the vote, and four other candidates. In his election campaign, Yeltsin criticized the "dictatorship of the center", but did not suggest the introduction of a market economy. Instead, he said that he would put his head on the railtrack in the event of increased prices. Yeltsin took office on 10 July, and reappointed Ivan Silayev as Chairman of the Council of Ministers – Government of the Russian SFSR.

On 18 August 1991, a coup against Gorbachev was launched by the government members opposed to perestroika. Gorbachev was held in Crimea while Yeltsin raced to the White House of Russia (residence of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR) in Moscow to defy the coup, making a memorable speech from atop the turret of a tank onto which he had climbed. The White House was surrounded by the military but the troops defected in the face of mass popular demonstrations. By 21 August most of the coup leaders had fled Moscow and Gorbachev was "rescued" from Crimea and then returned to Moscow. Yeltsin was subsequently hailed by his supporters around the world for rallying mass opposition to the coup.

Although restored to his position, Gorbachev had been destroyed politically. Neither union nor Russian power structures heeded his commands as support had swung over to Yeltsin. Taking advantage of the situation, Yeltsin began taking what remained of the Soviet government, ministry by ministry—including the Kremlin. On 6 November 1991, Yeltsin issued a decree banning all Communist Party activities on Russian soil. In early December 1991, Ukraine voted for independence from the Soviet Union. A week later, on 8 December, Yeltsin met Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk and the leader of Belarus, Stanislav Shushkevich, in Belovezhskaya Pushcha. In the Belavezha Accords, the three presidents announced the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the formation of a voluntary Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.

According to Gorbachev, Yeltsin kept the plans of the Belovezhskaya meeting in strict secrecy and the main goal of the dissolution of the Soviet Union was to get rid of Gorbachev, who by that time had started to recover his position after the events of August. Gorbachev has also accused Yeltsin of violating the people's will expressed in the referendum in which the majority voted to keep the Soviet Union united. On 12 December, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR ratified the Belavezha Accords and denounced the 1922 Union Treaty. It also ordered the Russian deputies in the Council of the Union to cease their work, leaving that body without a quorum. In effect, the largest republic of the Soviet Union had seceded.

On 17 December, in a meeting with Yeltsin, Gorbachev accepted the fait accompli and agreed to dissolve the Soviet Union. On 24 December, the Russian Federation, by mutual agreement of the other CIS states (which by this time included all of the remaining republics except Georgia) took the Soviet Union's seat in the United Nations. The next day, Gorbachev resigned and the Soviet Union ceased to exist—thereby ending the world's oldest, largest and most powerful Communist state. Economic relations between the former Soviet republics were severely compromised. Millions of ethnic Russians found themselves in the newly formed foreign countries.

President of the Russian Federation

Yeltsin's first term

Radical reforms

Most of Yeltsin's time as president was plagued by economic contraction.

Just days after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Boris Yeltsin resolved to embark on a program of radical economic reform. Unlike Gorbachev's reforms, which sought to expand democracy in the socialist system, the new regime aimed to completely dismantle socialism and fully implement capitalism—converting the world's largest command economy into a free-market one. During early discussions of this transition, Yeltsin's advisers debated issues of speed and sequencing, with an apparent division between those favoring a rapid approach and those favoring a gradual or slower approach.

In late 1991, Yeltsin turned to the advice of Western economists, and Western institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and the U.S. Treasury Department, who had developed a standard policy recipe for transition economies in the late 1980s. This policy recipe came to be known as the "Washington Consensus" or "shock therapy", a combination of measures intended to liberalize prices and stabilize the state's budget. Such measures had been attempted in Poland, and advocates of "shock therapy" thought that the same could be done in Russia. Some Russian policymakers were skeptical that this was the way to go, but the approach was favored by Yeltsin's deputy, Yegor Gaidar, a 35-year-old Russian economist inclined toward radical reform.

On 2 January 1992, Yeltsin, acting as his own prime minister, ordered the liberalization of foreign trade, prices, and currency. At the same time, Yeltsin followed a policy of 'macroeconomic stabilization,' a harsh austerity regime designed to control inflation. Under Yeltsin's stabilization program, interest rates were raised to extremely high levels to tighten money and restrict credit. To bring state spending and revenues into balance, Yeltsin raised new taxes heavily, cut back sharply on government subsidies to industry and construction, and made steep cuts to state welfare spending.

In early 1992, prices skyrocketed throughout Russia, and a deep credit crunch shut down many industries and brought about a protracted depression. The reforms devastated the living standards of much of the population, especially the groups dependent on Soviet-era state subsidies and welfare entitlement programs.[25] Through the 1990s, Russia's GDP fell by 50 percent, vast sectors of the economy were wiped out, inequality and unemployment grew dramatically, while incomes fell. Hyperinflation, caused by the Central Bank of Russia's loose monetary policy, wiped out a lot of personal savings, and tens of millions of Russians were plunged into poverty.[26][27]

Some economists argue that in the 1990s Russia suffered an economic downturn more severe than the United States or Germany had undergone six decades earlier in the Great Depression.[25] Russian commentators and even some Western economists, such as Marshall Goldman, widely blamed Yeltsin's Western-backed economic program for the country's disastrous economic performance in the 1990s. Many politicians began to quickly distance themselves from the program. In February 1992, Russia's vice president, Alexander Rutskoy denounced the Yeltsin program as "economic genocide."[28] By 1993 conflict over the reform direction escalated between Yeltsin on the one side, and the opposition to radical economic reform in Russia's parliament on the other.

Confrontation with parliament

Also throughout 1992, Yeltsin wrestled with the Supreme Soviet of Russia and the Congress of People's Deputies for control over government, government policy, government banking and property. In the course of 1992, the speaker of the Russian Supreme Soviet, Ruslan Khasbulatov, came out in opposition to the reforms, despite claiming to support Yeltsin's overall goals. In December 1992, the 7th Congress of People's Deputies succeeded in turning down the Yeltsin-backed candidacy of Yegor Gaidar for the position of Russian prime minister. An agreement was brokered by Valery Zorkin, chairman of the Constitutional Court, which included the following provisions: a national referendum on the new constitution; parliament and Yeltsin would choose a new head of government, to be confirmed by the Supreme Soviet; and the parliament was to cease making constitutional amendments that change the balance of power between the legislative and executive branches. Eventually, on 14 December, Viktor Chernomyrdin, widely seen as a compromise figure, was confirmed in the office.

The conflict escalated soon, however, with the parliament changing its prior decision to hold a referendum. Yeltsin, in turn, announced in a televised address to the nation on 20 March 1993, that he was going to assume certain "special powers" in order to implement his program of reforms. In response, the hastily called 9th Congress of People's Deputies attempted to remove Yeltsin from presidency through impeachment on 26 March 1993. Yeltsin's opponents gathered more than 600 votes for impeachment, but fell 72 votes short of the required two-thirds majority.

President Yeltsin with US President George H. W. Bush, 1 June 1992

During the summer of 1993, a situation of dual power developed in Russia. Since July, two separate administrations of the Chelyabinsk Oblast functioned side by side, after Yeltsin refused to accept the newly elected pro-parliament head of the region. The Supreme Soviet pursued its own foreign policies, passing a declaration on the status of Sevastopol. In August, a commentator reflected on the situation as follows: "The President issues decrees as if there were no Supreme Soviet, and the Supreme Soviet suspends decrees as if there were no President." (Izvestiya, 13 August 1993).[29]

On 21 September 1993 Yeltsin announced in a televised address his decision to disband the Supreme Soviet and Congress of People's Deputies by decree. In his address Yeltsin declared his intent to rule by decree until the election of the new parliament and a referendum on a new constitution, triggering the constitutional crisis of October 1993. On the night after Yeltsin's televised address, the Supreme Soviet declared Yeltsin removed from presidency, by virtue of his breaching the constitution, and Vice-President Alexander Rutskoy was sworn in as the acting president.

Between 21–24 September Yeltsin was confronted by popular unrest. The demonstrators were protesting the new and terrible living conditions under Yeltsin. Since 1989 GDP had declined by half. Corruption was rampant, violent crime was skyrocketing, medical services were collapsing, food and fuel were increasingly scarce and life expectancy was falling for all but a tiny handful of the population; moreover, Yeltsin was increasingly getting the blame. By early October, Yeltsin had secured the support of Russia's army and ministry of interior forces. In a massive show of force, Yeltsin called up tanks to shell the Russian White House, Russia's parliament building.

As the Supreme Soviet was dissolved, in December 1993 elections to the newly established parliament, the State Duma, were held. Candidates associated with Yeltsin's economic policies were overwhelmed by a huge anti-Yeltsin vote, the bulk of which was divided between the Communist Party and ultra-nationalists. The referendum, however, held at the same time, approved the new constitution, which significantly expanded the powers of the president, giving Yeltsin a right to appoint the members of the government, to dismiss the prime minister and, in some cases, to dissolve the Duma.[30]


In December 1994, Yeltsin ordered the military invasion of Chechnya in an attempt to restore Moscow's control over the republic. Nearly two years later Yeltsin withdrew federal forces from the devastated Chechnya under a 1996 peace agreement brokered by Alexander Lebed, then Yeltsin's security chief. The peace deal allowed Chechnya greater autonomy but not full independence. The decision to launch the war in Chechnya dismayed many in the West. TIME magazine wrote:
"Then, what was to be made of Boris Yeltsin? Clearly he could no longer be regarded as the democratic hero of Western myth. But had he become an old-style communist boss, turning his back on the democratic reformers he once championed and throwing in his lot with militarists and ultranationalists? Or was he a befuddled, out-of-touch chief being manipulated, knowingly or unwittingly, by—well, by whom exactly? If there was to be a dictatorial coup, would Yeltsin be its victim or its leader?"[31]

Privatization and the rise of "the oligarchs"

Yeltsyn meets President Clinton in 1994.

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Yeltsin promoted privatization as a way of spreading ownership of shares in former state enterprises as widely as possible to create political support for his economic reforms. In the West, privatization was viewed as the key to the transition from Communism in Eastern Europe, ensuring a quick dismantling of the Soviet-era command economy to make way for 'free market reforms.' In the early 1990s, Anatoly Chubais, Yeltsin's deputy for economic policy, emerged as a leading advocate of privatization in Russia.

In late 1992, Yeltsin launched a program of free vouchers as a way to give mass privatization a jump-start. Under the program, all Russian citizens were issued vouchers, each with a nominal value of around 10,000 rubles, for purchase of shares of select state enterprises. Although each citizen initially received a voucher of equal face value, within months most of them converged in the hands of intermediaries who were ready to buy them for cash right away.

In 1995, as Yeltsin struggled to finance Russia's growing foreign debt and gain support from the Russian business elite for his bid in the early-1996 presidential elections, the Russian president prepared for a new wave of privatization offering stock shares in some of Russia's most valuable state enterprises in exchange for bank loans. The program was promoted as a way of simultaneously speeding up privatization and ensuring the government a cash infusion to cover its operating needs.

However, the deals were effectively giveaways of valuable state assets to a small group of tycoons in finance, industry, energy, telecommunications, and the media who came to be known as "oligarchs" in the mid-1990s. This was due to the fact that ordinary people sold their vouchers for cash. The vouchers were bought out by a small group of investors. By mid-1996, substantial ownership shares over major firms were acquired at very low prices by a handful of people. Boris Berezovsky, who controlled major stakes in several banks and the national media, emerged as one of Yeltsin's most prominent backers. Along with Berezovsky, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Vladimir Potanin, Vladimir Bogdanov, Rem Viakhirev, Vagit Alekperov, Alexander Smolensky, Victor Vekselberg, Mikhail Fridman and a few years later Roman Abramovich, were habitually mentioned in the media as Russia's oligarchs.

Korean Air Lines Flight 007

On 5 December 1991, Senator Jesse Helms, ranking member of the Minority on the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, wrote to Boris Yeltsin concerning U.S. servicemen who were POWs or MIAs. "The status of thousands and thousands of American servicemen who are held by Soviet and other Communist forces, and who were never repatriated after every major war this century, is of grave concern to the American people."[32]

Yeltsin would ultimately respond with a statement made on 15 June 1992, while being interviewed aboard his presidential jet on his way to the United States, "Our archives have shown that it is true — some of them were transferred to the territory of the U.S.S.R. and were kept in labour camps... We can only surmise that some of them may still be alive."[32] On 10 December 1991, just five days after Senator Helms had written Yeltsin concerning American servicemen, he again wrote to Yeltsin, this time concerning Larry McDonald, and their whereabouts.
"One of the greatest tragedies of the Cold War was the shoot-down of the Korean Airlines Flight 007 by the Armed Forces of what was then the Soviet Union on 1 September 1983... The KAL-007 tragedy was one of the most tense incidences of the entire Cold War. However, now that relations between our two nations have improved substantially, I believe that it is time to resolve the mysteries surrounding this event. Clearing the air on this issue could help further to improve relations." (Sen. Jesse Helms, writing to Yeltsin, 10 December 1991.

In March 1992, Yeltsin would hand over KAL 007's Black Box without its tapes to Korean President

Party political offices
Preceded by
Viktor Grishin
First Secretary of the Moscow Communist Party
23 December 1985 – 12 November 1987
Succeeded by
Lev Zaykov
Political offices
Preceded by
Vitaly Vorotnikov
Chairman of Supreme Soviet of Russian SFSR
29 May 1990 – 10 July 1991
Succeeded by
Ruslan Khasbulatov
Preceded by
New office
President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
10 July 1991 – 25 December 1991
Succeeded by
Office succeeded by that of President of Russia
Preceded by
Oleg Lobov
Premier of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
as President of the Russian SFSR

6 November 1991 – 25 December 1991
Succeeded by
Office succeeded by that of Prime Minister of Russia
Preceded by
Office replaced President of the Russian SFSR
President of Russia
25 December 1991 – 31 December 1999
Succeeded by
Vladimir Putin
Preceded by
Office replaced Premier of the Russian SFSR
Prime Minister of Russia
as President of Russia

25 December 1991 – 15 June 1992
Succeeded by
Yegor Gaidar
Preceded by
Konstantin Kobetz
Defence Minister of Russia

16 March – 18 May 1992
Succeeded by
Pavel Grachev
  • CNN Cold War — Profile: Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin
  • Yeltsin and Post-Soviet Problems from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
  • Death of a Bear
  • The Good Czar The Strange Nobility of Boris Yeltsin
  • "The Yeltsin Years" Documentary on YouTube
  • Works by or about Boris Yeltsin in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  • Boris Yeltsin's finger amputation
  • Photos of Yeltsin's grave at
  • Yeltsin´s Russia book by Lilia Shevtsova (1999)

External links

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  4. ^ Yeltsin: Flawed founder of Russian democracy, BBC News, 31 December 1999
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  7. ^ Leon Aron, Boris Yeltsin A Revolutionary Life. Harper Collins, 2000. p. 5.
  8. ^ "Timeline of a Leader".  
  9. ^ Leon Aron, Boris Yeltsin A Revolutionary Life. Harper Collins, 2000. p. 6.
  10. ^ "10 things we didn't know last week". BBC. 27 April 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2007. 
  11. ^ Leon Aron, Boris Yeltsin A Revolutionary Life. Harper Collins, 2000. p. 16.
  12. ^ Leon Aron, Boris Yeltsin A Revolutionary Life. Harper Collins, 2000. p. 30.
  13. ^ Leon Aron, Boris Yeltsin A Revolutionary Life. Harper Collins, 2000. p. 740.
  14. ^ "Chronology". Searchfoundation. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  15. ^ "Yeltsin Boris Nikolayevich". Panorama. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  16. ^ "Михаил Сергеевич Горбачёв (Mikhail Sergeyevič Gorbačëv)". 27 March 2009. Retrieved 3 April 2009. 
  17. ^ Leon Aron, Boris Yeltsin A Revolutionary Life. Harper Collins, 2000. page 132.
  18. ^ a b c d Conor O'Clery, Moscow December 25, 1991: The Last Day of the Soviet Union. pgs 71, 74, 81. Transworld Ireland (2011); ISBN 978-1-84827-112-8.
  19. ^ Keller, Bill (1 November 1987). "CRITIC OF GORBACHEV OFFERS TO RESIGN HIS MOSCOW PARTY POST". The New York Times. 
  20. ^ The Strange Death of the Soviet Empire, p. 86; ISBN 0-8050-4154-0
  21. ^ The Strange Death of the Soviet Empire, p. 90; ISBN 0-8050-4154-0
  22. ^ Leon Aron, Boris Yeltsin A Revolutionary Life. Harper Collins, 2000. page 739-740.
  23. ^ Dobbs, Michael (30 May 1990). "Yeltsin Wins Presidency of Russia". The Washington Post (Moscow). Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  24. ^ "1990: Yeltsin resignation splits Soviet Communists". BBC. 12 July 1990. 
  25. ^ a b Peter Nolan, China's Rise, Russia's Fall. Macmillan Press, 1995. pp. 17–18.
  26. ^ Daniel Treisman, "Why Yeltsin Won: A Russian Tammany Hall", Foreign Affairs, September/October 1996. [1]
  27. ^ Theodore P. Gerber & Michael Hout, "More Shock than Therapy: Market Transition, Employment, and Income in Russia, 1991–1995", AJS Volume 104 Number 1 (July 1998): 1–50.
  28. ^ Celestine Bohlen, "Yeltsin Deputy Calls Reforms 'Economic Genocide'", The New York Times, 9 February 1992.
  29. ^ Executive decree authority, by John M. Carey & Matthew Soberg, p. 76
  30. ^ "Russian Constitution SECTION ONE Chapter 4". Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  31. ^ "Death Trap". Time. 16 January 1995. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  32. ^ a b Moscow Bound: Policy, Politics, and the POW/MIA Dilemma, John M. G. Brown, Veteran Press, Eureka Springs, California, US (1993), Chapter 14.
  33. ^ ICAO State Letter LE 4/19.4 - 93/68 (Summary of Findings and Conclusions)
  34. ^ Michael Evans. "Anthrax at Sverdlovsk, 1979". Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  35. ^ J.T. Knoph & K.S. Westerdahl, "Re-evaluating Russia's biological weapons policy, as reflected in the Criminal Code and Official Admissions: insubordination leading to a president's subordination." Crit Rev Microbiol. 2006; 32(1): 1–13.
  36. ^ CNN, Russian presidential candidate profiles, 1906
  37. ^ "Gennady Zyuganov candidate profile, 1996". CNN. 7 February 1996. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  38. ^ Daniel Treisman, "Blaming Russia First", Foreign Affairs, November/December 2000. [2]
  39. ^ See, e.g., Pekka Sutela, "Insider Privatization in Russia: Speculations on Systemic Changes", Europe-Asia Studies 46:3 (1994), pp. 420–21.
  40. ^ CNN Interactive: Pivotal Elections: Russian Elections; Candidates: Boris Yeltsin (1996)
  41. ^ "Lee Hockstader, Washington Post Foreign Service". The Washington Post. 5 July 1996. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  42. ^ Stanislav Lunev (27 July 1999). "Where Is the IMF Money to Russia Really Going?".  
  43. ^ (19 July 2003). "Yeltsin, "The Family" and the Bureaucratic Mafia". Retrieved 17 April 2007. 
  44. ^ "Checkmate nears for Yeltsin".  
  45. ^ "Yeltsin Warns Of European War Over Kosovo". Reuters. 9 April 1999. 
  46. ^ "Yeltsin warns of possible world war over Kosovo". CNN. 9 April 1999. Retrieved 23 April 2007. 
  47. ^ Charles Babington (19 November 1999). "Clinton Spars With Yeltsin On Chechnya, President Denounces Killing of Civilians". The Washington Post. p. A01. 
  48. ^ Michael Laris (10 December 1999). "In China, Yeltsin Lashes Out at Clinton Criticisms of Chechen War Are Met With Blunt Reminder of Russian Nuclear Power". The Washington Post. p. A35. 
  49. ^ "Yeltsin's Resignation Speech". The BBC. 
  50. ^ "Transcripts of 'Insight' on CNN". CNN. 7 October 2002. Retrieved 17 July 2007. 
  51. ^ Mark Franchetti (7 March 2010). "The sober truth behind Boris Yeltsin's drinking problem". The Times (London, UK). Retrieved 7 March 2010. 
  52. ^ Tom Whipple (25 September 2009). "Understanding the news this week 26 September 2009". The Times (London, UK). Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  53. ^ "Office party: The top ten worse for wear politicians". Daily Mirror. UK. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  54. ^ Yelena Tregubova Tales of a Kremlin Digger (Russian: Елена Трегубова. Байки кремлевского диггера., Mосква., Ad Marginem, 2003; ISBN 5-93321-073-0 Full text in Russian. German translation.
  55. ^ Boris Yeltsin, Midnight Diaries, New York, p. 344
  56. ^ (Russian: Елена Трегубова. Байки кремлевского диггера., Mосква., Ad Marginem, 2003; ISBN 5-93321-073-0 Full text in Russian. German translation.
  57. ^ "University professor reveals neurological disorder". Rijks Universiteit Groningen. 3 May 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2007. 
  58. ^ Susan Page, "Secret interviews add insight to Clinton presidency", USA Today, 21 September 2009.
  59. ^ "Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin Speak out Against Putin's Reforms". 16 September 2004. Retrieved 17 April 2007. 
  60. ^ Yulia Osipova (19 September 2005). "Boris Yeltsin Leaves Ward".  
  61. ^ "Putin Was Right Choice for Russia—Boris Yeltsin". 30 January 2006. Retrieved 17 April 2007. 
  62. ^ a b У первого президента не выдержало сердце (in Русский).  
  63. ^ Ельцин умер от остановки сердца (in Русский). Lenta. 23 April 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2007. 
  64. ^ "Russian ex-president Yeltsin dies". BBC. 23 April 2007. 
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  66. ^ "Former Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who helped bring demise of Soviet Union, dead at 76".  
  67. ^ BBC News Yeltsin to lie in state in Moscow; retrieved 24 April 2007.
  68. ^ Tony Halpin. "Yeltsin, the man who buried communism" The Times. 24 April 2007
  69. ^ "President's decree of mourning day" (in Русский). 23 April 2007. Archived from the original on 28 May 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2007. 
  70. ^ Vladimir Putin`s Address on the Occasion of Boris Yelstin’s Passing Kremlin, 23 April 2007. Retrieved: 24 April 2007
  71. ^ In quotes: Reactions to Yeltsin death, 23 April 2007.
  72. ^ Clifford J. Levy (5 May 2008). "Reactions to a New Yeltsin Memorial, as to His Legacy, Are Mixed". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 April 2010. 
  73. ^ "Russia Remembers Yeltsin". Voice of America. 23 April 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  74. ^ Wines, Michael (13 June 2001). "Europe: Russia: An Honor And A Barb For Yeltsin". (The New York Times). Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  75. ^ a b c d e f "Ельцин, Борис".  
  76. ^ a b c "Какие ордена у Ельцина".  


See also

  • Yeltsin, Boris. Against the Grain. London: Jonathan Cape, 1990
  • Yeltsin, Boris. The Struggle for Russia. New York: Times Books, 1994
  • Shevtsova, Lilia. Yeltsin's Russia: Myths and Reality Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1999


Religious awards
  • Gorchakov Commemorative Medal (Russian Foreign Ministry, 1998)[75]
  • Golden Olympic Order (International Olympic Committee, 1993)
Departmental awards
Foreign awards
This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Русский WorldHeritage.
Russian and Soviet

Honours and awards

In April 2008, a new memorial to Yeltsin was dedicated in Moscow's Novodevichy cemetery, to mixed reactions. At the memorial service, a military chorus performed Russia's national anthem — an anthem that was changed shortly after the end of Yeltsin's term, to follow the music of the old Soviet anthem, with lyrics reflecting Russia's new status.[72][73]

Monument to Yeltsin in Novodevichy cemetery
Statue of Yeltsin in Yekaterinburg


"I offer my deepest condolences to the family of a man on whose shoulders rested many great deeds for the good of the country and serious mistakes—a tragic fate".[71]
issued a statement, saying: Mikhail GorbachevShortly after the news broke, former Soviet leader
"[Yeltsin's] presidency has inscribed him forever in Russian and in world history. ... A new democratic Russia was born during his time: a free, open and peaceful country. A state in which the power truly does belong to the people. ... the first President of Russia’s strength consisted in the mass support of Russian citizens for his ideas and aspirations. Thanks to the will and direct initiative of President Boris Yeltsin a new constitution, one which declared human rights a supreme value, was adopted. It gave people the opportunity to freely express their thoughts, to freely choose power in Russia, to realise their creative and entrepreneurial plans. This Constitution permitted us to begin building a truly effective Federation. ... We knew him as a brave and a warm-hearted, spiritual person. He was an upstanding and courageous national leader. And he was always very honest and frank while defending his position. ... [Yeltsin] assumed full responsibility for everything he called for, for everything he aspired to. For everything he tried to do and did do for the sake of Russia, for the sake of millions of Russians. And he invariably took upon himself, let it in his heart, all the trials and tribulations of Russia, peoples’ difficulties and problems."[70]
, that: day of national mourning Putin said, upon declaring 25 April 2007 a [69] and all entertainment programs suspended for the day.half mast, with the nation's flags flown at day of mourningPresident Putin declared the day of his funeral a national

Yeltsin was the first Russian head of state in 113 years to be buried in a church ceremony, after Emperor Alexander III.[68] He was survived by his wife, Naina Iosifovna Yeltsina, whom he married in 1956, and their two daughters Yelena and Tatyana, born in 1957 and 1959, respectively.

Boris Yeltsin died of congestive heart failure[62][63] on 23 April 2007, aged 76.[64][65] According to experts quoted by Komsomolskaya Pravda, the onset of Yeltsin's condition was due to his visit to Jordan between 25 March and 2 April.[62] He was buried in the Novodevichy Cemetery on 25 April 2007,[66] following a period during which his body had lain in state in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow.[67]

Funeral of Yeltsin on 25 April 2007

Death and funeral

In September 2005, Yeltsin underwent a hip operation in Moscow after breaking his femur in a fall while vacationing on the Italian island of Sardinia.[60] On 1 February 2006, Yeltsin celebrated his 75th birthday. He used this occasion as an opportunity to criticize a "monopolistic" U.S. foreign policy, and to state that Vladimir Putin was the right choice for Russia.[61]

Yeltsin maintained a low profile after his resignation, making almost no public statements or appearances. However, on 13 September 2004, following the Beslan school hostage crisis and nearly concurrent terrorist attacks in Moscow, Putin launched an initiative to replace the election of regional governors with a system whereby they would be directly appointed by the president and approved by regional legislatures. Yeltsin, together with Mikhail Gorbachev, publicly criticized Putin's plan as a step away from democracy in Russia and a return to the centrally run political apparatus of the Soviet era.[59]

Yeltsin with Naina Yeltsina on his 75th birthday on 1 February 2006.

Life after resignation

Yeltsin's personal and health problems received a great deal of attention in the global press. As the years went on, he was often viewed as an increasingly unstable leader, rather than the inspiring figure as whom he was once seen. The possibility that he might die in office was often discussed. Starting in the last years of his presidential term, Yeltsin's primary residence was the Gorki-9 presidential dacha west of Moscow. He made frequent stays at the nearby government sanatorium in Barvikha.

According to author and historian Taylor Branch's interviews with Bill Clinton, on a 1995 visit to Washington D.C., Yeltsin was found on Pennsylvania Avenue, drunk, in his underwear and trying to hail a cab in order to find pizza.[58]

After Yeltsin's death, a Dutch neurosurgeon said that his team had been secretly flown to Moscow to operate on Yeltsin in 1999. Yeltsin suffered from an unspecified neurological disorder that affected his sense of balance, causing him to wobble as if in a drunken state; the goal of the operation was to reduce the pain.[57]

Yeltsin, in his memoirs, claimed no recollection of the event but did make a passing reference to the incident when he met Borg a year later at The World Circle Kabaddi Cup in Hamilton, Ontario, where the pair had been invited to present the trophy.[55] He made a hasty withdrawal from the funeral of King Hussein of Jordan in February 1999.[56]

Journalist Yelena Tregubova barely escaped an assassination attempt after publishing this material. [54] lost his balance, and almost fell down on the podium after drinking a single glass of champagne.[53][52] According to former Deputy Prime Minister of Russia

That trip was described by a report in the Italian newspaper La Repubblica. The article, reprinted by Pravda, reported that Yeltsin often appeared drunk in public. His alleged alcoholism was also the subject of media discussion following his meeting with U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott following Clinton's inauguration in 1993 and after his flight stop-over at Shannon Airport, Ireland in September 1994 when the waiting Irish Taoiseach (prime minister) Albert Reynolds was told that Yeltsin was unwell and would not be leaving the aircraft. Reynolds tried to make excuses for him in an effort to offset his own humiliation in vainly waiting outside the plane to meet him. Speaking to the media in March 2010, Yeltsin's daughter Tatyana Yumasheva, claimed that her father had suffered a heart attack on the flight from the United States to Moscow and was therefore not in a position to leave the plane.[51]

Yeltsin suffered from heart disease during his first term as President of the Russian Federation, probably continuing for the rest of his life. Although the onset may have been earlier, his daughter has since said that he had a heart attack in September 1994 (see below). It is common knowledge that in early 1996 he was recuperating from a series of heart attacks and, soon after, he spent months in hospital recovering from a quintuple bypass operation (see above). Eventually, the cause of his death in 2007 would be recorded as congestive heart failure. According to numerous reports, Yeltsin struggled with alcoholism. The subject made headlines abroad during Yeltsin's visit to the U.S. in 1989 for a series of lectures on social and political life in the Soviet Union.

Boris Yeltsyn with tennis player Dmitrii Tursunov in 2006


By some estimates, his approval ratings when leaving office were as low as 2%.[50]

"I want to ask for your forgiveness, that many of our dreams didn't come true. That what seemed to us to be simple turned out painfully difficult. I ask forgiveness for the fact that I didn't justify some of the hopes of those people who believed that with one stroke, one burst, one sign we could jump from the grey, stagnant, totalitarian past to a bright, rich, civilized future. I myself believed this. One burst was not enough... but I want you to know - I've never said this, today it's important for me to tell you: the pain of every one of you, I feel in myself, in my heart... in saying farewell, I want to say to every one of you: be happy. You deserve happiness. You deserve happiness, and peace." [49]

On 31 December 1999, in a surprise announcement aired at 12:00 pm MSK on Russian television and taped in the morning of the same day, Yeltsin said he had resigned and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin had taken over as acting president, with elections due to take place on 26 March 2000. Yeltsin asked for forgiveness for what he acknowledged were errors of his rule, and said Russia needed to enter the new century with new political leaders. Yeltsin said:

Yeltsin appearing on TV announcing his resignation on 31 December 1999.


In December while visiting China to seek support on Chechnya, Yeltsin replied to Clinton's criticism of a Russian ultimatum to citizens of Grozny. He bluntly pronounced: "Yesterday, Clinton permitted himself to put pressure on Russia. It seems he has for a minute, for a second, for half a minute, forgotten that Russia has a full arsenal of nuclear weapons. He has forgotten about that." Clinton dismissed Yeltsin's comments stating: "I didn't think he'd forgotten that America was a great power when he disagreed with what I did in Kosovo." It fell to Vladimir Putin to downplay Yeltsin's comments and present reassurances about U.S. and Russian relations.[48]

[47] On 9 August 1999 Yeltsin fired his prime minister,

On 15 May 1999, Yeltsin survived another attempt of impeachment, this time by the democratic and communist opposition in the State Duma. He was charged with several unconstitutional activities, including the signing of the Belavezha Accords dissolving the Soviet Union in December 1991, the coup-d'état in October 1993, and initiating the war in Chechnya in 1994. None of these charges received the two-thirds majority of the Duma which was required to initiate the process of impeachment of the president.

Yeltsin on the day of his resignation, together with Putin and Alexander Voloshin

In 1998, a political and economic crisis emerged when Yeltsin's government defaulted on its debts, causing financial markets to panic and the ruble to collapse in the 1998 Russian financial crisis. During the 1999 Kosovo war, Yeltsin strongly opposed the NATO military campaign against Yugoslavia, and warned of possible Russian intervention if NATO deployed ground troops to Kosovo. In televised comments he stated: "I told NATO, the Americans, the Germans: Don't push us toward military action. Otherwise there will be a European war for sure and possibly world war."[45][46]

[44][43][42] Yeltsin underwent an emergency

Yeltsin's second term

Zyuganov, who lacked Yeltsin's resources and financial backing, saw his strong initial lead whittled away. After the first round on 16 June Yeltsin appointed a highly popular candidate Alexander Lebed, who came in third in the first round, Secretary of the Security Council of Russia, sacked at the latter's behest defence minister Pavel Grachev and on 20 June sacked a number of his siloviki, one of them being his chief of presidential security Alexander Korzhakov, viewed by many as Yeltsin's éminence grise. In the run-off on 3 July, with a turnout of 68.9%, Yeltsin won 53.8% of the vote and Zyuganov 40.3%, with the rest (5.9%) voting "against all".[41]

Yeltsin campaigned energetically, dispelling concerns about his health, and maintained a high media profile. To boost his popularity, Yeltsin promised to abandon some of his more unpopular economic reforms, boost welfare spending, end the war in Chechnya, and pay wage and pension arrears. Yeltsin's campaign also got a boost from the announcement of a $10 billion loan to the Russian government from the International Monetary Fund.[40]

Yeltsin and Bill Clinton share a laugh in October 1995.
Yeltsyn with Patriarch Alexy II and Prime Minister Vladimir Putin.

In mid-1996, Chubais and Yeltsin recruited a team of a handful of financial and media oligarchs to bankroll the Yeltsin campaign and guaranteed favorable media coverage the president on national television and in leading newspapers.[38] In return, Chubais allowed well-connected Russian business leaders to acquire majority stakes in some of Russia's most valuable state-owned assets.[39] The media painted a picture of a fateful choice for Russia, between Yeltsin and a "return to totalitarianism." The oligarchs even played up the threat of civil war if a Communist were elected president.

Panic struck the Yeltsin team when opinion polls suggested that the ailing president could not win; some members of his entourage urged him to cancel presidential elections and effectively rule as dictator from then on. Instead, Yeltsin changed his campaign team, assigning a key role to his daughter, Tatyana Dyachenko, and appointing Chubais as campaign manager. Chubais, acting as both Yeltsin's campaign manager and adviser on Russia's privatisation programme, used his control of the privatisation programme as an instrument of Yeltsin's reelection campaign.

[37] In February 1996, Yeltsin announced that he would seek a second term in the

Boris Yeltsyn on election rally in Belgorod, 1996

1996 presidential election

The Russian government had maintained that the cause was contaminated meat. The true number of victims in the anthrax outbreak at Sverdlovsk, about 850 miles (1,368 km) east of Moscow, is unknown. [35][34] of 2 April 1979 had been caused as a result of a mishap at a military facility.Sverdlovsk anthrax leak For years the Soviet authorities had denied possessing these tapes. The openness of Yeltsin about POW/MIA and KAL 007 matters may also have signalled his willingness for more openness to the West. In 1992, which he labelled the "window of opportunity", he was willing to discuss biological weapons with the U.S. and admitted that the [33]

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