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Abortion in the Philippines


Abortion in the Philippines

Abortion in the Philippines is illegal, or banned by law.[1]


  • abortion 1
  • Abortion incidence 2
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


Article II of the 1987 Philippine Constitution says, in part, "Section 12. The State recognizes the sanctity of family life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution". It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception.

The act is criminalized by the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines, which was enacted in 1930 and remains in effect today. Articles 256, 258 and 259 of the Code mandate imprisonment for the woman who undergoes the abortion, as well as for any person who assists in the procedure, even if they be the woman's parents, a physician or midwife. Article 258 further imposes a higher prison term on the woman or her parents if the abortion is undertaken "in order to conceal [the woman's] dishonor".

There is no law in the Philippines that expressly authorizes abortions in order to save the woman's life; and the general provisions which do penalize abortion make no qualifications if the woman's life is endangered. It may be argued that an abortion to save the mother's life could be classified as a justifying circumstance (duress as opposed to self-defense) that would bar criminal prosecution under the Revised Penal Code. However, this has yet to be adjudicated by the Philippine Supreme Court.

Proposals to liberalize Philippine abortion laws have been opposed by the Catholic Church, and its opposition has considerable influence in the predominantly Catholic country. However, the constitutionality of abortion restrictions has yet to be challenged before the Philippine Supreme Court.

The present Constitution of the Philippines, adopted in 1987, pronounces as among the policies of the State that "[The State] shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception." (sec. 12, Art. II) The provision was crafted by the Constitutional Commission which drafted the charter with the intention of providing for constitutional protection of the abortion ban, although the enactment of a more definitive provision sanctioning the ban was not successful. The provision is enumerated among several state policies, which are generally regarded in law as unenforceable in the absence of implementing legislation. The 1987 RP Constitution also contains several other provisions enumerating various state policies.[note 1] Whether these provisions may, by themselves, be the source of enforceable rights without implementing legislation has been the subject of considerable debate in the legal sphere and within the Supreme Court.[note 2]

An analysis by the Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs concluded that although the Revised Penal Code does not list specific exceptions to the general prohibition on abortion, under the general criminal law principles of necessity as set forth in article 11(4) of the Code, an abortion may be legally performed to save the pregnant woman’s life.[2]

Abortion incidence

One 1997 study estimated that, despite legal restrictions, in 1994 there were 400,000

  • "Health of Adolescents in The Philippines" (PDF).  
  • Fatima Juarez; Josefina Cabigon; Susheela Singh; Rubina Hussain (September 2005). "The Incidence of Induced Abortion in the Philippines: Current Level and Recent Trends". International Family Planning Perspectives 31 (3). 
  • Susheela Singh; Josefina V. Cabigon; Altaf Hossain; Haidary Kamal; Aurora E. Perez (September 1997). "Estimating the Level of Abortion In the Philippines and Bangladesh". International Family Planning Perspectives 23 (3). 
  • "Abortion in the Philippines".  
  • "Facts on Abortion in the Philippines: Criminalization and a General Ban on Abortion" (PDF).  
  • Susheela Singh; Fatima Juarez; Josefina Cabigon; Haley Ball; Rubina Hussain; Jennifer Nadeau. "Unintended Pregnancy And Induced Abortion In the Philippines: Causes and Consequences" (PDF). Guttmacher Institute. 
  • "Rights Group Denounces Illegality of Abortion in Philippines".  
  • "Facts on Abortion in the Philippines: Criminalization and a General Ban on Abortion" (PDF).  
  • "Forsaken Lives:The Harmful Impact of the Philippine Criminal Abortion Ban" (PDF).  
  • Agaw-Buhay (Fighting for Life), video documentary, part 1; part 2.

External links

  1. ^ The Revised Penal Code of the Philippines : Book Two, ChanRobles Law Library.
  2. ^ Philippines : Abortion Policy, part of World Abortion Policies 2007, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
  3. ^ "Estimating the Level of Abortion In the Philippines and Bangladesh". International Family Planning Perspectives 23 (3). September 1997. 
  4. ^ a b c d Conde, Carlos H. (May 16, 2005). "Philippines abortion crisis". New York Times. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  5. ^ Juarez, Fatima, Cabigon, Josefina, Singh, Susheela, & Hussain, Rubina. (2005). The Incidence of Induced Abortion in the Philippines: Current Level and Recent Trends. International Family Planning Perspectives, 31 (3). Retrieved November 11, 2006.
  6. ^ "Family Health Programs, NCDPC FAQ". Department of Health. 


  1. ^ These provisions include, e.g., the affirmation of labor "as a primary social economic force" (Section 14, Article II); the equal protection of "the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception" (Section 12, Article II); the "Filipino family as the foundation of the nation" (Article XV, Section 1); the recognition of Filipino as "the national language of the Philippines" (Section 6, Article XVI, and even a requirement that "all educational institutions shall undertake regular sports activities throughout the country in cooperation with athletic clubs and other sectors." (Section 19.1, Article XIV)
  2. ^ The Court, for example, has ruled that a provision requiring that the State "guarantee equal access to opportunities to public service" could not be enforced without implementing legislation, and thus could not bar the disallowance of so-called "nuisance candidates" in presidential elections. However, in another case the Court held that a provision requiring that the State "protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology" did not require implementing legislation to become the source of operative rights. Any legal challenge to abortion restrictions in the Philippines would necessarily have to evaluate the legal force given to Section 12, Article II of the Constitution.


See also

While some doctors secretly perform abortions in clinics, the 2,000 to 5,000 peso (USD $37 to $93) fee is too high for many Filipinos, so they instead buy abortifacients on the black market, e.g. from vendors near churches.[4] Two-thirds of Filipino women who have abortions attempt to self-induce or seek solutions from those who practice folk medicine.[5] 100,000 people end up in the hospital every year due to unsafe abortions, according to the Department of Health,[4] and 12% of all maternal deaths in 1994 were due to unsafe abortion. Some hospitals refuse to treat complications of unsafe abortion, or operate without anesthesia, as punishment for the patients.[4] The Department of Health has created a program to address the complications of unsafe abortion, Prevention and Management of Abortion and its Complications.[6]


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