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April 6 Youth Movement

April 6 Youth Movement
Harket Shabab 6 April
حركة شباب 6 أبريل
Harket Sabab 6 April
حركة شباب 6 أبريل
Founded 2008
Founders Ahmed Maher
Waleed Rashed
Asmaa Mahfouz
Ihab Belal
Wesam Ibraheem
Husam Farouk
Type Pressure group
Political group
Focus Democracy
Social justice
Free and fair elections
Civil resistance
Area served Egypt
Key people Ahmed Maher
Mohammed Adel
Amr Ali

The April 6 Youth Movement (Arabic: حركة شباب 6 أبريل‎) is an Egyptian activist group established in Spring 2008 to support the workers in El-Mahalla El-Kubra, an industrial town, who were planning to strike on April 6.[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Activists called on participants to wear black and stay home on the day of the strike. Bloggers and citizen journalists used

  • 6 April Youth Movement official site (Arabic)
  • April 6 Movement Blog حركة 6 ابريل
  • Documentary on April 6 Movement's involvement with the Egyptian Revolution
  • Collected news coverage at Al-Masry Al-Youm

External links

  • Wolman, David (February 13, 2011). "The techie dissidents who showed Egyptians how to organize online". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-27. 

Further reading

  1. ^ Wolman, David (20 October 2008). "Cairo Activists Use Facebook to Rattle Regime".  
  2. ^ Ghafour, Hamida (25 August 2008). "Parliament is burning, and the watching crowd is laughing".  
  3. ^ Hussein, Abdel-Rahman (27 July 2008). "Protestors say Agrium plant is like Nazi gas chambers".  
  4. ^ Carr, Sarah (July 30, 2008). "April 6 youth detainees still in custody despite release order". Daily News Egypt (Egyptian Media Services). Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  5. ^ Hussein, Abdel Rahman (18 September 2008). "Emaar accused of culpability in Duweiqa rockslide". Daily News Egypt (Egyptian Media Services). Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  6. ^ Al-Anani, Khalil (2 September 2008). "In Focus: The Dilemma of Egypt’s Liberals". Daily News Egypt (Egyptian Media Services). Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  7. ^ Radsch, Courtney (Fall 2008). "Core to Commonplace: The evolution of Egypt's blogosphere". Arab Media & Society (American University of Cairo). Retrieved 15 February 2008. 
  8. ^ a b c Shapiro, Samantha M. (22 January 2009). "Revolution, Facebook-Style". The New York Times ( 
  9. ^ "We will not be silenced: April 6, after court order banning group". Ahram Online. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  10. ^ a b "April 6 court ban is politicised: Egypt groups". Ahram Online. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  11. ^ "National Council for Human Rights express solidarity with April 6". The Cairo Post. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  12. ^ "Banning 6 April movement is a clear violation of citizens’ rights: HRW". Daily News Egypt. 30 April 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  13. ^ "Egypt's April 6 Youth Movement to appeal ban". Ahram Online. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014. 
  14. ^ "Asharq Al Awsat". 
  15. ^ Esam Al-Amin, From Counter-Attack to Departure Day, Counterpunch, 4 February 2011
  16. ^ Wolman, David (2 February 2011). "Did Egypt Detain a Top Facebook Activist?".  
  17. ^ Ellen Knickmeyer (18 May 2008). "Fledgling Rebellion on Facebook Is Struck Down by Force in Egypt". Washington Post. Retrieved 16 February 2009. 
  18. ^ Liam Stack (30 July 2008). "Egypt detains Facebook activists – again".  
  19. ^ Egyptian Chronicles. Retrieved on 12 March 2011
  20. ^ Egypt protests: secret US document discloses support for protesters. Telegraph (28 January 2011). Retrieved on 12 March 2011
  21. ^ anon., "Egypt protesters increase pressure: Opposition movement calls for "march of millions" on Tuesday in a bid to topple president Hosni Mubarak." (31 January 2011)
  22. ^ "Investigate Arrests of Activists, Journalists".  
  23. ^ "Anti-Military Movement Emerges in Tahrir".  
  24. ^ "The April 6 five-year anniversary: How peaceful protests turned violent".  
  25. ^ "The April 6 Activists Carrying Women Lingerie".  
  26. ^ "The April 6 Activists Carrying Women Lingerie in front of the Interior Minster's House".  
  27. ^ April 6" calls anti-regime protest on anniversary""".  
  28. ^ "6 April’s Ahmed Maher arrested".  
  29. ^ "April 6 group leader Ahmed Maher freed in Egypt".  
  30. ^ "Egypt's 6 April joins signature drive against President Morsi".  
  31. ^ "Between Tahrir and Rabaa: The Third Square".  
  32. ^ "New anti-military, anti-Brotherhood front to be launched Tuesday".  
  33. ^ "Amr Ali becomes 6 April’s new coordinator".  
  34. ^ "Rights group adds to criticism of Egypt's draft protest law".  
  35. ^ "Egypt Approves Law Limiting Protests".  
  36. ^ "Egypt passes law restricting protests".  
  37. ^ "New anti-demonstration law in Egypt must be amended, urges UN rights chief".  
  38. ^ "Amid ongoing Egyptian protests, UN chief urges rethinking anti-demonstrations law".  
  39. ^ "Egypt is once again crossing the line".  
  40. ^ "Egyptian police forcibly disperse protesters under new law curtailing demonstrations".  
  41. ^ "Interior Ministry denies releasing top female activists in desert".  
  42. ^ "23 Shura detainees released on bail".  
  43. ^ "Egypt prosecutor orders arrest of two leading activists".  
  44. ^ "Egypt's Ahmed Maher, April 6 activist, turns himself in".  
  45. ^ "Egypt's Maher, Adel and Douma sentenced to 3 years in jail".  
  46. ^ "Sit-in against protest law outside presidential palace begins". Ahram Online. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  47. ^ "Sit-in against protest law outside presidential palace begins". Mada Masr. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  48. ^ "Women activists, politicians protest against activist detention". The Cairo Post. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  49. ^ "Egypt's Maher, Adel and Douma sentenced to 3 years in jail".  
  50. ^ "Constitution Party requests President Mansour to pardon arrested activists". Egypt Independent. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  51. ^ "Political groups call on Egypt's president to pardon jailed activists, revoke protest law". Ahram Online. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  52. ^ "'"Presidential candidate demands release of 'revolution activists. Ahram Online. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  53. ^ "Statement by the Spokesperson of EU High Representative Catherine Ashton on the sentencing of political activists in Egypt".  
  54. ^ "Egypt – Sentencing of liberal activists".  
  55. ^ "Egyptian protesters convicted: Italy shares UN and EU stance on freedom of expression".  
  56. ^ "Judgment against human rights activists in Egypt".  
  57. ^ "FCO Minister responds to sentencing of Human Rights activists in Egypt".  
  58. ^ "State Dept. on Jail Sentences for Peaceful Egyptian Demonstrators".  
  59. ^ "6 April call for redrafting of Protest Law".  
  60. ^ "April 6 launches campaign to repeal protest law". Cairo Post. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  61. ^ "Hala Shukrallah signs April 6 petition against protest law". Ahram Online. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  62. ^ "April 6 petition against protest law draws prominent signatories". Cairo Post. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 


See also

The April 6 movement has launched a campaign to annul the Egyptian protest law by a circulating a petition which citizens may sign to indicate approval for law's abolition or redrafting.[59][60] Leading functionaries from various political factions who have signed the petition include the president of the Constitution Party, Hala Shukrallah, and Mohamed Ghonim, a key member of the Egyptian Social Democratic Party.[61][62]

Petition to repeal the protest law

United States: "The United States is deeply concerned about the worsening climate for freedom of assembly and peaceful expression in Egypt. The implementation of Egypt’s restrictive demonstrations law has led to an increase in arrests, detentions, and charges against opposition figures, human rights activists and peaceful demonstrators, and sends a chilling message to civil society at large. In particular, we believe that the verdicts issued December 22 do not contribute to an open electoral environment or a transition process that protects the universal rights of all Egyptian citizens, and therefore should be reviewed. We continue to urge the government to fulfill its commitment to implement an inclusive democratic transition, including by permitting an open environment in which Egyptians are free to campaign and vote in favor or against the draft constitution on January 14–15, or abstain from the process entirely.[58]

United Kingdom: "Foreign Office Minister Mark Simmonds expresses concern on the sentencing of three human rights activists in Egypt. Foreign Office Minister Mark Simmonds said: I was deeply concerned to hear about the sentencing to three years in prison of the democracy and human rights activists Ahmed Maher, Ahmed Douma and Mohammed Adel. This represents a serious setback to attempts to return Egypt to the democratic path and undermines the values expressed by Egyptians during the Revolution of January 2011. The UK believes the freedom to protest peacefully is vital in any democracy and calls on Egypt’s interim leaders to ensure that they uphold all Egypt’s international human rights obligations."[57]

Norway: "“I am concerned about the yesterday’s judgment against three Egyptian human rights activists. It is crucial that the Egyptian authorities respect democractic principles in this critical period prior to the elections and referendum on the constitution,” said Minister of Foreign Affairs Børge Brende. The Egyptian authorities have taken action against democracy and human rights activists on several occasions recently. Yesterday, three prominent activists – Ahmed Maher, Ahmed Douma and Mohammed Adel – were sentenced to three years’ imprisonment, and last week, employees and volunteers at the Centre for Economic and Social Rights were arrested in connection with a raid."[56]

Italy: "The Ministry for Foreign Affairs noted the Egyptian courts’ conviction of three members of the opposition — Ahmed Maher, founder of the April 6th movement, and Ahmed Douma and Mohamed Adel — on charges associated with the protests. In reference to the Egyptian transition, Italy fully shares the stances taken by the United Nations and the European Union on the importance of respect for freedom of expression and the right to peaceful demonstration. Italy reconfirms its support for an inclusive and sustainable transition in Egypt aimed at the creation of a democratic society based on respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and its willingness to engage in dialogue and cooperation to that end."[55]

France: "France takes note of the harsh prison sentences handed down in the court of first instance to three human rights activists: Ahmed Maher, Ahmed Douma and Mohamed Adel. The handing down of these sentences follows the arrests carried out by the police – including on the premises of a human rights association –on the basis of the new law on demonstrations adopted on November 24.France shares the concerns expressed by the UN secretary-general and the UN high commissioner for human rights about this law. The sentences handed down yesterday confirm these concerns. France calls for compliance with the commitments undertaken by the Egyptian authorities in the context of the road map and at the international level with respect to public freedoms, notably the freedom of expression and opinion and the freedom to demonstrate peacefully while respecting public security requirements."[54]

The European Union: "The High Representative is concerned about the guilty verdict, the prison sentences and the financial penalty handed down by a court in Egypt against political activists Ahmed Maher, a founder of the April 6 Movement, Ahmed Douma and Mohammed Adel. These sentences appear to be based on the recently enacted protest law which is widely seen as limiting excessively freedom of expression and assembly. The High Representative expresses the hope that these sentences could be reviewed in an appeals process."[53]

Hamdeen Sabahi has censured the court conviction sentencing Ahmed Maher, Mohamed Adel and Ahmed Douma to three years in prison and a fine of LE50,000 and maintains that Interim President Adly Mansour should issue these and other detained individuals a pardon.[52]

The Cairo-based Arab Organization for Human Rights condemned the sentence saying it contradicts the spirit of the 25 January and 30 June revolutions.[49] The Constitution Party has expressed solidarity with the detainees and their families and requested that the interim President Adly Mansour issue a pardon to Ahmed Maher, Mohammed Adel, and Ahmed Douma, as well as to Loay Abdel Rahman, Omar Hussein, Islam Ahmed, and Nasser Ibrahim.[50] The Egyptian Social Democratic Party, the Popular Current, the Bread and Freedom Party, and the Freedom for the Brave campaign have also lent their support to the cause of freedom for the imprisoned activists.[51]

The verdicts were widely criticized nationally and internationally:

Reactions to the verdict

Members of the April 6 movement and activists from other organizations have planned to initiate an open-ended sit-in with the intention of remaining in place until the protest law is repealed and the verdict sentencing Ahmed Maher, Mohamed Adel, and Ahmed Douma to three years in jail and the paymenent of a fine of LE50,000 have been overturned.[46] Due to fears of a crackdown, the sit-in's timing and logistics have been rescheduled.[47][48]

On 22 December 2013 an Egyptian court sentenced Ahmed Maher, Mohammed Adel, together with another prominent Egyptian activist, Ahmed Douma, to three years in jail and EGP50,000 fine each.[45]

An arrest warrant was issued against Ahmed Maher on the following day, accusing him of inciting protests.[43] Maher turned himself in and was detained on 30 November 2013.[44]

On 26 November, the No Military Trials for Civilians campaign organised a protest at the Shura Council in defiance of the protest law. The protest was violently dispersed by the police, and dozens of well-known activists were arrested.[40] The female activists were beaten and released on a desert road in the middle of the night,[41] while the 24 male detainees remained in custody; most of whom were released on bail a week later.[42]

The law was nationally and internationally heavily criticized with the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Navi Pillay urging the Egyptian government to amend it or repeal it.[37] UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon added his voice to those criticizing the law for leaving the door open to a very restrictive and repressive interpretation and urged the Egyptian authorities to consider amendments to the law “to make sure that any laws passed are in full conformity with international human rights standards”.[38] Guy Verhofstadt, President of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Group (ALDE), the third largest group in the European Parliament, criticized the new law:"This anti-protest law is against everything the revolution was about. The Egyptian government should withdraw it."[39]

The Egyptian interim president Adly Mansour, and regardless of the widespread critics,[34] approved a new law restricting protests on 24 November 2013.[35][36]

Anti-Protest law campaign & arrest of movement founders

In 2013, the 6 April movement held internal elections to determine who would succeed Ahmed Maher as the organization's coordinator. The vote resulted in Amr Ali, an accountant from Menufiya who has been involved in managing the group's community and public works, becoming the movement's new coordinator.[33]

[32] In July 2013, following the

On 10 May 2013, Ahmed Maher was arrested at Cairo Airport upon his return to Egypt from a conference in the United States with charges of inciting for protests.[28] Maher was released the day after,[29] but the incident was a turning point. On 12 May, the 6 April Youth Movement decided to join the recently launched petitions collection campaign, Tamarod, calling for a vote of no-confidence in the administration of President Mohamed Morsi.[30]

On 29th March 2013, the Movement organized an extraordinary demonstration in front of the house of the Egyptian Minister of Interior: General Mohamed Ibrahim.[24] The activists carried women's lingerie and a banner describing the Ministry of Interior as the "prostitute of the regime".[25][26] Three of the movement activists were arrested: Abdel Azim Fahmy (Known by Zizo), Mohamed Mustapha and Mamdouh Hassan ( Known by Abou Adam). Later on a fourth activist was arrested and detained, Sayed Mounir. April 6 Movement called for a "Rage Day" against President Mohamed Mursi on the fifth anniversary of its establishment 6th April 2013.[27]

In October 2011, the group launched a “black circle, white circle” political awareness campaign. Aiming to prevent former members of Mubarak's regime from winning seats in the post-revolution parliament, the group compiled a list of candidates with ties to the dissolved National Democratic Party or with histories of corruption, which comprised the “black circle.” Meanwhile, in the “white circle,” the group listed a set of qualifications and characteristics they hope to see in elected officials.[23]

On 3 February 2011, the Hisham Mubarak Law Center which was providing meeting space for the April 6 Youth Movement as well as providing medical and legal aid to the protesters was raided by security forces who arrested Amal Sharaf and other members of April 6.[22]

On 29 January 2011, a WikiLeaks document was revealed which showed that the United States considered the movement to be "outside (the) mainstream of opposition politicians and activists" and described the goals of the movement for democracy as "unrealistic" yet still supported it in various ways, including pressing "the MFA for the release of April 6 activists".[20] On 31 January 2011, the movement promoted participation of at least a million in a march on 1 February 2011.[21]

On 6 April 2009, the group was subjected to attacks, suspected to have been orchestrated by the Egyptian government. Several websites supporting the group were hacked simultaneously, and protests in Cairo were confronted by plain clothed Egyptian policemen and numerous arrests.[19]

In July 2008, Maher was again arrested, along with 14 other members of the group, and charged with "incitement against the regime". He also claimed that Egyptian state security officers threatened to rape him in custody.[18]

Aside from discussing the state of the nation online, members of the group have organized public rallies to free imprisoned journalists and engaged in protests concerning the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict.[8] In its official pronouncements, the group stresses that it is not a political party. Ahmed Maher, one of the founders of the group, was arrested by the Egyptian authorities in May 2008 in an attempt to shut it down.[17]

Public activism and arrests

  • Ihab Belal one of Kefaya movement since 2005, then in 2008 he joined and participated April 6 Youth Movement.
  • Waleed Rashed (born 15 November 1983, El Sharkia, Egypt) is one of the co-founders of the April 6 Youth Movement and he was a banker in the UAE and Qatar. He completed his 2004 bachelor of arts degree at the Faculty of Commerce from Accounting Department at Banha University, Egypt, and is currently doing his master study in political science.
  • Mohammed Adel worked with Kefaya movement since 2005, and one of activist who called for general strike in 6 April 2008, and then started working with Media committee in April 6 Youth Movement, and in 2009 he was the spokesman of movement and political office member.



  • Founders 1
  • Public activism and arrests 2
  • Anti-Protest law campaign & arrest of movement founders 3
  • Reactions to the verdict 4
  • Petition to repeal the protest law 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
    • Further reading 7.1
  • External links 8

[13] The April 6 movement has vowed to defy the ban, as well as attempt to repeal it.[12] condemned the ruling as "a clear violation of citizens’ rights to free association, peaceful assembly, and free expression."Human Rights Watch [11] Abdul Ghaffar Shukr, vice president of the National Council for Human Rights, has stated that the council is prepared to stand in solidarity with the April 6 Youth Movement, and will aid the movement if it requests assistance.[10] Hamdeen Sabahi's presidential campaign warned of the "return to a state of suppression and banning."[10] condemned the verdict, arguing that the charges against the movement were "false" and that the court ruling was an example of state institutions undermining and destroying the rule of law.Constitution Party The [9] The April 6 movement is using the same

The New York Times has identified the movement as the political Facebook group in Egypt with the most dynamic debates.[8] As of January 2009, it had 70,000 predominantly young and educated members, most of whom had not been politically active before; their core concerns include free speech, nepotism in government and the country's stagnant economy.[8] Their discussion forum on Facebook features intense and heated discussions, and is constantly updated with new postings.


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