Içel

This article is about the city. For the province, see Mersin Province.
Mersin
Metropolitan Municipality

Mersin Yenişehir shore to west
Mersin
Mersin
Location of Mersin within Turkey

Coordinates: 36°48′N 34°38′E / 36.800°N 34.633°E / 36.800; 34.633Coordinates: 36°48′N 34°38′E / 36.800°N 34.633°E / 36.800; 34.633

Country  Turkey
Region Mediterranean
Province Mersin
Government
 • Mayor Macit Özcan (CHP)
Elevation 10 m (30 ft)
Population (2012)[1]
 • Metro 913,958
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 33XXX
Area code(s) (+90) 324
Licence plate 33
Website Mersin

Mersin is a large city and a port on the Mediterranean coast of southern Turkey. It is part of an interurban agglomeration – the Adana-Mersin Metropolitan Area – and lies on the western part of Çukurova, a geographical, economical and cultural region. According to Evliya Çelebi, the city is named after the Mersinoğullari clan; another theory is that it is made from the myrtle (Greek: μύρτος, μυρσίνη) which grows abundantly in the region.[2]

Mersin is important for Turkey's economy, and Turkey's largest seaport is located there. Mersin's nickname within Turkey is "Pearl of the Mediterranean" (Turkish: Akdeniz'in İncisi) and the city hosted the 2013 Mediterranean Games.

According to the Turkish Statistical Institute, as of 2011 the Mersin Metropolitan Municipality had a population of 913,958.[1] Mersin's population is 1.674.568 with its all provinces.

History

This coast has been inhabited since the 9th millennium BC. Excavations by John Garstang of the hill of Yumuktepe have revealed 23 levels of occupation, the earliest dating from ca. 6300 BC. Fortifications were put up around 4500 BC, but the site appears to have been abandoned between 350 BC and 300 BC.

In subsequent centuries, the city became a part of many states and civilizations including the Hittites, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Seleucids and Lagids. During the Ancient Greek period, the city bore the name Zephyrion (Greek: Ζεφύριον[3]) and was mentioned by numerous ancient authors. Apart from its natural harbor and strategic position along the trade routes of southern Anatolia, the city profited from trade in molybdenum (white lead) from the neighbouring mines of Coreyra. Ancient sources attributed the best molybdenum to the city, which also minted its own coins.

The area later became a part of the Roman province of Cilicia, which had its capital at Tarsus, while nearby Mersin was the major port. The city, whose name was Latinized to Zephyrium, was renamed as Hadrianopolis in honor of the Roman emperor Hadrian.

In 395, the Roman Empire was split in two and this area fell into the half ruled from Byzantium (later Constantinople), which became the centre of trade in this part of the world, drawing investments and trade, and causing Mersin to lose its attractiveness.

The city was an episcopal see under the Patriarchate of Antioch. Le Quien (Oriens christianus, II, 883) names four bishops of Zephyrium: Aerius, present at the Council of Constantinople in 381; Zenobius, a Nestorian, at the Second Council of Constantinople in 432-434; Hypatius, present at the Council of Chalcedon in 451; and Peter, at the Council in Trullo in 692. The city remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church, Zephyriensis; the see has been vacant since 1966.[4]

The area of Cilicia was conquered by the Arabs in the early 7th century, by which time it appears as a deserted site. Then came the Egyptian Tulunids, the Byzantines again between 965 and the 12th century, the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Mamluks, Anatolian beyliks, and finally the city was conquered by the Ottomans from the Ramadanid Principality in 1473 and formally annexed by Selim I in 1517.

During the American Civil War, the region became a major supplier of cotton to make up for the high demand due to shortage. Railroads were extended to Mersin in 1866 from where cotton was exported by sea, and the city developed into a major trade center.

In 1909, Mersin's port hosted 645 steamships and 797,433 tons of goods. Before World War I, Mersin exported mainly sesame seeds, cottonseed, cakes and cereals, cotton, and livestock. Cotton was exported to Europe, grain to Turkey, and livestock to Egypt. Coal was the most prevalent import into Mersin at this time. Messageries Maritimes was the largest shipping line to use the port at Mersin.[5]

In 1918, Mersin was occupied by French and British troops in accord with the Treaty of Sevrès. It was liberated by the Turkish army in 1920. In 1924, Mersin was made a province, and in 1933 Mersin and İçel provinces were joined to form the (greater Mersin) İçel province.

As of 1920, Mersin had five piers at its port, with one privately owned by a railroad company serving Mersina, Tarsus, and Adana.[6]

Atatürk and Mersin

Atatürk visited Mersin ten times and stayed in Mersin five times. He said, 'Mersin is the most important trade area in Turkey between Turkey and The World'. The 'Atatürk House' (more formally Atatürk Museum) was established there and it is still used as a museum.

Climate

Mersin has a typical subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa) with hot and dry summers and warm and wet winters. Mersin has its highest rainfall in winter; mainly December and January which gives Mersin its healthy, nurtured coastline. The driest months are summer with hardly any rainfall at all.

Climate data for Mersin
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.2
(77.4)
26.5
(79.7)
29.8
(85.6)
34.7
(94.5)
35.8
(96.4)
38.2
(100.8)
37.3
(99.1)
39.8
(103.6)
38.5
(101.3)
36.4
(97.5)
31.0
(87.8)
27.0
(80.6)
39.8
(103.6)
Average high °C (°F) 16.9
(62.4)
16.6
(61.9)
18.3
(64.9)
21.6
(70.9)
24.8
(76.6)
28.1
(82.6)
30.7
(87.3)
31.5
(88.7)
30.0
(86)
26.9
(80.4)
21.5
(70.7)
16.5
(61.7)
23.62
(74.51)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.2
(50.4)
10.9
(51.6)
13.7
(56.7)
17.5
(63.5)
21.5
(70.7)
25.2
(77.4)
28.0
(82.4)
28.4
(83.1)
25.5
(77.9)
21.5
(70.7)
15.9
(60.6)
11.7
(53.1)
19.17
(66.51)
Average low °C (°F) 6.3
(43.3)
6.8
(44.2)
9.3
(48.7)
13.0
(55.4)
17.2
(63)
21.2
(70.2)
24.4
(75.9)
24.6
(76.3)
21.5
(70.7)
17.0
(62.6)
11.8
(53.2)
7.9
(46.2)
15.08
(59.14)
Record low °C (°F) −6.3
(20.7)
−3.6
(25.5)
−2.2
(28)
0.6
(33.1)
7.0
(44.6)
5.3
(41.5)
16.1
(61)
15.0
(59)
11.0
(51.8)
2.7
(36.9)
−0.8
(30.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
−6.3
(20.7)
Precipitation mm (inches) 109.8
(4.323)
83.5
(3.287)
55.3
(2.177)
36.7
(1.445)
22.9
(0.902)
9.6
(0.378)
12.3
(0.484)
6.2
(0.244)
9.8
(0.386)
40.2
(1.583)
80.2
(3.157)
143.1
(5.634)
609.6
(24)
Avg. rainy days 9.7 9.3 7.7 7.1 5.4 2.3 1.0 0.8 1.7 5.3 6.8 10.6 67.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 173.6 159.6 210.8 228 272.8 303 316.2 310 282 241.8 177 151.9 2,826.7
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü[7]

Mersin today


Today, Mersin is a large city spreading out along the coast, with Turkey's second tallest skyscraper (the 52-floor Mertim Tower, which was the tallest skyscraper in Turkey for 13 years between 1987 and 2000, until the completion of the İş Bankası Towers in Istanbul), huge hotels, an opera house, expensive real estate near the sea or up in the hills, and many other modern urban amenities.The seaside of Mersin is the longest seaside in Turkey as well as in Eastern Mediterranean. The population of the city is 876,958 (Mersin Provinces 1,682,848) according to 2012 estimates. The population of the sub municipalities within Greater Mersin is shown below:[1]

Name of the municipality Population 2011 Population 2012
Akdeniz 274,684 275,206
Mezitli 133,378 140,326
Toroslar 252,706 253,446
Yenişehir 198,912 207,980

The Metropolitan Municipality is now trying to rescue the sea front with walkways, parks and statues, and there are still palm trees on the roadsides especially where the young generation like to hang out in the cafés and patisseries of smart neighbourhoods such as Pozcu or Çamlıbel. These are established neighbourhoods where there are many well-known shops and restaurants with years of experience and reputations to protect. The city centre is a maze of narrow streets and arcades of little shops and cafes, with young people buzzing around on scooters. The old quarter near the fish market is where you will find the stalls selling tantuni and grilled liver sandwiches.

One of the most distinctive features of the city as a whole is the solar heating panels, they are everywhere, on top of every building.

Turkey now plans to construct its first nuclear power plant some 80 miles west of Mersin.[8] In March 2008, Turkey opened the bidding for the construction of the plant. Environmental groups, such as Greenpeace, oppose this plan.[8]

Cuisine

The local cuisine is famous, and restaurants specializing on the Mersin Region can be found all over Turkey, and includes specialties such as:

Economy and Transportation

Historically, Mersin was a major producer of cottonseed oil.[9]

The port is the mainstay of Mersin's economy. There are 45 piers, a total port area of 785,000 square metres (194 acres), with a capacity of 6,000 ships per year.

Adjacent to the port is Mersin Free Zone established in 1986, the first free zone in Turkey, with warehouses, shops, assembly-disassembly, maintenance and engineering workshops, banking and insurance, packing-repacking, labelling and exhibition facilities. The zone is a publicly owned center for foreign investors, close to major markets in the (Middle East, North Africa, East and West Europe, Russian Federation and Central Asia. The trading volume of the free zone was USD 51,8 billion in 2002.

Mersin has highway connections to the north, east and west. Mersin is also connected to the southern railroad. Adana airport is 69 kilometres (43 mi).

70% of the male population and 46% of the female population is employed. Unemployment is about 6.7%.

Mersin port is an international hub for many vessels routing to European countries.Its now operated by PSA.

Mersin University

Mersin University was founded in 1992 and started teaching in 1993–1994, with 11 faculties, 6 schools and 9 vocational schools. The university has had about 10 thousand graduates, has broadened its current academic staff to more than 2,100 academicians, and enrolls 22,000 students.

Culture

Because the city has been a crossroads for centuries, the local culture is a medley of civilizations. Mersin has a State Opera and Ballet, the fourth in Turkey after Istanbul, İzmir and Ankara. Mersin International Music Festival was established in 2001 and takes place every October. The photography association Mersin Fotograf Derneği (MFD), is one of the most popular and active cultural organizations in the city. Some cultural activities are sponsored by the İçel sanat kulübü (i.e., Art club of Mersin) and Mediterranean Opera and Ballet Club. There are three museums: Mersin Museum, Atatürk Museum and Deniz Museum (navy museum).

The municipal cemetery is interesting as people of all faiths and denominations can be buried here.

The City hosts the Roman Catholic Co-Cathedral of St. Anthony of Padua.

In order to swim in clean water you need to get out of town, perhaps an hour along the coast. The beaches at Kızkalesi, Ayaş, Susanoğlu (app. 50–70 km west) are popular with families while young people prefer Akyar, Yapraklı koy, Narlıkuyu or quieter bays along the coast, some of which are very attractive indeed.

Sports

Main article: Sports venues in Mersin

The Mersin İdmanyurdu SK football club plays in the Süper Lig since the 2011–12 season. The men's basketball team of the Mersin Büyükşehir Belediyesi S.K. plays in the Turkish Basketball League while its women's basketball team plays in the Turkish Women's Basketball League.

The 10,128-seating capacity Tevfik Sırrı Gür Stadium is home to Mersin İdmanyurdu SK. Another football stadium in Mersin is the Mersin Olympic Stadium with 25,534 seating capacity. The men's and women's basketball teams of the Mersin Büyükşehir Belediyesi S.K. play their home matches at the Edip Buran Sport Hall, which has a seating capacity of 2,700.

Mersin hosted the 2013 Mediterranean Games. For this purpose, eleven new sports venues were built. The Servet Tazegül Arena, the fourth biggest indoor arena of Turkey with its 7,500 seating capacity, hosted the men's basketball events and the volleyball finals of the Games.[10] The athletics and paralympic athletics events were held at the Nevin Yanıt Athletics Complex.[11]

Images

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Mersin is twinned with:

  • Kushimoto, Japan
  • Syria
  • West Palm Beach, United States of America
  • Oberhausen, Germany
  • Valparaiso, Chile

Notable people

  • Ahmet Mete Işıkara- scientist
  • Musa Eroğlu - Composer,musician
  • Haldun Dormen - Theatre & film actor and director
  • Seyhan Kurt - Poet,writer,sociologist
  • Müfide İlhan - First woman mayor in Turkey in the 1950s
  • Ahmet Kireççi (aka Mersinli Ahmet) - Olympic medalist wrestler
  • Nevit Kodallı - Composer
  • Nevin Yanıt - Female sprinter (European champion in 100 m hurdles)
  • Atıf Yılmaz - Film director and producer
  • Evelyn Baghtcheban - One of the pioneers of opera and choral music in Iran.
  • Reşit Galip - Former minister of National education

See also

References

Notes

External links

  1. REDIRECT Template:Catholic Encyclopedia poster
  • Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites
  • Catholic Encyclopedia "Zephyrium"
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