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Bagrationi dynasty

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Title: Bagrationi dynasty  
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Bagrationi dynasty

Bagrationi
ბაგრატიონი

Coat of Arms
Country Georgia
Titles
Founded c. 780
Final ruler Solomon II
Current head Prince Nugzar Bagrationi[1][2][3] (disputed)
Prince David Bagrationi[4][5][6] (disputed)
Deposition 1801/1810
Ethnicity Georgian
Cadet branches House of Mukhrani

The Bagrationi dynasty (Hellenized form of their dynastic name), also known in English as the Bagrations.

The

  • Official Site of the Royal House of Bagrationi of Georgia, Mukhrani Branch
  • Official Site of the Royal House of Bagrationi of Georgia, Gruzinsky Branch
  • Marek, Miroslav. - Genealogical account of the Bagratids per Bichikashvili-Ninidze-Peikrishvili"Genealogy.eu". Genealogy.EU. 
  • - Genealogical account of the Bagratids per Prince ToumanoffRoyal Ark

External links

  • A. Manvelichvili. "Histoire de la Georgie", Paris, 1951 (in French)
  • A. Manvelishvili. "Russia and Georgia. 1801-1951", Vol. I, Paris, 1951 (in Georgian)
  • Kartlis Tskhovreba, vol. I-IV, Tbilisi, 1955-1973 (in Georgian)
  • P. Ingorokva. Giorgi Merchule (a monograph), Tbilisi, 1954 (in Georgian)
  • Georgica, London, v. I, 1935
  • Sumbat Davitis dze. "Chronicle of the Bagration's of Tao-Klarjeti", with the investigation of Ekvtime Takaishvili, Tbilisi, 1949 (in Georgian)
  • "Das Leben Kartlis", ubers. und herausgegeben von Gertrud Patch, Leipzig, 1985 (in German)
  • V. Guchua, N. Shoshiashvili. "Bagration's".- Encyclopedia "Sakartvelo", vol. I, Tbilisi, 1997, pp. 318–319 (in Georgian)

Further reading

  • Baddeley, JF, Gammer M (INT) (2003), The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus, Routledge (UK), ISBN 0-7007-0634-8 (First published in 1908; 1999 edition, reprinted in 2003)
  • Lang, DM (1957), The Last Years of the Georgian Monarchy: 1658-1832, New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Fisher, William Bayne; Avery, P.; Hambly, G. R. G; Melville, C. (1991). The Cambridge History of Iran 7. Cambridge:  
  • Rapp, SH (2003), Studies In Medieval Georgian Historiography: Early Texts And Eurasian Contexts, Peeters Bvba ISBN 90-429-1318-5.
  • Suny, RG (1994), The Making of the Georgian Nation: 2nd edition, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-20915-3.

References

  1. ^ The Legal Heir to the Royal Throne of the Georgian Bagrationi Dynasty. Appendix of Additional Information No13
  2. ^ Memorandum: Statement of the House of Bagrationis Society (2006): About the legitimate principles and dynastic rights of the Bagrationi Family
  3. ^ The Legitimate Heir to the Throne of United Georgia
  4. ^ Warner, Gerald. The Telegraph, UK. Georgia may renew itself by restoring its monarchy. 8 August 2008 (retrieved 25 November 2013.
  5. ^ (Spanish) ABC Periódico Electrónico, Spain. Un Rey con acento español para Georgia (A king with a Spanish accent for Georgia). 5 September 2008 (retrieved 25 November 2013).
  6. ^ a b c Vignanski, Misha. (Spanish) El Confidencial, Spain. Primera boda real en dos siglos reagrupa dos ramas de la dinastía Bagration (First royal wedding in two centuries reunites the branches of the Bagrationi dynasty). 2 August 2009 (retrieved 25 November 2013).
  7. ^ a b The Curious Case of Ms. Orange, E.J. Edwards, p50
  8. ^ Caucasus: The Paradise Lost, Piera Graffer, LoGisma, p85
  9. ^ a b More moves on an Eastern chequerboard, Sir Harry Luke, p71
  10. ^ a b Handbook for Travellers in Russia, Poland, and Finland, John Murray, p322
  11. ^ a b The Chautauquan, Volume 22, Theodore L. Flood, Frank Chapin Bray, 1895, p698
  12. ^ The Cambridge Medieval History, Cambridge, 1966, vol. IV, p. 609. Accessible online at [3]
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh. "Burke’s Royal Families of the World: Volume II Africa & the Middle East, 1980, pp. 56-67 ISBN 0-85011-029-7
  14. ^ Martin, Russell. "The Treaty of Georgievsk; A Translation". Westminster College. Retrieved 16 March 2014. 
  15. ^  
  16. ^ Joseph Valynseele (1967). Les Prétendants aux Trônes d'Europe. France: Saintard de la Rochelle. p. 179. 
  17. ^  
  18. ^ Sumbat Davitis-Dze, The Life and Tale of the Bagratids (ცხოვრებაჲ და უწყებაჲ ბაგრატონიანთა ჩუენ ქართველთა მეფეთასა), see Suny (1994), p. 349; Rapp (2003), p. 337
  19. ^ The earliest Georgian forms of the dynastic name are Bagratoniani, Bagratuniani and Bagratovani, changed subsequently into Bagrationi. These names as well as the Armenian Bagratuni and the modern designation Bagratid mean "the children of Bagrat" or "the house of/established by Bagrat".
  20. ^ From the time of Justinian I, the dignity of Kouropalates (Greek: κουροπαλάτης, i.e., chancellor) was one of the highest in the Byzantine Empire, reserved usually for members of the Imperial family. Its frequent conferral upon various Georgian and Armenian dynasts attests to their importance in the politics of those times. Suny (1994), p. 348
  21. ^ Russian translation available at ArmenianHouse.org. URL accessed on May 22. 2006.
  22. ^ "Georgia-".  
  23. ^ Suny (1994), 349
  24. ^ Berdzenishvili et al., Istoriia Gruzii, p. 129, cited in: Suny (1994), p. 349
  25. ^ Toumanoff, C. Iberia on the Eve of Bagratid Rule, p. 22, cited in: Suny (1994), p. 349
  26. ^ Rapp (2003), p. 169
  27. ^ Rapp (2003), p. 234
  28. ^ Toumanoff, C. Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p. 316, cited in: Rapp (2003), p. 145
  29. ^ Rapp (2003), pp. 218, 249
  30. ^ The Travels of Marco Polo, Volume 1 Marco, Pisa Polo Library of Alexandria Chapter IV Georgia and Kings Thereof
  31. ^ The Story of Marco Polo Noah Brooks Cosimo, Inc., Oct 30, 2008 - 308 pages NOAH BROOKS (18301903) Georgiania and Its Kings
  32. ^ The Travels of Marco Polo: The Complete Yule-Cordier Edition: Including the Unabridged Third Edition (1903) of Henry Yule's Annotated Translation, as Revised by Henri Cordier, Together with Cordier's Later Volume of Notes and Addenda (1920). Courier Dover Publications, 1993 - 567 pages Volume 1
  33. ^ Suny (1994), p. 29
  34. ^ DAVID MARSHALL LANG SECOND EDITION, REVISED ST. VLADIMIR'S SEMINARY PRESS CRESTWOOD, NEW YORK 1956/1976 Reprinted 1976 by A. R. Mowbray & Co. Ltd
  35. ^ "Georgia.".  
  36. ^ According to Prince Vakhushti, David Soslan’s ancestry traced back to the Georgian refugeee prince David, a grandchild of George I of Georgia (1014–1027) and his Alan wife Alde. This continues to be disputed
  37. ^ Genealogy of the Georgian Kings Oriental, Volume 33 Evliya Efendi The Ritter Joseph Von Hammer Europe, Asia and Africa XXXXIV Evliya Çelebi, Hâfız Mehmet Zıllî (1611-1681)
  38. ^ Fisher et al. 1991, p. 328.
  39. ^ "Relations between Tehran and Moscow, 1797-2014". Retrieved 15 May 2015. 
  40. ^ Alekseĭ I. Miller. Imperial Rule Central European University Press, 2004 ISBN 9639241989 p 204
  41. ^ Lang (1957), p. 242
  42. ^ a b "Georgievsk, Treaty of".  
  43. ^ Lang (1957), p. 252
  44. ^ Suny (1994), p. 64; Baddeley, Gammer (1908), pp. 66, 78; - Imerati, The Bagrationi dynastyRoyal Ark
  45. ^ О Багратионе Наполеон высказался в разговоре с Балашовым в самом начале войны 1812 года Генералов хороших у России нет, кроме одного Багратиона
  46. ^ Отечественная война 1812 года. Вторжение Наполеона в Россию
  47. ^ Peter Bagration Hero of the Great Pariotic War 1812 (I) Chapter II
  48. ^ 5 ЦАРЬ И ЕГО ГЕНЕРАЛЫ Мухин Ю.И.
  49. ^ a b c d Buyers, Christopher. "Mukhrani, The Bagrationi (Bagration) Dynasty Genealogy". The Royal Ark. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-11. 
  50. ^ a b c d Marrin, Minette (2008-02-02). "Prince George Bagration of Mukhrani, Claimant to the throne of Georgia who became well known in Spain as a motor racing and rally driver".  
  51. ^ a b c GeorgiaTimes. 02/08/2009 http://www.georgiatimes.info/?lang=en&area=newsItem&id=7197. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 02/09/2009. 
  52. ^ a b Buyers, Christopher. "Kakheti, The Bagration Dynasty Genealogy". The Royal Ark. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-11. 
  53. ^ Guy Stair Sainty (ed.). Bagration (Georgia). Almanach de la Cour. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  54. ^ a b The Legal Heir to the Royal Throne of the Georgian Bagrationi Dynasty. Retrieved 2013-08-02.
  55. ^ IMERETI The Bagrationi (Bagration) Dynasty GENEALOGY. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
  56. ^ BAGRATION genealogy. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
  57. ^ ბაგრატიონები: სამეცნიერო და კულტურული მემკვიდრეობა, იმერეთის მეფეები ბაგრატიონთა დინასტიიდან, თბილისი, 2003 The Bagrations: Scientific and Cultural heritage, Kings of Imereti from Bagrationi dynasty, Tbilisi, 2003
  58. ^ იმერელი ბაგრატიონების ოჯახი. Retrieved 2013-11-11.
  59. ^ [4]
  60. ^ a b Time for a King for Georgia?
  61. ^ Royal House of Georgia Official Birth Announcment Prince Giorgi. 2011-09-27 http://www.royalhouseofgeorgia.ge/news/Official-Events/Royal-Birth. 

Notes

  • Line of succession to the former Georgian throne
  • Georgian monarchs family tree of Bagrationi dynasty
  • Georgian monarchs family tree of Bagrationi dynasty of Kartli
  • Georgian monarchs family tree of Bagrationi dynasty of Kakheti
  • Georgian monarchs family tree of Bagrationi dynasty of Imereti
  • Monarchism in Georgia

See also

Gallery of some Georgian monarchs of Bagrationi dynasty

[61] Prince David and Princess Anna became the parents of a boy on September 27, 2011,

[51] Davit is the only member of his branch who retains Georgian citizenship and residence since the death of his father,

and continue in unbroken, legitimate male line into the 21st century. [13] Although some

The dynastic significance of the wedding lay in the fact that, amidst the constitutional monarchy, competition arose among the old dynasty's princes and supporters, as historians and jurists debated which Bagrationi has the strongest hereditary right to a throne that has been vacant for two centuries.[6]

[6]

Union of Bagrationi branches

The third claim names another branch descending from Prince Bagrat's younger natural son as heir to headship of the house. This line survives in the male line and is headed by Prince David Bagrationi (born 1948) (not to be confused with his younger namesake from the Mukhrani branch).[57][58]

However, Prince [54][56]

The male line descending from the deposed David II of Imereti became extinct in 1978 when Prince Constantine Imeretinski died. He was survived by three daughters of his older brother.[55]

Various sources present three different lines as the head of the House of Imereti, potential claimants to the long defunct Kingdom of Imereti, the last of the three Georgian kingdoms to lose its independence in 1810.

Imereti branch

As Nugzar has no male issue, Prince Evgeny Petrovich Gruzinsky (born 1947), the great-great grandson of Bagrat's younger brother [54]

Nugzar is well known in Georgia because he has lived his entire life in Tbilisi, and experienced with other Georgians both the country's subordination to the Soviet regime and its liberation since 1991. A theatrical and cinema director, his father, Prince Petre Bagration-Gruzinski (1920–1984), was a poet, and authored lyrics to the anthem, "Song of Tiflis".[52]

[52][49] Prince

The Bagration-Gruzinsky line, although junior to the Princes of Mukhrani genealogically, reigned over the kingdom of Kakheti, re-united the two realms in the kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti in 1762, and did not lose sovereignty until Russian annexation in 1800.[51]

Gruzinsky branch

[50] Beginning in the 1990s, senior members of the Bagrationi-Mukhraneli descendants began

In 1942 Prince Irakli (Erekle) Bagrationi-Mukhraneli, of the son and heir, but died in childbirth in February 1944.[13] In August 1946 the widower married Princess María Mercedes de Baviera y Borbón, a granddaughter of King Alfonso XII, and daughter of Don Fernando de Baviera y Borbón, who had renounced his royal rights in Bavaria to become a naturalised infante in Spain.

Spanish former racing driver and a claimant to the headship of the Royal House of Georgia, until his death in 2008.

A member of this branch, Vladimir Cyrillovich, Grand Duke of Russia, and became the mother of one of the claimants to the Romanov legacy, Maria Vladimirovna, Grand Duchess of Russia.[13]

Whereas the Bagration-Mukhraneli were a cadet branch of the former Royal House of Kartli, they became the genealogically seniormost line of the Bagrationi family in the early 20th century: yet this elder branch had lost the rule of Kartli by 1724,[13] retaining that of the Principality of Mukhrani until its annexation by Russia along with Kartli-Kakheti in 1800.[13]

Mukhrani branch

The majority of the Bagrationi family left Red Army took over Tbilisi in 1921.[13]

Bagrationi today

In the Russian Empire the Bagrationis became a prominent family of aristocrats. The most famous was Prince Pyotr Bagration, a great-grandson of King Jesse of Kartli who became a Russian general and hero of the Patriotic War of 1812.[13] His brother Prince Roman Bagration also became a Russian general, distinguishing himself in the Russo-Persian War (1826–1828), and was the first to enter Yerevan in 1827. Roman Bagration was also known for his patronage of the arts, literature and theatre. His home theater in Tbilisi was regarded as one of the finest in the Caucasus. His son Prince Pyotr Romanovich Bagration became governor of the Tver region and later governor-general of the Baltic provinces. He was also a metallurgic engineer known for the development of gold cyanidation in Russia. Prince Dmitry Petrovich Bagration was a Russian general who fought in World War I in the Brusilov Offensive and later joined the Red Army.

General Pyotr Bagration.

Bagrationi in Russia

The reign of the House of Imereti came to an end less than a decade later. On April 25, 1804, the Imeretian king Trabzon, Ottoman Turkey, in 1815.[44]

[43] On September 12, 1801, Emperor

After the death of Erekle in 1798, his son and successor, King Tsarevich Davit, had been formally acknowledged as heir apparent by Emperor Paul on 18 April 1799, but his accession as king after his father's death was not recognized.

[39][13] Having gained

King Erekle II of Georgia

Last monarchs

The line of Imereti, incessantly embroiled in civil war, continued with many breaks in succession, and the kingdom was only relatively spared from the encroachments of its Ottoman suzerains, while Kartli and Kakheti were similarly subjected to its Persian overlords, whose efforts to annihilate the fractious vassal kingdoms were in vain, and the two eastern Georgian monarchies, though occasionally losing full independence in the course of their history, survived to be reunified in 1762 under King Erekle II, who united in his person both the Kakhetian and Kartlian lines, the latter surviving in male descent in the branch of Mukhraneli since 1658.[13]

During the three subsequent centuries, the Georgian rulers maintained their perilous autonomy as subjects under the Turkish Ottoman and Persian Safavid, Afsharid, and Qajar domination, although sometimes serving as little more than puppets in the hands of their powerful suzerains.[13]

The invasions by the Odishi, Mingrelia, Guria, Abkhazia, Svaneti, and Samtskhe – dominated by their own feudal clans.

Downfall

In spite of repeated incidents of dynastic strife, the kingdom continued to prosper during the reigns of male line went extinct and the dynasty continued through the marriage of Queen Tamar with the Alan prince David Soslan, of reputed Bagratid descent.[36]

This unified monarchy maintained its precarious independence from the Byzantine and Christian East, her pan-Caucasian empire[35] stretching, at its largest extent, from the North Caucasus to northern Iran, and eastwards into Asia Minor.

King David IV

Golden Age

Despite the revitalization of the monarchy, Georgian lands remained divided among rival authorities, with Tbilisi remaining in Bagrat III was able to consolidate his inheritance in Tao-Klarjeti and the Abkhazian Kingdom, due largely to the diplomacy and conquests of his energetic foster-father David III of Tao.

The Bagrationi family had grown in prominence by the time the Georgian monarchy (Abbasid preoccupation with their own civil wars and conflict with the Byzantine Empire. Although Arab rule did not allow them a foothold in the ancient capital of Tbilisi and eastern Kartli, the Bagratids successfully maintained their initial domain in Klarjeti and Samtskhe and, under the Byzantine protectorate, extended their possessions southward into the northwestern Armenian marches to form a large polity conventionally known in modern history as Tao-Klarjeti. In 813, the new dynasty acquired, with Ashot I, the hereditary title of presiding prince of Iberia (Kartli), to which the emperor attached the honorific of kourapalates.

David III of Tao depicted on a bas-relief from the Oshki Monastery.

Early dynasty

History

[29] Toumanoff claimed that the first Georgian branch of the Bagratids may be traced as far back as the 2nd century AD, when they were said to rule over the princedom of [13] Although certain, the generation-by-generation history of the Bagrationi dynasty begins only in the late 8th century.

[27]

Modern scholars, however, question the above version, referring to a more complex analysis of primary Armenian and Georgian sources.

Georgian Kingdom of Tao-Klarjeti.

This tradition enjoyed general acceptance until the early 20th century.[23] While the N. Berdzenishvili et al. in their standard reference book on the history of Georgia:

A successor, Guaram, was installed as a presiding prince of Kartli under the Byzantine protectorate, receiving on this occasion the Byzantine court title of Kouropalates[20] in 575.[21] Thus, according to this version, began the dynasty of the Bagratids, who ruled until 1801.[22]

According to a family legend, taken down by the 11th century Georgian chronicler Sumbat Davitis-Dze,[18] and supplied much later by Prince Vakhushti Bagrationi (1696–1757) with chronological data, the ancestors of the dynasty traced their descent to the biblical king and prophet David and came from Palestine around 530 AD. Tradition has it that of seven refugee brothers of the Davidic line, three of them settled in Armenia and the other four arrived in Kartli (also known as Iberia), where they intermarried with the local ruling houses and acquired some lands in hereditary possession. One of the four brothers, Guaram (died in 532), allegedly founded a line subsequently called Bagrationi after his son Bagrat.[19]

The Bagrationi dynasty has been reputed the oldest royal dynasty in Europe,[7][9][10][11] although Walter Curley's Monarchs-in-Waiting attributes that distinction to the Capetians of France,[15] as does Joseph Valynseele's Les Prétendants aux Trônes d'Europe,[16] who still reign in Spain and Luxembourg, while L. G. Pine contends that the Irish ruler, Niall of the Nine Hostages, fl. in the early 5th century CE also has living heirs,[17] although, like the Bagrationi, no longer reigning.

Origins

Contents

  • Origins 1
  • History 2
    • Early dynasty 2.1
    • Golden Age 2.2
    • Downfall 2.3
    • Last monarchs 2.4
  • Bagrationi in Russia 3
  • Bagrationi today 4
    • Mukhrani branch 4.1
    • Gruzinsky branch 4.2
    • Imereti branch 4.3
    • Union of Bagrationi branches 4.4
  • Gallery of some Georgian monarchs of Bagrationi dynasty 5
  • See also 6
  • Notes 7
  • References 8
  • Further reading 9
  • External links 10

After fragmentation of the unified Western Europe,[13] although some repatriated after Georgian independence in 1991.

[13]

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