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Bids for the 2014 Winter Olympics

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Bids for the 2014 Winter Olympics

Bids for the
2014 (2014) Winter Olympics and Paralympics
XXII Olympic Winter Games
XI Paralympic Winter Games
Logo of the campaign.
Pyeongchang · Salzburg
Committee IOC
Election venue Guatemala City
119th IOC Session
Missing location of the bidding cities.
Location of the bidding cities
Important dates
First bid July 28, 2005
Second bid February 1, 2006
Shortlist June 22, 2006
Decision July 4, 2007
Winner Sochi (51 votes)
Runner-up Pyeongchang (47 votes)

Seven applicant cities presented bids to host the 2014 Winter Olympics and Paralympics (formally known as XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games) to the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC Executive Board shortlisted three cities—Sochi, Russia; Salzburg, Austria; and Pyeongchang, South Korea—with Sochi winning the IOC's July 2007 final vote.

The three selected candidates, chosen on 22 June 2006, delivered to the IOC their Candidature Files (known as bid books) on 10 January 2007. From February to April 2007, an ad hoc committee performed visits to the candidate cities and prepared an evaluation report which was released one month before the election.

The election by exhaustive ballot took place on 4 July 2007 in Guatemala City during the 119th IOC Session;[1] Sochi beat out Pyeongchang by four votes in the second round of voting to win the rights to host after Salzburg had been eliminated in the first round.

Final round

Four years earlier, Pyeongchang led the first ballot, but was defeated in the second one, then losing to Vancouver, British Columbia. Both votes although four years apart bear a remarkable similarity.

There were two rounds of voting at the session that decided which city would host the games. In the first round, Pyeongchang received 36 votes while Sochi received 34 votes. Salzburg was eliminated carrying only 25 votes. In the second round of voting Pyeongchang garnered 47 votes but Sochi carried most of the votes originally cast for Salzburg and garnered 51 votes, winning the bid for the 2014 Winter Olympics.

2014 Host City Election — ballot results
City Country (NOC) Round 1 Round 2
Sochi  Russia 34 51
Pyeongchang  South Korea 36 47
Salzburg  Austria 25

Candidature procedure and timeline

Then Russian President Vladimir Putin addresses the IOC session on 4 July 2007 in Guatemala City on behalf of the 2014 Sochi bid.

Phase 1: Candidature acceptance procedure

Bidding cities had to be approved by their National Olympic committees, which have the right to choose between several cities in their respective countries. The cities had to submit their applications to the IOC by 28 July 2005. The cities were asked to complete a questionnaire, which they had to submit to the IOC by 1 February 2006. An IOC Working Group then studied their answers in order to help the Executive Board members select the cities which became Candidate Cities and went through to the second phase of the process. The Executive Board of IOC accepted three bids on 22 June 2006.

Phase 2: Candidature procedure

The Candidate Cities were invited to submit their candidature file, which is a detailed description of their Olympic plans, and to prepare for a visit by the IOC Evaluation Commission. This Commission undertook a technical analysis of each candidature and then produced a report, which was to be published one month before the host city election and sent to the IOC members for study. The candidature files were submitted on 10 January 2007. The IOC Evaluation Committee visited the candidate cities in February–March 2007 and published its report on 4 June.

During the 119th IOC Session on 4 July 2007 in Guatemala City, Salzburg received 25 votes (and was relegated), Pyeongchang received 36 votes, and Sochi received 34 votes in the first round of the IOC voting procedure. In the second (and final) round, Pyeongchang received 47 votes, but Sochi received 51 votes and was therefore chosen as the host of the 2014 Olympics.

Salzburg campaign leader threatened by Russian mafia

The Russian mafia helped Russia win the games by threatening the Salzburg campaign leader Fedor Radmann who later resigned in 2007 according to German security officials.[2] Informants observed a meeting between mafia leaders and Russian government foreign policy advisor Sergei Prikhodko in 2006 in a Munich restaurant to discuss the Olympic selection process.[2] Radmann himself denies he ever met any Russian mobsters but his colleagues state that the feared for his life and the mayor of Salzburg Heinz Schaden confirms the link.[2][3][4]

Bidding cities

Candidate cities

Sochi residents celebrate IOC's decision to hold 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi
City Country National Olympic Committee Result
Logo of Sochi's campaign. Sochi  Russia Russian Olympic Committee (OKR) Winner

The Russian Black Sea resort bid for the Winter Olympics for the second time after failing to make the shortlist in 2002. The ski resort in Krasnaya Polyana, which is being designed by the same company working on ski slopes for the 2010 Winter Olympics, will open in 2007 and will be the primary venue for outdoor sports while Sochi will host indoor winter sports. The high number of hotel rooms and strong public and political support from the city are expected to have strengthened the bid's chances.

Logo of Pyeongchang's campaign. Pyeongchang  South Korea Korean Olympic Committee (KOC) First runner-up

Pyeongchang was unanimously selected over Muju by the Korean Olympic Committee in December 2004, and was the first city to submit its bid to the International Olympic Committee. The bid launched a full-scale campaign in an effort to secure a Winter Olympics, after losing in the 2010 Olympic race by a mere three votes to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The 2014 project concentrated all venues within one hour of Pyeongchang, called for huge sums of investment into new infrastructure and sporting venues, including the new Alpensia Resort; moreover, the sporting event would promote a message of peace and harmony in the divided country. Since 2003, the region was selected to host the 2009 Snowboard World Championships, the 2009 Biathlon World Championships and the 2009 World Women's Curling Championship in an aim at becoming the winter sports hub of Asia. Although an International Olympic Committee evaluation team complimented the area on levels of public support, government support, and infrastructure in February 2007,[5] Pyeongchang is not a popular tourist destination for foreign skiers, snow machines are heavily relied on due to South Korea's dry winter climate, most slopes in the area's two ski resorts are relatively short, amenities and entertainment facilities in the surrounding area are relatively undeveloped, and "the runs are blocked off in a way that it is tough to find a place to take a mid-slope pee in the woods," causing some to question Pyeongchang's ability to successfully host the Winter Olympics.[6]

Logo of Salzburg's campaign. Salzburg  Austria Austrian Olympic Committee (ÖOC) Second runner-up

The Austrian city was eliminated in the first round in voting during the 2010 competition. The 2014 bid is more compact than the 2010 project due to the elimination of the Kitzbühel, St. Johann and Ramsau venues. One venue (Schönau am Königssee for bobsled, skeleton and luge) is located in Germany.

Note: the cities are listed in the presentation order determined by draw during the IOC Executive Board meeting of 26 October 2005.

Applicant cities

The following applicant cities have been approved by their National Olympic Committees[7] and submitted their applications to the IOC, but were not selected as candidates by the Executive board. They all sent their respective questionnaire answers by 1 February 2006. These documents have been made public in the following days.

2014 non-selected applicant cities
Logo Name Country (IOC Country Code) Official
web site
Jaca  Spain (ESP) Jaca 2014
Jaca has failed four times in bidding for the Winter Olympics—for the 1998, 2002, 2010, and 2014 Olympics. It has previously hosted the 1981 and 1995 Winter Universiades, and hosted the European Youth Olympic Festival in February 2007. Skiing events were proposed to take place at ski resorts of the Pyrenees: Candanchú, Formigal, Astún and Panticosa. Most of the ice events, as well as the Opening and Closing Ceremonies (at La Romareda Stadium), were to take place 142 kilometers south of Jaca in Zaragoza. Preliminary ice hockey competitions were to take place in Jaca and Huesca. Jaca did bid for 2002 but missed the short list which was limited to Östersund (Sweden), Quebec City (Canada), Sion (Switzerland) and Salt Lake City from the US, the eventual host.

One of the main reasons that Jaca didn't make the short list is that the Opening and Closing Ceremonies were not scheduled to take place in Jaca which is in contradiction with article 34.1 of the Olympic Charter.

Almaty  Kazakhstan (KAZ) Almaty 2014
Almaty, Kazakhstan's largest city, submitted its official bid for the 2014 Olympics to the International Olympic Committee. The city had already planned to host the 2011 Winter Asian Games. The National Olympic Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan cited that the city would have used existing indoor sports facilities and the Chimbulak Mountain ski slopes. The bid was quite compact with all the ice events in downtown Almaty and the alpine events in nearby Kumbel. The farthest events would have been in the Soldatskoe Valley venue, only 45 km away from the center of Almaty and the Olympic Village. The historic Medew ice rink would have been the speed skating venue and would have been covered for the Games. It bears to mention that based on the scores released by the Executive Committee report, Almaty placed fourth overall, and would have been eligible for the shortlist as it had cleared the benchmark for some categories. However, IOC president Jacques Rogge commented that in the process of shortlisting in order to determine an Olympic Host City, what matters was 'not quantity, but the quality' of the overall bids. Although Almaty presented a good bid, it was implied that it was not as feasibly up-to-par as the three that were selected to enter the shortlist.
Sofia  Bulgaria (BUL) Sofia 2014
Sofia submitted its application in the city's third attempt to land the Winter Games, after losing the 1992 and 1994 nominations to Albertville and Lillehammer, respectively. The proposed Olympics was based on three main centers: Sofia itself, Borovets and Bansko. Sofia would have hosted the ice events and bobsleigh and luge events in nearby Vitosha natural park. The ambitious multi-million euro Super Borovets (70 km away) expansion project was a further signal of Bulgaria's continual investment into infrastructure and would have hosted cross country skiing, freestyle skiing and snowboarding events. Near Sofia is located also the fast developing Bansko resort (159 km). Bansko, the site of the 2007 European biathlon championship, would have hosted the biathlon and alpine skiing events. The city's bid also seemed to had gained significant political support within the country and thus sent in its application early on April 17, 2004. Sofia missed the 2014 shortlist on June 22, 2006. According to experts, the main reason for the 2014 elimination was the lack of detailed information provided in the reply to the IOC's questionnaire.
Borjomi Georgia (GEO) Borjomi 2014
Despite the lack of sports infrastructure, Georgia reportedly had the money and the will to host the Winter Olympics. The Games were proposed to be held in two locations: Borjomi and Tbilisi, which are about 200 km apart.

Borjomi was the proposed venue for the outdoor sports disciplines (Alpine Skiing, Biathlon, Bobsleigh, Cross Country Skiing, Freestyle Skiing, Luge, Nordic Combined, Skeleton, Ski Jumping and Snowboard), while Tbilisi was expected to host the indoor sports disciplines (Curling, Figure Skating, Ice-Hockey, Short Track Speed Skating and Speed Skating). The Opening and Closing Ceremonies were expected to take place in the natural amphitheatre in the centre of Bakuriani, a suburb of Borjomi. Bakuriani would also have been the venue for the cross country and freestyle skiing.

Note: the cities are listed in the presentation order determined by draw during the IOC Executive Board meeting of 26 October 2005.

Evaluation of the applicant cities

Each cell of the table provides a minimum and a maximum figure obtained by the applicant city on the specific criteria. These figures are to be compared to a benchmark which has been set at 6.

Table of scores given by the IOC Working Group to assess the quality and feasibility of the 2014 Applicant cities
Criteria Weight Sochi Salzburg Jaca Almaty Pyeongchang Sofia Borjomi
Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max
Governmental support, legal issues, public opinion 2 6.6 7.5 6.6 7.2 7.3 8.1 4.7 5.9 7.9 8.5 5.1 6.4 4.5 5.6
General infrastructure 5 5.8 6.9 7.8 8.6 4.8 6.0 6.3 7.9 6.4 7.6 4.2 5.3 2.7 4.2
Sport venues 4 5.5 7.1 7.2 8.4 5.0 6.6 4.7 6.9 6.8 8.1 3.6 5.4 3.4 4.9
Olympic Village(s) 3 7.4 8.6 7.9 8.9 4.2 6.5 6.5 8.0 5.2 7.2 4.8 6.5 5.5 7.2
Environmental conditions and impact 2 4.9 6.6 7.8 8.7 5.2 6.6 4.9 6.6 6.4 8.0 2.5 4.5 2.0 4.5
Accommodation 5 7.3 8.3 9.6 9.6 4.3 4.8 4.9 5.9 9.6 9.6 3.9 4.1 3.0 4.1
Transport concept 3 5.9 7.7 7.1 8.6 2.6 4.3 7.6 8.8 6.6 8.0 2.6 4.3 2.2 4.3
Safety and security 3 6.0 6.7 7.6 8.2 6.8 7.3 6.0 6.5 7.4 8.1 4.3 5.3 3.4 4.7
Experience from past sport events 3 5.2 7.2 8.6 9.6 6.8 8.4 3.8 5.4 8.0 9.0 5.4 7.0 2.0 4.0
Finance 3 6.0 6.8 7.0 8.0 6.5 8.0 5.6 6.8 6.2 7.6 4.6 5.8 2.8 3.5
Overall project and legacy 3 5.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 3.0 5.0 4.0 7.0 7.0 8.0 3.0 5.0 2.0 4.0
  • Report by the IOC candidature acceptance working group to the IOC Executive Board

Applicant cities comparison

2014 applicant cities
Category Details Sochi
 South Korea
Population City (2005) 333,267 149,997 12,322 1,185,696 45,482 1,090,295 13,725
Country (2005) 143,420,309 8,184,691 40,341,462 15,185,844 48,294,134 7,450,349 4,677,401
Public opinion, support City 84% 60% 91% 83% 97% 81%
Country 53% 72% 85% 92% 74% 86%
Bid budget (million US$) Phase I 10.0 2.7 1.3 4.0 5.0 0.5 2.2
Phase II 17.5 5.1 10.7 16.0 16.0 12.5 5.0
Main airport,
Name Sochi International Salzburg Airport Zaragoza Airport Almaty International Incheon International Sofia International Tbilisi International
Distance (km) 6 5 156 22 241 10 203
Runways 2/2 1 2 1/2 2/3 1 2/2
Terminals 1/2 2 1/2 1/2
Gates 8/27 18 3 44/74 7 2/6
Cap./year 215,213 1,650,000/3,000,000 2,000,000/4,000,000
Cap./day 40,000 24,000/48,000
Cap./hour 1,200/2,500 12,000/17,253 /2,000
Longest distance* km 86 83 180 61 124 156 199
min 94 65 150 93 76 135 196

*Airports not included

Note: the cities are listed in the presentation order defined by the IOC during its Executive Board of October 26, 2005.

Applicant cities venues list

These venues are from the applicant cities' mini bid books. Note that the selected candidate cities, and in particular Sochi, have changed their venues plan afterwards in the final proposal to the IOC.

2014 applicant cities
Event Sochi Salzburg Jaca Almaty Pyeongchang Sofia Borjomi
Dates 7 February
23 February
7 February
23 February
31 January
16 February
7 February
23 February
7 February
23 February
10 February
26 February
7 February
23 February
Opening and closing ceremonies Fisht Olympic Stadium Wals Siezenheim Stadium La Romareda, Zaragoza Almaty Central Stadium Alpensia Vasil Levski National Stadium Ceremony Plaza (Bakuriani)
Alpine skiing
speed M
Roza Khutor Alpine Resort Flachauwinkl Formigal Kumbel Jungbong Alpine Skiing Area Shiligarnik (Bansko) Borjomi Didveli
Sakvelo Track
Alpine skiing
speed W
Roza Khutor Alpine Resort Altenmarkt / Zauchensee Formigal Kumbel Jungbong Alpine Skiing Area Shiligarnik (Bansko) Borjomi Didveli
Sakvelo Track
Alpine skiing
technical M
Roza Khutor Alpine Resort Flachau Candanchú Kumbel Yongpyong Resort Banderishka Poliana (Bansko) Borjomi Didveli
Alpine skiing
technical W
Roza Khutor Alpine Resort Flachau Candanchú Kumbel Yongpyong Resort Banderishka Poliana (Bansko) Borjomi Didveli
Cross country skiing Psekhako Ridge Radstadt / Altenmarkt Candanchú Soldatskoe Valley Alpensia Borovetz Bakuriani Iagora Valley
Nordic combined C-C Psekhako Ridge Bischofshofen Candanchú Gorny Gigant Alpensia Borovetz Borjomi Kokhtadziri
Freestyle skiing Laura River Valley Resort Flachauwinkl Astún Kumbel Bokwang Phoenix Cherveno Zname (Borovetz) Bakuriani Kokhta 2 Tatra Pom
Biathlon Psekhako Ridge Radstadt / Altenmarkt Candanchú Soldatskoe Valley Alpensia Banderishka Poliana (Bansko) Borjomi Iagora Valley
Ski jumping Esto Sadok Bischofshofen Canfranc-Estación Jumping Centre Gorny Gigant Alpensia Borovetz Borjomi Kokhtadziri
Snowboard Alpika Service Altenmarkt / Zauchensee
Panticosa Chimbulak Sungwoo Resort Cherveno Zname (Borovetz) Bakuriani Kokhta 2 Tatra Pom
Hockey Sochi Arena
Kudepsta Entertainment Centre
Salzburg Volksgarten
Salzburg Wals
Jaca Ice Pavilion
Huesca Sports Palace
Zaragoza Ice Pavilion
Almaty Olympic Ice Park Wonju Sports Complex
Wonju Halla University
National Winter Sports Palace (Sofia)
West Park Sports Center (Sofia)
Tbilisi Makhata Hill Arenas
Speed skating Adler Commercial Centre Salzburg Liefering Oval Jaca High Performance Winter Sports Centre Medeo Gangneung East Park National Olympic Center (Sofia) Tbilisi Central Stadium
Figure skating Imeretin Exhibition Centre Salzburg Liefering Príncipe Felipe Pavilion, Zaragoza Almaty Olympic Ice Park Gangneung East Park National Olympic Center (Sofia) Tbilisi Sport Palace
Short track Imeretinskaya Exhibition Centre Salzburg Liefering Príncipe Felipe Pavilion, Zaragoza Almaty Olympic Ice Park Gangneung East Park National Olympic Center (Sofia) Tbilisi Sport Palace
Curling Imeretinskaya Exhibition Centre Salzburg Arena Zaragoza Sports Palace Balluan Sholak Gangneung Sofia Tbilisi Makhata Hill
Bobsleigh/luge/skeleton National Sliding Centre Schönau am Königsee (Germany) Panticosa Sliding Centre Almatau Sungwoo Resort Boiana Center Borjomi Tskhratskaro

Potential bids

The following cities expressed interest in bidding but withdrew their 2014 Winter Olympics bids or decided not to bid.

See also


  1. ^ "2014 Winter Olympic Games bids".  
  2. ^ a b c "Holte die Russen-Mafia die Spiele nach Sotschi?".  
  3. ^ "Russen-Mafia soll bei Sotschi-Bewerbung geholfen haben".  
  4. ^ "Sotschi statt Salzburg: War die Mafia im Spiel?".  
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ [2]
  7. ^ [3]

External links

  • Candidature acceptance procedure for the XXII Olympic Winter Games 2014
  • Homepage of the Sochi bid at the Wayback Machine (archived June 2, 2008)
  • Homepage of the Salzburg bid
  • Homepage of the Jaca bid
  • Homepage of the Almaty bid
  • Homepage of the PyeongChang bid
  • Homepage of the Sofia bid
  • Homepage of the Borjomi bid
  • Information on current bid process
  • IOC press release about the bid process (October 26, 2005)

Candidature files

  • Sochi 2014
  • Salzburg 2014
  • PyeongChang 2014

Mini bid books

  • Sochi 2014
  • Salzburg 2014
  • Jaca 2014
  • Almaty 2014
  • PyeongChang 2014
  • Sofia 2014
  • Borjomi 2014

IOC evaluation report of the applicant cities

  • Conclusions
  • Full evaluation report
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