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Bersih 2.0 rally

Bersih 2.0 rally
Bersih 2.0 logo
Date 9 July 2011
Location Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Goals To call for free and fair elections in Malaysia.
Status Concluded
Parties to the civil conflict
United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Wing
Lead figures
Number
10,000 to over 20,000
(50,000 claimed by Bersih,
6,000 claimed by police)[1][2][3][4]
500[4][5]
Casualties
1 death (Heart attack)

The Bersih 2.0 rally (also called the Walk for Democracy) was a demonstration in Bersih), was supported by Pakatan Rakyat, the coalition of the three largest opposition parties in Malaysia, but was deemed illegal by the government. Bersih, chaired by former president of the Bar Council Ambiga Sreenevasan, were pushing the Election Commission of Malaysia (EC) to ensure free and fair elections in Malaysia. It demanded that the EC clean up the electoral roll, reform postal voting, use indelible ink, introduce a minimum 21-day campaign period, allow all parties free access to the media, and put an end to electoral fraud.

The police vowed to stop any rallies from taking place on the planned date on the grounds that all public gatherings without police permits are illegal. Having originally planned to march through the streets of Kuala Lumpur, Bersih decided to hold its rally at Merdeka Stadium after consultations with the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Malaysia's head of state.

Supporters of Bersih claim that demands for electoral reform made during the 2007 demonstration fell on deaf ears. UMNO Youth and Perkasa planned counter-rallies, dismissing Bersih's demands for electoral reform, but Perkasa called off its counter-rally due to its inability to secure a venue and permit.

Estimates of the turnout ranged between 10,000 to over 20,000. The protestors were unable to congregate at Merdeka Stadium as many were forced to disperse by police who were heavily deployed throughout the city. Police arrested more than 1600 protestors, including Ambiga and several opposition figures.

Contents

  • Background 1
    • Protests in Malaysia 1.1
    • Bersih 1.2
    • Demands 1.3
    • Plans 1.4
      • Abroad 1.4.1
  • Lead-up to the rally 2
    • Announcement 2.1
    • Counter-rallies 2.2
      • Perkasa 2.2.1
      • UMNO Youth 2.2.2
    • Election Commission reaction 2.3
    • Government reaction 2.4
    • Opposition reaction 2.5
    • Non-governmental organisations 2.6
    • International response 2.7
    • Threats of violence 2.8
    • Yang di-Pertuan Agong's intervention 2.9
    • Police reports and reaction 2.10
      • Pre-rally arrests and raids 2.10.1
      • Lockdown 2.10.2
  • Protests 3
    • International protests 3.1
  • Aftermath 4
    • Reform proposals 4.1
  • Coverage and analysis 5
    • Pre-rally 5.1
      • Print media 5.1.1
      • Internet news 5.1.2
      • International 5.1.3
    • Reactions to the rally 5.2
    • Censorship 5.3
  • Criticism 6
    • Election Commission 6.1
      • Response to demands 6.1.1
    • Government 6.2
    • UMNO 6.3
    • Perkasa 6.4
    • Independents 6.5
    • Business 6.6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Background

The ruling coalition in Malaysia,

  • Bersih 2.0
  • Joint Communiqué issued by Bersih
  • UMNO Youth
  • YouTube.com channel of public's account on Bersih 2.0 Rally
  • Crowd estimation

External links

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References

See also

UMNO encouraged business operators and taxi drivers to sue Bersih for any losses that may be caused by the rally.[206]

Sections of the business community initially condemned the proposed street rally, arguing that business operators would have suffered losses on 9 July, a Saturday.[202] Among the groups opposed to the rally were the KL and Selangor Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry,[203] the Malaysian Associated Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry,[204] and the Executive Taxi Owners' Association.[205]

Business

"Independent" Member of Parliament [201]

Independents

Perkasa has criticised the rally for threatening to spread chaos,[43] claiming that the opposition will use the rally to trigger an uprising similar to Egypt and Libya.[48] Perkasa president Ibrahim Ali also threw his support behind the EC, arguing that they had already answered demands for free and fair elections.[44] Ibrahim Ali also warned Chinese community should avoid joining this rally and stay away from it by keeping food at home.

Perkasa

Anwar's former political secretary Senator Ezam Mohd Noor called Anwar a hypocrite, saying that Anwar's own PKR party election in 2010 was rife with allegations of manipulation.[200]

UMNO's information chief Ahmad Maslan said that the event might risk damaging the economy and national security.[199] UMNO Youth leader Khairy Jamaluddin said Anwar's attempts to exert influence over the rally on 19 June was proof that Bersih was "compromised" by the opposition.[83] UMNO Youth executive council member Tengku Azman Tengku Zainol Abidin said public rallies should not be held on the streets and that the 2007 Bersih rally "achieved nothing."[100]

UMNO

Prime minister Najib said claims that elections are unfair "did not make sense," adding that the opposition are using instability to their political advantage.[65] He challenged them to take on the government in the polls instead.[65] The Home Minister, Hishamuddin, responding to early reports announcing the rally, criticised public demonstrations in particular.[67] He slammed Bersih for trying to "instill hatred" and "show the world that our country is chaotic."[67] Deputy Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin said the planned rally is "undemocratic" and claimed that it is supported only by a small segment of the population.[197] He also warned of foreign powers taking advantage of instability in Malaysia.[198]

The rally has been roundly criticised by government politicians, who claim that the opposition are using the rally, purportedly a non-partisan protest, to advance its own political agenda.[192][193][194][195] Some ministers also accused the rally organisers of attempting a coup d'état.[192][196]

Government

  • Responding to Bersih's demand that voter registration be automatic once a citizen reaches voting age, Abdul Aziz said such a proposal would contravene Article 119 (4) of the Constitution, which he claims clearly states that registration as a voter can only be done through application by the voter him/herself.[14] EC deputy chairman Wan Ahmad Wan Omar added that unregistered voters are "indifferent," and will not bother to vote anyway.[191]
  • Abdul Aziz also defended against allegations that the EC is lackadaisical in tackling phantom voting. He said that the EC cannot strike names of dead voters off the electoral roll unless the family of a dead voter requests it and produces the dead voter's death certificate.[14] He also blamed allegations of voting in multiple constituencies on voters who refuse to change the addresses on their identification cards when they move homes.[14]
  • Wan Ahmad said the use of indelible ink is "regressive" and only practised in less developed countries. He also raised the possibility of voters not wanting their fingers inked and voters who somehow inked their fingers before voting.[191] Abdul Aziz said the EC was considering a biometric fingerprinting system instead.[16][64]
  • Wan Ahmad said a 21-day campaign period is "unnecessary" as Malaysia has a relatively small land area and population.[191]

Response to demands

[190] He claimed the opposition were using the EC as a scapegoat for political gain.[62] The

Election Commission

Criticism

The Economist '​s coverage of the rally was partially censored by the government. Four lines in the article titled "Taken to the cleaners – an overzealous government response to an opposition rally" was inked out.[188] Najib later admitted that censoring parts of the article was a mistake which generated negative publicity.[189]

Censorship

The Guardian '​s Simon Tisdall slammed Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak's harsh treatment towards the peaceful rally participants, noting that the British Prime Minister David Cameron should tell Najib that "strong-arm tactics against protesters are unacceptable" and that "Malaysia's leaders should wake up and smell the coffee".[187]

International reaction was unanimously critical of the government. The Singapore Straits Times added that Malaysian society has been polarised by the country’s divisive politics as clearly demonstrated when thousands braved a security lockdown of Kuala Lumpur.[182] In an editorial, the Jakarta Post described Malaysia as a "rich but not free" country, with its leaders still "laboring under an old paradigm" and refusing to allow its people to exercise their rights to free speech by invoking racial tension.[183] Al Jazeera English's Teymoor Nabili said the government acted out of fear of an Egypt-style revolution.[184] Bloomberg columnist William Pesek calls the rally a part of the "rising call for political change in Asia" that play a decisive role in foreign investment to Asian countries.[185] The Asian Sentinel stated that although Najib Tun Razak appears to have won the battle by closing down Kuala Lumpur on Saturday and arresting 1,667 mostly peaceful marchers and would-be marchers, the consensus seems to be that Malaysia has suffered a blow to its international reputation as a moderate, democratic country.[186]

Ibrahim Suffian, head of the Merdeka Center, an independent think tank, said the actions of Bersih and the government polarised Malaysians of opposite political opinions. "For Pakatan Rakyat supporters, it has just increased their scepticism of the [BN-ruled] government. For those who are pro-government, it has hardened their belief that the PR is out to cause trouble."[179] One analyst accused Barisan Nasional of abusing public institutions to protect its power,[181] while another added that "the police lost more credibility than the protesters."[123]

The Malaysian Insider '​s Debra Chong said Najib's administration "took a massive punch to its gut," as accounts of police personnel using tear gas and water cannons against unarmed civilians were reported by international media. She said the rally showed the willingness of the middle class and civil society to stand up to the government.[178] TMI's Sheridan Mahavera said the rally was a display of racial unity.[179] Jeswan Kaur of Free Malaysia Today said Najib and the police were to blame for the chaotic scenes.[180]

Newspapers owned by Barisan Nasional parties were highly critical of the rally, accusing Bersih of disturbing the peace.[174] Utusan Malaysia called the police operation to foil the illegal rally a success.[175] The Star remarked in an editorial the following day: "If every complaint made one or the other party take to the streets, bringing a city to a standstill, people would not be getting much work done." It said Bersih achieved the publicity it sought, and that everyone should move on.[176] The New Straits Times said there was "no winner in this madness" as many were hurt, and "Bersih's intentions were hijacked by the opposition coalition."[177] NST's 10 July front page featured a photo of a protestor throwing an object with the headline "Peaceful?"[174]

Reactions to the rally

Professor Clive Kessler of the University of New South Wales in an interview with ABC Radio stated that the Agong's intervention was a rebuke to Umno and the government and an acknowledgement of Bersih’s legitimacy.[173]

In an op-ed for The Wall Street Journal, former US ambassador to Malaysia John R. Malott said Najib's UMNO is "running scared" of losing power and is waging a campaign of intimidation against Bersih. He called the protest "a brave step" towards the country's transition to full democracy.[172]

International

Free Malaysia Today, another news website, argued in favour of the rally, saying that concerns that it will serve as a "spring offensive" to overthrow the government are exaggerated. It lamented what it perceived as Malaysia's flawed democracy, saying "[there] are two ways to punish political perverts who have raped democracy: vote them out or take to the streets." It also criticised the government for threatening to clamp down on protestors, saying that the ruling coalition is using public order as an excuse to preserve its stay in power.[170] In another editorial the day before the rally, FMT was highly critical of the government, asking the people to "decide the course of history" and defy a "harsh and repressive" state.[171]

News website The Malaysian Insider called the government's tough stand against the Bersih rally "double standards," deriding the government's non-action against Ibrahim Ali, who had earlier called for jihad against Christians. It also blamed the police for the chaos that occurred during the 2007 rally and dismissed the government's concern for national security and threat to tourism as self-caused.[168] The website reported analysts saying the rally will help PAS cement the growing support the party has gained among the Malay community.[169]

[167][166] Fellow columnists Mariam Mokhtar and Dean Johns criticised the government's crackdown on Bersih.[165] Josh Hong of

Internet news

M Faqih, writing in the PAS organ Harakah Daily, compared the planned rally to the September 1998 protests in Kuala Lumpur against then-deputy prime minister Anwar Ibrahim's sacking and detention on sodomy and corruption charges, which he described as peaceful unlike the revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt. He called on the opposition to seize the initiative with public discontent over government policies and use the rally as a stepping stone to victory in next general election.[164]

Johan Jaaffar, chairman of Media Prima (owned by UMNO), the parent company of the New Straits Times, wrote in the paper: "The government of the day is not perfect. So, too, the system... we don't solve problems on the streets. That's not us, nor our way."[163]

In a 22 June editorial, [162]

Tay Tian Yan wrote in the Sin Chew Daily, the highest circulated daily in Malaysia, that the rally is a repeat scenario of the 2007 protest, where the opposition cashed in on public discontent over rising prices and staged the rally to generate momentum ahead of the general election. He also noted that the counter-rally by UMNO Youth is a ploy by BN to mitigate the Bersih rally's momentum, as opposed to suppressing the rally outright, which he said would swing public opinion against BN.[160] Lim Sue Goan noted the involvement of Pakatan Rakyat and UMNO in opposite rallies, and said the event has grown from becoming a mere march to demand free elections to a political showdown between the government and opposition.[161]

[159]

Print media

State news agency Bernama quoted several political analysts saying that the rally will tarnish Malaysia's image abroad and is a distraction from Anwar Ibrahim's ongoing sodomy trials. It claimed the 1998 demonstrations against Anwar's arrest and the 2007 Bersih rally caused "inconvenience to the public and damage to public property, attracting bad publicity from the international media." One analyst said elections are "already fair as fair can be."[153] Bernama also reported analysts saying that Ambiga has a history of provoking Muslims and working against interests of the Malay community.[154]

The lead-up to the rally has received polarising coverage in Malaysia's print and internet news media. Malaysia's print media are subject to the Printing Presses and Publications Act, which stipulates they can only publish with a license granted by the Ministry of Home Affairs.[151] A news website has alleged that the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission instructed radio and television stations to omit coverage of police violence and focus on the damage done by rally participants.[152]

Pre-rally

Coverage and analysis

In his Malaysia Day 2011 address in September, Najib announced the government's intentions to repeal the Internal Security Act, Emergency Ordinance, remove the annual renewal of press and publication permits, and review Section 27 of the Police Act.[149] In November 2011, the government tabled the Peaceful Assembly Act to replace Section 27 of the Police Act.[150]

On 15 August 2011, Najib announced that a parliamentary select committee will be formed to examine the electoral system. He said the committee will consist of members of parliament from both the government and opposition coalition who will discuss electoral reform issues "so that a mutual agreement can be reached."[148]

Reform proposals

Amnesty International released a statement saying: "This brutal crackdown on peaceful protesters is undermining Malaysia’s claim to be a moderate democracy. Mr. Najib’s government has chosen the path of repression, not reform."[123] Lawyers for Liberty released a statement saying that the police deliberately shot gas canisters against the protestors.[147]

The United States expressed concern over the crackdown. State Department spokesman Mark Toner said "We stand for... the right for people to freely express their democratic aspirations and express their views freely."[146]

Prime Minister Najib Razak downplayed the rally, insisting it only represented a minority of the population.[144] He also said the anti-government sentiment among the protestors confirmed the government's fears that Bersih's agenda had been hijacked by the opposition.[144] Home Minister Hishamuddin Hussein praised the police for keeping the rally under control and said the rally revealed itself to be an opposition plot.[145]

Leader of the Opposition Anwar Ibrahim said the rally was a "success" despite "police brutality."[122] DAP secretary-general Lim Guan Eng said the "police abuse" was "a big blow to the image of Malaysia."[143]

National laureate A. Samad Said called the rally a "great success", lauding the multiracial unity among the protestors.[141] Ambiga, speaking after being released, congratulated those who attended the rally, saying "we were not intimidated."[128] The Bersih leadership commended protestors for behaving peacefully and condemned the police for reacting harshly to the demonstration.[142] They said the gathering was "not the end, it is but one more step in the long walk for clean and fair elections in Malaysia."[142]

Aftermath

Bersih rallies also commenced in Melbourne, Sydney, Perth, Adelaide, Brisbane and Canberra, Australia, attracting around 750 people, 300 people, 200 people, 150 people, 50 people and 30 people respectively. Rallies were also reported in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch, New Zealand,[134][135] as well as in London, England.[136] A gathering of about 120 people was reported at the Speaker's Corner at Hong Lim Park, Singapore.[137] Further rallies were reported in central Hong Kong,[138] Taiwan,[139] Japan, South Korea, Switzerland, Sweden, France, England, Scotland, Ireland, Canada and the United States.[140]

International protests

One death was reported. Protestor Baharuddin Ahmad accidentally inhaled tear gas fired by police. He was later arrested, but when he started to black out police didn't do anything and just stood there and watched. He was restrained by handcuffs which made the matters worse and he wasn't released because police lost the keys. After 15 minutes, an ambulance was called but never arrived. Finally, a volunteer took Baharuddin to a nearby hospital but it was already too late.[129] Police said he died of heart complications.[130][131][132][133]

By 18:40 in the evening, police had confirmed 1,667 arrests, including 167 females and minors.[127] Most of the arrested protestors, including Ambiga, were freed by the end of the day.[128]

Around 1,000 protestors eventually reached Merdeka Stadium, including national laureate A. Samad Said and PAS's Husam Musa.[124] At around 16:00, the crowd voluntarily began dispersing.[124] However, police continued to fire tear gas and chemical-laced water at any individual and moved in to arrest them. Another group of protestors tried to reach the National Palace, while a third group gathered at Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC) Park beneath the Petronas Twin Towers.[124][125] Thousands eventually gathered at KLCC but were dispersed by police using tear gas and chemically-laced water.[126]

UMNO Youth's rally in Bukit Bintang however, was allowed to on peacefully without intervention from the police.

At 14:00, Bersih and Pakatan Rakyat leaders began their march towards Merdeka Stadium. Shielded by hundreds of supporters, they pushed past three lines of police personnel awaiting them outside KL Sentral.[120] Around 14:30, while walking with supporters in Brickfields, Ambiga and fellow steering committee member Maria Chin Abdullah were arrested.[120] Opposition politicians detained include Abdul Hadi Awang, Mohamad Sabu, Salahuddin Ayub, Mahfuz Omar, Dzulkefly Ahmad, Azmin Ali, Tian Chua, Fuziah Salleh, Sivarasa Rasiah, and Ngeh Koo Ham.[121] Anwar Ibrahim said he sustained a bruise on his head and a cut leg when police fired live rounds.[122][123] PAS MP Khalid Samad was said to have suffered a serious head injury and was admitted to hospital.[121]

Major gathering points included Menara Maybank, Jalan Pudu, and Puduraya where riot police confronted protestors.[118][119] Thousands tried to reach Merdeka Stadium from various parts of the city, chanting "Hidup rakyat!" ("Long live the people!").[115] Police responded by firing numerous rounds of tear gas and chemical-laced water, causing the crowds to disperse into nearby buildings. Police continued to fire tear gas and chemical-laced water at the buildings. Many buildings including a hospital were targeted by the police as a result.[115]

Independent assessments put the rally numbers at between 10,000 to over 20,000, while Bersih claimed a turnout of 50,000.[1][2][2][3]

The police force charging at a crowd of regrouping protesters.
A member of the Federal Reserve Unit prepares to disperse the protesters with tear gas.
Protesters marching the streets of Kuala Lumpur peacefully before the police confronted them.

Kuala Lumpur was described as a "ghost town" on the morning of 9 July. Many offices and shops were closed as police maintained heavy presences in key areas.[114] Crowds began pouring in by noon, where they were met by police who took "extraordinary" security measures, known as "Operation Erase Bersih."[115] Many were arrested and transported to the police training center (Pulapol).[116][117] The protestors were arrested under Section 27 of the Police Act for planning to participate in illegal rallies,[114] and face several years in prison if convicted.[117]

Protests

On 8 July, police sealed off Merdeka Square and rolled in water cannon and riot police trucks.[113] At midnight on 9 July, major roads in the city was shut and public transportation suspended.[75][106]

Police began imposing roadblocks in the Klang Valley on Wednesday, 6 July, which led to massive traffic congestion and complaints from the public.[111] They described it as a "preventive" move to stop protesters from participating in the protest.[112]

Lockdown

One day before the planned rally, police released a list of 91 individuals, including Ambiga, Khairy and Ibrahim, barred from entering Kuala Lumpur's central business district on 9 July.[106][110]

Police also raided and vandalised Bersih's office in Petaling Jaya on 30 June.[109]

30 members of Parti Sosialis Malaysia (PSM) were arrested in Penang on 26 June on suspicion of spreading communism and conspiring to overthrow the government.[17][107] Six members, including MP Michael Jeyakumar Devaraj, remain held under the Emergency Ordinance 1969, which allows indefinite detention without trial.[108]

More than 150 people were arrested before 9 July for Bersih-related activities, including distributing leaflets.[105][106] Most were released after several hours of questioning.[105]

The police enforced road blocks throughout the city to discourage turnout.

Pre-rally arrests and raids

Police recorded statements from Ambiga, Ibrahim, and opposition politicians ahead of the rally.[102][103] On 1 July, the police ceased discussions with Bersih, Perkasa and UMNO Youth and promised to prevent any street rallies from taking place.[99][104]

Police also investigated allegations that Ambiga received funds from foreign NGOs "to cause chaos in Malaysia."[101]

At least 2,136[99] police reports, from business operators, travel agencies, and UMNO Youth, were filed against Bersih since the rally's announcement.[45][100] On 15 June, the police announced that permits would not be issued for any rally, saying that the rallies would "disturb the peace" and "cause traffic chaos."[45] Bersih remained defiant despite not receiving the permit, and promised to co-operate with police during the gathering.[33]

Police reports and reaction

Following an audience with the King, Ambiga announced that Bersih accepted the government's offer to hold the rally in a stadium instead of the streets.[35][97] Despite Bersih's meeting with the King, the government maintained its stance that Bersih is illegal.[98]

Malaysia's head of state, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin, issued a statement on 3 July urging moderation by all parties. He said "street demonstrations bring more bad than good although the original intention is good," and called for Bersih to resolve its differences with the government peacefully. He also expressed confidence in Prime Minister Najib Razak's administration.[96]

Yang di-Pertuan Agong's intervention

The grandmaster of the Malaysian [94] Najib subsequently endorsed silat groups, including PSSLM.[95]

On 23 June, Ambiga received a death threat via text message.[92] She remained defiant, saying "nothing has changed" and the rally will go on.[93]

Threats of violence

On 5 July, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights voiced concern about the restriction of freedom of expression in Malaysia and urged the government to release detained Bersih activists.[91]

International response

The Asia-Europe Peoples' Forum (AEPF), consisting of 120 international NGOs, condemned the Malaysian government for the crackdown on activists.[90]

Amnesty International called on the government to end the "mass repression" of Bersih activists.[87][88] Human Rights Watch urged the government to release all detained activists, return confiscated material, and permit the rally to proceed.[89] Deputy Asia director Phil Robertson said "Governments that elected Malaysia to a second term on the UN Human Rights Council might feel duped."[89]

The Bersih rally was backed by the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (Suhakam),[84] Transparency International Malaysia (TI-M),[85] and the Malaysian Consultative Council of Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Sikhism and Taoism (MCCBCHST).[86] The MCCBCHST also backed Perkasa and UMNO Youth's right to hold their rallies.[86]

Non-governmental organisations

On 19 June, Anwar reportedly told members of his Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR) that he would ask Ambiga to cancel the rally if the government met Bersih's demands.[80] His statement was rebuffed by Ambiga the following day.[81] Anwar later claimed he was misquoted.[80] This incident was criticised by ruling coalition parties, who have argued that the rally is in fact an opposition tool to gain support.[82][83]

PAS deputy president Mohamad Sabu gave the rally his party's full backing.[30][77] Calling the event the "Walk for Democracy," he asked for 300,000 PAS members to attend the gathering.[7] PAS president Abdul Hadi Awang ordered all of its members (numbering one million) to join the rally.[78] The Leader of the Opposition, Anwar Ibrahim, will also take part in the rally.[79] The DAP also pledged support for the rally.[9]

Opposition reaction

Najib initially offered Bersih the opportunity of holding the rally in a stadium instead of the streets.[74] The government later rejected Bersih's request to hold the rally at Merdeka Stadium, and asked them to use a stadium in Selangor instead.[75] However, the Sultan of Selangor had previously condemned demonstrations.[76]

The government also outlawed the wearing and distribution of Bersih's yellow shirts and declared Bersih an illegal organisation under Section 5 of the Societies Act 1966.[71][72] Bersih countered that as a coalition of groups it need not be registered.[73]

[70] On 22 June, he confirmed that none of the three rallies would receive police permits to hold gatherings on 9 July.[69][68][67] He promised to clamp down on demonstrators if they threatened national security.[66] Prime minister

Government reaction

Speaking to reporters while observing the Thai general election in July, Abdul Aziz said the EC was considering allowing international observers to monitor the next Malaysian general election.[64]

On 20 June, the EC extended an offer to Bersih to meet and discuss its demands, on the condition that the rally be called off. He claimed that during a previous meeting with Bersih in 2010, it had agreed that its demands were met.[62] Bersih rejected the EC's offer.[63]

[61] In turn, Ambiga criticised the EC's conduct, asking them to remain independent from politics.[60] to "overthrow the government."Pakatan Rakyat EC deputy chairman Wan Ahmad Wan Omar claimed Bersih was working with [60] Bersih's demands were repeatedly dismissed by the

Election Commission reaction

UMNO Youth's plan was to gather at Bukit Bintang and possibly march towards Merdeka Stadium.[59]

Khairy and Ibrahim became involved in a war of words over the latter's comments on regarding the Chinese community, with each side calling for the other to be investigated under the Sedition Act.[55][56][57] Ibrahim later backtracked from his comments.[58]

UMNO Youth leader Khairy Jamaluddin announced that UMNO Youth will hold another rally on the same day (known as the "Patriot Rally" or Himpunan Patriot)[51] to "strengthen the democratic system" and show that "the voice of the people does not belong only to the opposition."[52][53] He added that they had "a right to assembly guaranteed by the constitution."[54]

UMNO Youth

On 8 July, Perkasa announced the cancellation of its counter-rally due to its inability to secure a venue and a police permit.[49][50]

On 19 June, Perkasa held a gathering to protest the Bersih rally and to launch an opposing coalition of NGOs known as Gerak Aman.[47] During the gathering, images of Ambiga—described by flyers as "a dangerous Hindu woman"—were burned, while Ibrahim warned the Chinese community not to participate in the Bersih rally.[48]

[46] warned "[If they proceed] there will be a clash. If that happens, it is for the better."Ibrahim Ali Perkasa president [45] It called on Bersih to cancel its rally, warning that clashes might occur.[44]

Perkasa

Counter-rallies

[42] After frustration at by being shut out of

Announcement

Lead-up to the rally

Simultaneous rallies in support of Bersih were planned by Malaysian citizens in more than 30 cities in New Zealand, Australia, Japan, South Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Egypt, Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, France, Great Britain, Ireland, Canada, the United States and Cambodia.[39][40][41]

Abroad

Bersih insisted on gathering at Merdeka Stadium, despite preventative measures taken by police.[38]

The rally's original plan was to have protestors gather at the KL Sogo shopping center, Kuala Lumpur City Hall building, and the Kampung Baru Mosque before marching to the Istana Negara to deliver a memorandum to the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.[33] After consultations with the King, Bersih decided to hold the rally in a stadium instead.[35][36] However, their request to use Merdeka Stadium was rejected by police.[37] Bersih accused the government of reneging on a previous offer to let them rally in a stadium instead of the streets.[38]

Plans

After agreeing to abandon plans for a street demonstration, Bersih also called for a Royal Commission into election practices.[34]

  1. Clean the electoral roll
  2. Reform postal voting
  3. Use of indelible ink
  4. A minimum campaign period of 21 days
  5. Free and fair access to mainstream media
  6. Strengthen public institutions
  7. Stop corruption
  8. Stop dirty politics

The 2011 rally's immediate demands were:[32][33]

The communiqué issued by Bersih issued in 2007 called for reforms to Malaysia's first-past-the-post electoral system, ensuring the independence of the Election Commission (EC), eliminating electoral practices deemed unfair to opposition candidates, eliminating corrupt campaign practices, equal access to the media for all political parties, and instituting a caretaker government during election periods, among others in the long term.[31]

Ambiga has summed up the main issues raised by the organisation she leads as "unhappiness... in the Sarawak [election], unhappiness about corruption, [and] unhappiness about the independence of our institutions."[30] She said demands made during the first rally in 2007 have not been addressed, hence the follow-up rally.[25]

Demands

Bersih 2.0, as the organisation branded itself for the 2011 rally, is chaired by former Bar Council president Ambiga Sreenevasan. Ambiga served as president of the Bar from 2007 to 2009 and is a recipient of the US State Department's International Women of Courage Awards.[28][29]

The first Bersih rally on 10 November 2007 was estimated to have drawn between 30,000 to 50,000 people.[20][25] It was broken up by police using tear gas and chemical-laced water cannons.[20][26] The rally was said to play a major role in helping the opposition parties make big gains in the 2008 general election.[25][27]

in reference to the claims of large scale corruption in the leading party. [24] is the Malay word for "clean"Bersih [23] (PKR), PAS, and DAP.Parti Keadilan Rakyat Since its founding, Bersih has been supported by the three main opposition parties, [23][22]

A scene from the 2007 rally. Protestors on the left are dressed in yellow. They are met by the Federal Reserve Unit, the riot police (in red helmets). Standing in between the protestors and the riot police are PAS's Jabatan Amal volunteer unit (dressed in maroon).

Bersih

Street demonstrations are rare in Malaysia, but the public has become more vocal with the rise of alternative media and a resurgent opposition.[18] Gatherings in Malaysia of five or more people must receive a police permit, which is rarely granted.[16] The government has used heavy police presence to block rallies as well as arrest protest leaders to stop illegal public protests. Former prime minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi said he was willing to sacrifice public freedoms in the interest of national stability.[19] Four rallies in 2007 ended with arrests made by police.[20] A protest in 2009 against the Internal Security Act was also broken up by tear gas and water cannons.[21]

Protests in Malaysia

Both the Election Commission and BN have denied allegations of abuse.[14][15][16][17]

Civil society organisation Aliran claimed that there are "severe restrictions on political freedom" on opposition politicians in Malaysia.[11] It highlighted structural problems such as access to the media, short notices of election dates, and short campaign periods.[11][12] Human rights group SUARAM also claim abuses by the ruling party such as gerrymandering constituencies, using public funds for projects to win political support, and the "unscrutinised" counting of postal ballots.[11] Transparency International's Malaysian branch, criticising both BN and opposition parties, spoke out against financial rewards promised by political parties to voters while campaigning, calling the practice "vote buying" and "corrupt."[13]

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) deputy president Mohamad Sabu said there were many "concerns" about how the next general election will be conducted. He accused BN of cheating tactics, including registering foreign nationals as BN voters.[7] PAS information chief Tuan Ibrahim Tuan Man said the EC and the National Registration Department (NRD) "were committing abuses," and that there were "rampant media abuses."[8] Democratic Action Party (DAP) member of parliament Teresa Kok accused BN of "gerrymandering" and "malapportioning" electoral constituencies.[9] She also pointed out how the opposition parties' share of seats in parliament was a lot less than their share of the popular vote.[9] Leader of the Opposition Anwar Ibrahim claimed that BN would lose power if elections were free and fair.[10]

[13][12][11][10][9][8][7]

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