World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0003300286
Reproduction Date:

Title: Appam  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Cuisine of Kerala, Indian bread, Pancake, Dosa, Pancakes
Collection: Fermented Foods, Indian Breads, Jewish Cuisine, Kerala Cuisine, Pancakes, Sri Lankan Cuisine
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Alternative names Kallappam, Palappam
Type Pancake or Griddle cake
Course Breakfast or Dinner
Main ingredients Rice batter
Cookbook: Appam 

Appam is a type of pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk. It is a common food in the South Indian state of Kerala.[1][2][3][4][5] It is also popular in Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.[6] It is eaten most frequently for breakfast or dinner.

It is considered as a staple diet and a cultural synonym of the Nasranis (also known as Saint Thomas Christians or Syrian Christians) of Kerala.[2][3][4][7][8] According to Gil Marks, each of the three separate Indian Jewish communities - Cochin, Mumbai, Calcutta - counts in its culinary repertoire grain dishes called appam.[9]

Process of making an Appam
Video of making an Appam


  • History 1
  • Regional names 2
  • Variations 3
    • Achappam 3.1
    • Egg hoppers 3.2
    • Honey hoppers 3.3
    • Idiyappam 3.4
    • Kallappam 3.5
    • Kuzhalappam 3.6
    • Neyyappam 3.7
    • Palappam 3.8
    • Pesaha appam 3.9
    • Plain hoppers 3.10
    • Vattayappam 3.11
    • Kandarappam 3.12
    • Kue apem 3.13
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


Appam first emerged in the southern tip of India, as per Gil Marks.[9] Vir Sanghvi, an Indian journalist, quotes food historian K. T. Achaya and states that the Malayali appam is mentioned in the Perumpanuru.[5][10][11] K. T. Achaya in the last published book of his lifetime states that Appam was well established in ancient Tamil country (comprising most parts of present-day South India), as per references in the Perumpanuru.[11]

Regional names

It is called Appam (അപ്പം) in Malayalam, Aappam (ஆப்பம்) in Tamil, Appa (ආප්ප) in Sinhala, Chitau Pitha (ଚିତାଉ) in Oriya, Paddu or Gulle Eriyappa in Kodava, and Arpone (အာပုံမုန့်) in Burmese. Appam is commonly referred to by its anglicized name, Hoppers, in Sri Lanka. In Indonesia it is known as Kue Apem.


An appam being cooked in Kerala
Appam served with coconut milk in Tamil Nadu


Achappam is a deep fried rose cookie made with rice. It is a signature Syrian Christian food as per K. T. Achaya.[12]

Egg hoppers

They are same as plain hoppers, but an egg is broken into the pancake as it cooks

Honey hoppers

Honey hoppers are crispy pancakes cooked with a generous amount of palm treacle. Some people also like to add some jaggery just before serving to make it extra sweet.

Idiyappam with Egg Masala Curry


Idiyappam (string hopper or noolputtu) is made from rice noodles curled into flat spirals. It is served for breakfast with a thin fish or chicken curry, containing only one or two pieces of meat, a dhal (lentil) dish, and a spicy sambol or fresh chutney. String hoppers are made from steamed rice flour made into a dough with water and a little salt, and forced through a mould similar to those used for pasta to make the strings. They are cooked by steaming. These hoppers can be bought ready-made. The Indian and Sri Lankan population eats string hoppers for breakfast or dinner. There are many variations to this, depending on the type of flour used etc. This simple dish can be adapted into other foods such as string hopper Biriyani, by adding scrambled eggs or vegetables.[13] Another example is located in Kerala, 'Idiyappam' Paaya (goat leg soup made using coconut).


It is a form of appam where kallu is added to the fresh batter to kick start the fermentation.


Kuzhalappam is a typical Syrian Christian dish which is a fried crisp curled up like a tube.[1]


Neyyappam owes its origins to Kerala and is a signature food of Syrian Christians of Kerala, as per K. T. Achaya.[12] It is made with rice flour, jaggery, clarified butter ghee.

Unni appam is a variation in which mashed plantain is added to the batter. The batter is made out of rice flour, jaggery and plantain is poured into a vessel called appakarai or appakaram, which has ghee heated to a high temperature. The appams take the shape of small cups and are fried until deep brown. Both neyyappam and unni appam are eaten as snacks.


Palappam is prepared using a spoonful of thick coconut milk/coconut cream added to the doughy centre. When cooked, the centre is firm to the touch but remains soft inside and is sweeter as a result of the coconut milk.

Pesaha appam

Pesaha appam is made by Nasrani Christians in Kerala during Pesaha (Passover). This type of appam is dipped in syrup or Pesaha Pal (Passover Coconut Milk) before being served.[14]

Plain hoppers

Plain hoppers or vella appam are bowl-shaped thin pancakes made from fermented rice flour. They derive their shape from the small appachatti in which they are cooked. They are fairly neutral in taste and mostly served with some spicy condiment or curry. These hoppers are made from a batter using rice, yeast, salt and a little sugar. After the mixture has stood for a couple of hours, it can be fried in the appachatti with a little oil. In south-central Kerala, it is mostly served with kadala curry, mutton or vegetable stew or egg roast.



Vattayappam is made from rice flour, sugar, and coconut. The dish is made by steam-cooking the batter, and is very similar to the Bánh bò from Vietnam.


Kandarappam, is a sweet dish made using rice and all 4 dals and jaggery. The Dish has all the ingredients that is considered to bring good luck in Hindu tradition. Using all 4 dals is considered auspicious during festivals.

Kue apem

Indonesian kue apem, sold in Lok Baintan floating market, Banjar, South Kalimantan.

In Indonesia, a variant of appam is known as kue apem or kue apam. It is an Indonesian kue or traditional cake of steamed dough made of rice flour, coconut milk, yeast and palm sugar, usually served with grated coconut.[15] It is quite similar to kue mangkok. Just like kue putu it is derived from Indian influence on Indonesian cuisine.

See also


  1. ^ a b K.T. Achaya (1997). Indian Food: A Historical Companion. Oxford University Press.  
  2. ^ a b Vijayan Kannampilly (2003). The Essential Kerala Cookbook. Penguin Books India. pp. 13, 14, 187.  
  3. ^ a b Martin Hughes, Sheema Mookherjee, Richard Delacy (2001). India, Lonely Planet World Food Guides, World Food Series. Lonely Planet. p. 201.  
  4. ^ a b "Rahul Gandhi has traditional Syrian Christian meal in Kerala". India Today. 13 January 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Vir Sanghvi (2004). Rude Food: The Collected Food Writings of Vir Sanghvi. Penguin Books India. p. 110.  
  6. ^ "12 Sri Lanka foods visitors have to try". CNN. 
  7. ^ "Exploring Cuisine From India's Spice Coast". The New York Times. 13 September 2000. 
  8. ^ "Christmas with a Suriyani twist". Deccan Chronicle. 15 December 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Marks, Gil (2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish food. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.  
  10. ^ Subhadra Sen Gupta (2012). Let's Go Time Travelling. Penguin UK.  
  11. ^ a b K. T. Achaya. The Story of Our Food. Universities Press. p. 80.  
  12. ^ a b "Times of India food article from Apr 10,2010". Times Of India. 
  13. ^ Petrina Verma Sarkar, Guide (2011-03-02). "Appams - Appam Recipe - Hoppers - Hoppers Recipe". Retrieved 2011-11-21. 
  14. ^ Amprayil, Kuruvilla Cherian (16 March 2008). "Kerala Nazranee Pesaha Receipes". Nasrani Syrian Christians Network. Retrieved 22 August 2009. 
  15. ^ "Kue Apem Kukus" (in Indonesian). Sajian Sedap. 16 December 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2015. 

External links

  • Traditional Appam Recipe
  • Coconut Appam Recipe
  • Appam:Hoppers – Jaffna Tamil Recipe
  • STRING HOPPER MAKER 2008 Thayabi Products Inc
  • Nadia Chitau Pitha of orissa & more
  • Pal Appam Recipe – Maya Kaimal
  • Pesaha/Indri Appam and Paal –
  • Breakfast Pleasures on a Weekend Morning –
  • Suriani Kitchen by Lathika George (Recipes and recollections from the Syrian Christians of Kerala)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.