World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Stefan Lazarević

Stefan Lazarević
Despot of Serbia
Fresco of Stefan Lazarević from Manasija monastery
Reign Knez (1389–1402)
Despot (1402–1427)
Predecessor Lazar of Serbia
Successor Đurađ Branković
Born 1377
Kruševac, Moravian Serbia
Died 1427
Glava, Serbian Despotate
Burial Manasija Monastery
House House of Lazarević
Father Lazar of Serbia
Mother Princess Milica of Serbia

Stefan Lazarevic (Serbian: Стефан Лазаревић, c. 1377–19 July 1427) known also as Stefan the Tall (Стеван Високи), was the son of Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and a ruler of Serbia. He held a title of prince (1389-1402) and despot (1402-1427). In his time he was regarded as one of the finest knights and military leaders in Europe, and because of his literature works he is regarded as one of the best Serbian writers in the Middle ages. After the death of his father on the Kosovo Field in 1389, he became ruler of Moravian Serbia and ruled with his mother Milica Hrebeljanović, until he reached adulthood in 1393. His reign and his personal literary works are sometimes associated with early signs of the Renaissance in Serbian lands. He introduced knightly tournaments, modern battle tactics, and firearms to Serbia.

As an Ottoman vassal, Lazarević was leader of Serbian auxiliary squads in the battle of Rovine, Nicopolis and Angora. After the battle of Angora, Lazarević received the title of despot from the Byzantines in Constantinople, in 1402.

In 1403–04 he became an ally of Hungarian king Sigismund, and received Mačva, Belgrade (which became Lazarević's capital in 1405), Golubac and other domains, such as Srebrenica in 1411. In 1408 Sigismund founded the Order of the Dragon, a chivalric order for selected nobility, in which Stefan had the superior rank.

After the Ottoman defeat on Angora, civil war erupted in the Ottoman Empire, while clashes among Serbian nobility ensued. First, between Lazarević and Branković, secondly between Stefan and his younger brother Vuk. The clashes among the nobility ended in 1412, with the conciliation of Stefan and his nephew Đurađ Branković. After the death of Balša III Balšić, he inherited Zeta and waged the war against Venice. Since he didn't have any children, on the assembly in Srebrenica (1426), Stefan proclaimed his nephew Đurađ as heir.

On the domestic front, he broke the resistance of the Serbian nobles, and used the periods of peace to strengthen Serbia politically, economically, culturally and militarily. On 29 January 1412 he issued the "Code of mines" (Законик о рудницима), with a separate section on governing of Novo Brdo – the largest mine in the Balkans at that time. This code increased the development of mining in Serbia, which has been the main economic backbone of Serbian Despotate. At the time of his death, Serbia was one of the largest silver producers in Europe. In the field of architecture, he continued development of Morava school.

He was a great patron of the arts and culture by providing shelter and support to scholars from Serbia, and refugees from neighboring countries that have been taken by the Ottomans. In addition, he was himself a writer, and his most important work is "A Homage to Love," which is characterized by the Renaissance lines. Beside despot’s literature work, in this period there were other authors such as Constantine the Philosopher and Gregory Tsamblak. During his reign the Resava school was formed.

Contents

  • Background and family 1
  • Life 2
  • Titles 3
  • Marriage 4
  • Gallery 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Further Readings 8
  • External links 9

Background and family

Stefan was the son of Lazar and his wife Milica, a lateral line of Nemanjić. Hrebeljanović's father Prince Vratko was a direct descendant of Vukan, eldest son of Stefan Nemanja. In addition to Stefan, they had seven other children.[1][2][3]

Stefan Lazarević married Jelena in September 1405. Jelena was daughter of Francesco II Gattilusio, a Genovese lord of Lesbos and a sister of Irene Gattilusio, empress of Byzantium empire and a wife of John VII Palaiologos. This marriage was arranged during his stay in Constantinople in 1402, at a time when the city and the Byzantine Empire ruled John VII in the name of his uncle, Manuel II (1373-1391 ruler, Emperor 1391-1425). Jelena and Stefan had no children and Jelena is not shown on any frescoes in monasteries built by Stefan.[4]

Life

Stefan was the son of Bayezid (Ottoman Sultan 1389-1402) against Stefan. Not surprisingly Stefan was receptive when Sigismund of Hungary approached him for an alliance. Sigismund was very generous in his terms. He offered Stefan Lazarevic Macva including Beograde for Stefan's lifetime if he would accept Hungarian suzerainty for it. In the interim, In November 1402 Stefan defeated Brankovics's forces (which included troops from Suleyman) at Tripolje. At this time Stefan also acquired from Sigismund the important fortress of Golubac on the Danube. In 1403 he proclaimed Belgrade his capital. He built a fortress with a citadel which was destroyed during the Great Turkish War in 1690; only the Despot Stefan Tower remains today.[7] In 1404, Sigismund gave Lazarević land in the present-day Vojvodina (and Pannonian part of present-day Belgrade), including Zemun (today part of Belgrade), Slankamen, Kupinik, Mitrovica, Bečej, and Veliki Bečkerek. In 1417, Apatin is also mentioned among his possessions.

Under his rule, he issued a Code of Mines in 1412 in Resava School, a center for correcting, translating, and transcribing books.[7]

Stefan Lazarević died suddenly in 1427, leaving the throne to his nephew Đurađ Branković. His deeds eventually elevated him into sainthood, and the Serbian Orthodox Church honors him on 1 August. Despot Stefan is buried in the monastery Koporin which he had built in 1402, as he did the bigger and more famous Manasija monastery in 1407. In fact, Manasija was intended as his own burial place, but due to a sudden nature of his death in perilous times it was his brother Vuk that is buried there.[7]

Apart from the biographical notes in charters and especially in the Code on The Mine Novo Brdo (1412)

Stefan Lazarević wrote three original literary works:

  • The Grave Sobbing for prince Lazar (1389)
  • The Inscription on the Kosovo Marble Column (1404)
  • A Homage to Love (1409), a poetic epistle to his brother Vuk.[7]

He was probably the patron of the most extensively illuminated Serbian manuscript, the Serbian Psalter which is now kept in the Bavarian State Library in Munich.[8]

Titles

  • "Lord of all the Serbs and Podunavlje" (господар свих Срба и Подунавља[9]), inherited through his father.[10]
  • "Despot of the Kingdom of Rascia and Lord of Serbia" (Stephanus dei gratia regni Rassia despotus et dominus Servie[11]). After 1402.
  • mentioned as "Stephanus Despoth, Dominus Rasciae" in the founding charter of the Order of the Dragon (1408). He was the first on the list.[12]

Marriage

On 12 September 1405, Stefan married Helena Gattilusio, the daughter of Francesco II of Lesbos. According to Konstantin the Philosopher, Stefan first saw his wife on Lesbos, where Francesco II offered him a choice among his daughters; the marriage was arranged "with the advice and participation" of Helena's sister, Empress Eirene. Surprisingly, there is no mention of Helena after her marriage to Stefan; this led Anthony Luttrell to remark that "apparently there were never any children; nothing is known of her death or burial; and, most unusual, she did not appear in any of the post-1402 fresco portraits of Stefan".[13] Luttrell concludes "Maybe she was too young for the marriage to be consummated, and perhaps she stayed on Lesbos and never traveled to Serbia; possibly she died soon after her marriage."[14]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Ivić, Aleksa (1928). Родословне таблице српских династија и властеле. Novi sad: Matica Srpska. p. 5. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "The Lazarevici"Genealogy - Balkan states: . Retrieved 25 February 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Medieval Lands project - Serbia: ''Lazar I [1385]-1389, Stefan 1389-1427''". Retrieved 25 February 2010. 
  4. ^ a b c d Андрија Веселиновић Радош Љушић, „Српске династије" , Нови Сад, 2001. ISBN 86-83639-01-0
  5. ^ Đurđe Bošković (1956). Arheološki spomenici i nalazišta u Srbiji: Centralna Srbija. Naučna knjiga. p. 54. Retrieved 5 July 2013. 
  6. ^ The Balkans, 1018-1499, M. Dinic, The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. 4, Ed. J.M.Hussey, (Cambridge University Press, 1966), 551.
  7. ^ a b c d Fine, The Late Medieval Balkans (1987)
  8. ^ "Serbian Psalter, Cod. slav. 4".  
  9. ^ Miloš Blagojević (2004). Nemanjići i Lazarevići i srpska srednjovekovna državnost. Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva. У jедноj хиландарс^' пове- л>и деспот Стефан истиче да jе постао господар свих Срба и Подунавља 
  10. ^ Istorijski glasnik: organ Društva istoričara SR Srbije. Društvo. 1982. На основу досадашњег излагања са сигурношћу можемо рећи да деспот Угљеша , господин Константин , Вук Бранковић , Вукови синови и кесар Угљеша никада нису носили титулу „ господар Срба и Подунавља ” , јер је ова ... 
  11. ^ Radovi 19. 1972. p. 30. Stephanus dei gra- tia regni Rassia despotus et dominus Servie 
  12. ^ Ekaterini Mitsiou (2010). Emperor Sigismund and the orthodox world. Austrian Academy of Sciences Press. p. 103.  
  13. ^ Anthony Luttrell, "John V's Daughters: A Palaiologan Puzzle", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 40 (1986), p. 105
  14. ^ Luttrell, "John V Daughters", p. 106

Further Readings

  • Constantine the Philosopher wrote a biography to Stefan in ~1431. Constantine was a Bulgarian scholar who following his arrival in Serbia in 1411, made a career for himself at Stefan's court.
  • Fine, John V.A. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1987.

External links

  • Despot Stefan Lazarević, a fresco from the monastery of Manasija from the year 1418
  • His listing in "Medieval lands" by Charles Cawley. The project "involves extracting and analysing detailed information from primary sources, including contemporary chronicles, cartularies, necrologies and testaments."
Stefan Lazarević
Born: circa 1372/77 Died: 19 July 1427
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Lazar of Serbia
Serbian Knez
1389–1402
Vacant
Title next held by
Đurađ Branković
New creation Serbian Despot
1402–1427
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.