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2011 Pan American Games

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2011 Pan American Games

XVI Pan American Games
Official logo of the
Guadalajara 2011 Pan American Games.
Host city Guadalajara
Country Mexico
Motto Fiesta de las Americas (The Americas' Festival)
Nations participating 42
Athletes participating 6,003[1]
Events 361 in 36 sports
Opening ceremony October 14
Closing ceremony October 30
Officially opened by President Felipe Calderón
Pan American torch Paola Espinosa
Main venue Omnilife Stadium
2007 Rio de Janeiro 2015 Toronto  >
2011 Pan American Games
PASO · COPAG

The 2011 Jalisco. Previously, Mexico hosted the 1955 Pan American Games and the 1975 Pan American Games, both in Mexico City. The 2011 Parapan American Games were held 20 days after the Pan American Games have ended.

Following 2007 Pan American Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.[3] The event was officially opened by the President of Mexico Felipe Calderón.

The United States won the most total medals, their fifteenth straight time doing so at the Pan American Games. Brett Fraser, a swimmer from the Cayman Islands,[4] won the first Pan American Games gold medal for his country, while Saint Kitts and Nevis won its first ever Pan American Games medal of any kind.[5]

Organization

Host city election

A map of Mexico with Guadalajara marked in the mid-west of the country.
A map of Mexico with Guadalajara marked in the mid-west of the country.
Guadalajara
Location of Guadalajara in Mexico.

PASO selected the city unanimously as the host for 16th Pan American Games on Friday, June 2, 2006, at its 44th general assembly held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.[6] Guadalajara was the only city to officially bid for the 2011 Pan American Games. This may have been in part due to no announced and/or open candidature period for the event.[6] Guadalajara initially bid for the 2003 Pan American Games which were held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.[6] San Antonio, United States, which bid for the 2007 Games, declined to bid for the 2011 games.[7]

Infrastructure and budget

Inspired by the 2003 Santo Domingo Games, Guadalajara used the Games as a cost-effective way to build sports infrastructure, according to Ivar Sisniega, Guadalajara 2011 international relations and sports director. Guadalajara, a metropolitan area of five million people, is a destination for cultural and business travellers.[8]

Horacio de la Vega, marketing director for Guadalajara 2011, cited the [9]

However, as the Games drew closer to starting, it was revealed that the costs of building the venues and the athletes' village had more than tripled to US$750 million.[10]

The city planned to build a new convention center and undertake road improvements. Additional plans called for transit improvements, a performing arts theater (Auditorio Telmex) and a new public library.[11] Guadalajara increased the number of available hotel rooms by 5,000 for the games.[12]

By April, Guadalajara 2011 had made over US$50 million revenue from television rights and sponsors, which was more than the [2]

In June 2011, four months before the games, Carlos Andrade stated that no construction concerns remained for Guadalajara. He said that all 23 stadiums being built would be ready for the start of the games.[13]

Marketing

The handover presentation during the 2007 Pan American Games closing ceremony.

Marketing for the games began in 2007 at the closing ceremony of the SKY México, which operates in several countries. The network created a channel dedicated to the games.[15] Classes were suspended in Guadalajara during the games to give students the chance to attend.[16]

Sponsors

There were four official sponsors for the Games: Scotiabank, Telcel, Nissan and Telmex. Accordingly, some of the venues were named after these sponsors, such as the Scotiabank Aquatics Center, Nissan Gymnastics Stadium, Telcel Tennis Complex and the Telmex Athletics Stadium. Children International was also an official benefactor of the Pan American Games. "Second tier" and "third tier" sponsors included Technogym and others.[2]

Mascots

From left to right: Gavo, Leo and Huichi.

The mascots for the 2011 Pan American Games and the [17]

The co-creators of the mascots were José Luis Andrade (Leo), Ángel Barba Barrera (Huichi), and Fernando Sanchez (Gavo). Each received $2,584. The mascots represented the state of Jalisco and the city of Guadalajara.[18]

  • Gavo — A blue agave (agave azul) plant that is representative of the region which is famous for its tequila production.
  • Huichi — A deer, to represent the southern part of the state
  • Leo — A lion, to represents the strong people of Guadalajara. The lion is present in the city's coat of arms.

Venues

The Omnilife Stadium hosted the opening and closing ceremonies.

The aquatic centre has two Olympic-size pools and a diving platform. The athletic facility was expanded to 15,000 during the Games and then was converted back to 5,000 seats.[8] Puerto Vallarta hosted sailing, marathon swimming, triathlon, and beach volleyball.[19]

Other cities that co-hosted the event are Tapalpa (mountain biking), Ciudad Guzmán (rowing and canoeing) and Lagos de Moreno (baseball).[20]

The [22] Other venues that already existed in Guadalajara included the Weightlifting Forum and the CODE Dome. Most other venues for the games had to be constructed or expanded temporarily to host the games.[19]

10 new venues were planned including a volleyball arena, covered velodrome, shooting range, and a basketball arena. The 3,500-seat gymnastics stadium, which cost $5.5 million, opened in March 2008.[8]

In total about 35 different venues were used, with a majority of them being newly built specifically for the games.[19]

Torch relay

A ceremony is held at the Teotihuacan pyramids to light the torch.

The Pan American Torch Relay brought the torch from Mexico City to the Estadio Omnilife for the Opening Ceremony. The flame arrives just in time for the opening ceremony.[20]

The relay took the torch through all 32 Mexican states on a 50-day route starting on August 26 at the pyramids of Teotihuacan outside Mexico City. About 3,500 runners carried the torch on the 15,000-kilometer route. The torch arrived in Puerto Vallarta on October 9, Ciudad Guzmán on October 11, Tapalpa on October 12, Lagos de Moreno on October 13 and Guadalajara on October 14. The torch relay was sponsored by local nutrition company Grupo Omnilife.[20]

The torch design depicted agave leaves protecting the Pan American flame. It was designed by Vatti, the same company that designed the torch for the [23]

The Games

Opening ceremony

A scene from the Opening ceremony.

The opening ceremony of the games took place on October 14, 2011, at 8:00 pm CDT (01:00 UTC, October 15) at Omnilife Stadium. The opening ceremony was produced by Five Currents, who also produced the 2002 Winter Olympics Opening Ceremony.[24]

Participating teams

All 41 members of PASO competed at the Games. The Netherlands Antilles Olympic Committee, which had planned to continue functioning after the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, had its membership withdrawn by the IOC Executive Committee at the IOC session on July 2011. However, it took steps to allow athletes to compete at the 2011 Pan American Games under the PASO flag.[25]

The number of competitors qualified by each delegation is indicated in parentheses.

Sports

36 sports were contested in Guadalajara. With sports such as diving, a sub-discipline of aquatics, included, the number goes up to 40 sports.[68] Futsal, which was added as by the hosts Brazilians as an exhibition sport for the 2007 Pan American Games was dropped from the program.[69] Rugby sevens replaced futsal at the games, appearing on the games program for the very first time. Racquetball and basque pelota also returned to the program after missing the last games in Rio de Janeiro. There were 361 medal events in total.[70] The 2011 Pan American Games had qualification standards for every sport just like the Olympic Games.[71] 15 out of the 26 current Summer Olympic sports, including canoeing, handball, and modern pentathlon, will use the Pan American Games as a qualifier for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London.[72]

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each sport.

Calendar

OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Event finals EG Exhibition gala CC Closing ceremony
October 14th
Fri
15th
Sat
16th
Sun
17th
Mon
18th
Tue
19th
Wed
20th
Thu
21st
Fri
22nd
Sat
23rd
Sun
24th
Mon
25th
Tue
26th
Wed
27th
Thu
28th
Fri
29th
Sat
30th
Sun
Events
Ceremonies OC CC
Archery 2 2 4
Athletics 3 5 6 9 10 12 1 1 47
Badminton 2 3 5
Baseball 1 1
Basketball 1 1 2
Basque pelota 4 6 10
Bowling 2 2 4
Boxing 6 7 13
Canoeing 1 1 5 5 12
Cycling 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 18
Diving 2 2 2 2 8
Equestrian 1 1 2 1 1 6
Fencing 2 2 2 2 2 2 12
Field hockey 1 1 2
Football 1 1 2
Gymnastics 1 1 3 5 1 1 2 5 5 EG 24
Handball 1 1 2
Judo 3 4 4 3 14
Karate 2 4 4 10
Modern pentathlon 1 1 2
Racquetball 4 2 6
Roller skating 2 2 4 8
Rowing 4 5 5 14
Rugby sevens 1 1
Sailing 9 9
Shooting 2 2 2 3 1 2 3 15
Softball 1 1
Squash 4 2 6
Swimming 5 5 4 5 5 4 4 2 34
Synchronized swimming 1 1 2
Table tennis 2 2 4
Taekwondo 2 2 2 2 8
Tennis 3 2 5
Triathlon 2 2
Volleyball 1 1 1 1 4
Water polo 1 1 2
Water skiing 3 6 9
Weightlifting 3 3 3 3 3 15
Wrestling 4 3 4 4 3 18
Total events 11 14 24 21 18 19 20 23 31 17 18 28 43 43 28 3 361
Cumulative total 11 25 49 70 88 107 127 150 181 198 216 244 287 330 358 361
October 14th
Fri
15th
Sat
16th
Sun
17th
Mon
18th
Tue
19th
Wed
20th
Thu
21st
Fri
22nd
Sat
23rd
Sun
24th
Mon
25th
Tue
26th
Wed
27th
Thu
28th
Fri
29th
Sat
30th
Sun
Events

Medal table

The top ten listed NOCs by number of gold medals are listed below with the host nation, Mexico, being highlighted. The design of the medals is intended to represent the heart of the agave plant and thus represent the Jalisco region.[73]
1 Host nation
Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 92 79 66 237
2  Cuba (CUB) 58 35 43 136
3  Brazil (BRA) 48 35 58 141
4  Mexico (MEX)1 42 41 50 133
5  Canada (CAN) 30 40 49 119
6  Colombia (COL) 24 25 35 84
7  Argentina (ARG) 21 19 35 75
8  Venezuela (VEN) 11 27 33 71
9  Dominican Republic (DOM) 7 9 17 33
10  Ecuador (ECU) 7 8 9 24

Closing ceremony

The closing ceremony of the games took place on October 30, 2011, beginning at 8:00 pm next host city, Rob Ford of Toronto.[74]

Concerns and controversies

Security

Guadalajara, due to the ongoing [77]

Athletes' village

The Pan American Games village during the games.

The athletes' village was behind schedule for the entire time it was under construction, and in May 2011, about five months before the start of the games, the courts ordered work on the village to halt when residents of [78]

According to Garin, "we have some crabs [people who don't want to go forward] who don't like our state to grow, who don't like us having a great event, whose own related interests are more important than those of the community. Unfortunately, you can't do anything against this kind of people, except get on with our own job."[79]

After many delays, organizers finally asserted that the athletes' village would be finished no later than September, only a month before the games were to begin.[80] The village was expected to be handed over to COPAG by August 22, 2011.[81]

Venue delays

Another concern with the Games was that venue construction had fallen behind. In 2009, two years before the start of the games, the athletes' village was still not under construction and the aquatics and athletics stadiums fell way behind schedule.[82] Some venues and the athletes village were finished only a few weeks before the start of the games, including the Telcel Athletics Stadium and the beach volleyball stadium in [84]

Allegation of tainted meat

The German National Anti-Doping Agency warned athletes that some meat in Mexico had tested positive for the stimulant clenbuterol. However, Games officials said that food served at the athletes' village would be tested to ensure it contained no drugs or contaminants.[85]

See also

References

  1. ^ COPAG (October 9, 2011). "Terminan los trabajos del Comité Ejecutivo de ODEPA". Guadalajara 2011 Organizing Committee (in Spanish). Retrieved October 9, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Matthew Grayson (April 12, 2011). "Tuesday Talk -- Guadalajara 2011 Chiefs on Pan Am Construction Progress, Safety Concerns".  
  3. ^ COPAG (July 29, 2007). "The Governor of Jalisco and the Mayor of Guadalajara accept the responsibility for Guadalajara 2011.". Guadalajara 2011 Organizing Committee. Retrieved June 2, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Cayman Islands wins first gold of Pan Am Games in history". Shanghai Daily. October 19, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Kim Collins wins silver in 100m at Pan Am Games in Mexico". Skvibes.com. October 25, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c "Guadalajara will host the XVI Pan American Games in 2011". International Sports Press Association. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011. 
  7. ^ Guadalajara "Mexico to Host 2011 Pan American Games". June 2, 2006. Retrieved June 1, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c d Bill Lankhof (May 8, 2008). "Guadalajara Has What Toronto Lacks".  
  9. ^ "MStructure of the Organizing Committee". June 22, 2009. Retrieved June 1, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Esperan que Juegos Panamericanos 2011 sean los mejores" (in Español). February 10, 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2011. 
  11. ^ "The Pan American Games are Coming to Guadalajara in 2011!". Focus on Mexico. January 1, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2011. 
  12. ^ "100-DAY COUNTDOWN TO GUADALAJARA". www.thevoiceslu.com. July 9, 2011. Retrieved August 16, 2011. 
  13. ^ "European Games Progress; ANOCA Assembly; Pan Ams Update". Around the Rings. June 27, 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2011. 
  14. ^ Travel by Mexico (June 12, 2011). "Belanova, Lorena Ochoa, Fernando Platas, Embajadores Panamericanos 2011" (in Español). Retrieved June 12, 2011. 
  15. ^ COPAG (February 28, 2011). "Games Up in the Sky". Retrieved June 12, 2011. 
  16. ^ COPAG (June 9, 2011). "Pan American Games to Get Students Involved". Retrieved June 15, 2011. 
  17. ^ COPAG (November 27, 2009). "Come and Meet the Official Mascot!". Guadalajara 2011 Organizing Committee. Retrieved June 2, 2011. 
  18. ^ Sam Steinberg (November 27, 2009). "Olympic Newsdesk -- WHO to Vancouver; 2011 Mascots; GlaxoSmithKline for 2012".  
  19. ^ a b c d "Venues". Guadalajara 2011 Organizing Committee. Retrieved June 12, 2011. 
  20. ^ a b c "Pan Am Games Update June 2011". Focus on Mexico. May 30, 2011. Retrieved June 16, 2011. 
  21. ^ Marshall, Tom (April 8, 2010). "Manchester United to play Guadalajara at new stadium". guadalajarareporter.com (Guadalajara Reporter). Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2011. 
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  54. ^ "Nicaragua – Number of Entries by Sport". guadalajara.org.mx. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 
  55. ^ "Panama – Number of Entries by Sport". guadalajara.org.mx. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 
  56. ^ "Paraguay – Number of Entries by Sport". guadalajara.org.mx. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 
  57. ^ "Peru – Number of Entries by Sport". guadalajara.org.mx. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 
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  65. ^ "Uruguay – Number of Entries by Sport". guadalajara.org.mx. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 
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  67. ^ "Venezuela – Number of Entries by Sport". guadalajara.org.mx. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 
  68. ^ COPAG. "Sports Program". Guadalajara 2011 Organizing Committee. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2011. 
  69. ^ "Futsal Announces 12-Player Pan-American Games Roster". Futsal.com. July 6, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2011. 
  70. ^ What are the Pan American Games?, Trinidad and Tobago Olympic Association retrieved June 12, 2011.
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  72. ^ a b "YOG Anniversary; Sochi Review; More Pan American Delay".  
  73. ^ "Se conocieron las medallas de Guadalajara 2011". Mastaekwondo.com (in Español). May 28, 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2011. 
  74. ^ "Ford gets taste of Pan Am fever".  
  75. ^ a b Steve Keating (March 16, 2011). "USOC concerned about drug war ahead of Pan Am Games".  
  76. ^ "USOC discusses Pan Am Games security, Japan relief efforts at board meeting".  
  77. ^ a b "Pan American Games scramble to finish venues". Sports Illustrated. June 24, 2011. Retrieved June 24, 2011. 
  78. ^ "Judge orders work stopped on athletes' village".  
  79. ^ "Athletes' village construction continues".  
  80. ^ a b "Sedes para los Juegos Panamericanos 2011 estarán concluidas en septiembre" (in Español).  
  81. ^ "Pan American Village Passed Over to COPAG". COPAG. August 10, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2011. 
  82. ^ "On the Scene -- Scramble to Solve Pan Am Games Crisis".  
  83. ^ "La disputa panamericana" (in Español). ESPN Deportes. November 5, 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2011. 
  84. ^ Tom Degun (October 10, 2011). "Preparations for Guadalajara Pan American Games completed just in time". insidethegames.biz. Retrieved October 11, 2011. 
  85. ^ "No clenbuterol doping risk at Pan American Games".  

External links

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