World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000184325
Reproduction Date:

Title: Spodumene  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: WikiProject Rocks and minerals/Worklist, Lithium, Lepidolite, Tanco Mine, Etta, South Dakota
Collection: Aluminium Minerals, Gemstones, Inosilicates, Lithium Minerals, Monoclinic Minerals, Pyroxene Group
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


"Kunzite" redirects here. For the Sailor Moon character, see Four Kings of Heaven.
Walnut Hill Pegmatite Prospect, Huntington, Hampshire County, Massachusetts, USA (Size: 14.2 x 9.2 x 3.0 cm)
Category Silicate mineral, pyroxene
(repeating unit)
lithium aluminium silicate, LiAl(SiO3)2
Crystal symmetry Monoclinic 2/m
Unit cell a = 9.46 Å, b = 8.39 Å, c = 5.22 Å; β = 110.17°; Z = 4
Color Highly variable: white, colorless, gray, pink, lilac, violet, yellow and green, may be bicolored; emerald green - hiddenite; lilac - kunzite
Crystal habit prismatic, generally flattened and elongated, striated parallel to {100}, commonly massive
Crystal system Monoclinic; 2/m
Twinning Common on {100}
Cleavage Perfect prismatic, two directions {110} ∧ {110} at 87°
Fracture Uneven to subconchoidal
Tenacity Brittle
Mohs scale hardness 6.5–7
Luster Vitreous, pearly on cleavage
Streak white
Specific gravity 3.03–3.23
Optical properties Biaxial (+)
Refractive index nα = 1.648–1.661 nβ = 1.655–1.670 nγ = 1.662–1.679
Birefringence δ = 0.014–0.018
Pleochroism Strong in kunzite: α-purple, γ-colorless; hiddenite: α-green, γ-colorless
2V angle 54° to 69°
Fusibility 3.5
Solubility insoluble
Other characteristics Tenebrescence, chatoyancy, kunzite often fluorescent under UV
References [1][2][3][4]

Spodumene is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium aluminium inosilicate, LiAl(SiO3)2, and is a source of lithium. It occurs as colorless to yellowish, purplish, or lilac kunzite (see below), yellowish-green or emerald-green hiddenite, prismatic crystals, often of great size. Single crystals of 14.3 m (47 ft) in size are reported from the Black Hills of South Dakota, United States.[5]

The normal low-temperature form α-spodumene is in the monoclinic system whereas the high-temperature β-spodumene crystallizes in the tetragonal system. The normal α-spodumene converts to β-spodumene at temperatures above 900 °C.[4] Crystals are typically heavily striated parallel to the principal axis. Crystal faces are often etched and pitted with triangular markings.


  • Discovery and occurrence 1
  • Economic importance 2
  • Gemstone varieties 3
    • Hiddenite 3.1
    • Kunzite 3.2
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Discovery and occurrence

Spodumene was first described in 1800 for an occurrence in the type locality in Utö, Södermanland, Sweden. It was discovered by Brazilian naturalist Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva. The name is derived from the Greek spodumenos (σποδυμενος), meaning "burnt to ashes," owing to the opaque, ash-grey appearance of material refined for use in industry.[1]

Spodumene occurs in lithium-rich granite pegmatites and aplites. Associated minerals include: quartz, albite, petalite, eucryptite, lepidolite and beryl.[2]

Transparent material has long been used as a gemstone with varieties kunzite and hiddenite noted for their strong pleochroism. Source localities include Afghanistan, Australia, Brazil, Madagascar, Pakistan, Québec in Canada and North Carolina, California in the USA.

Economic importance

Spodumene is an important source of lithium for use in ceramics, mobile phone and automotive batteries, medicine, Pyroceram and as a fluxing agent. Lithium is extracted from spodumene by fusing in acid.

World production of lithium via spodumene is around 80,000 metric tonnes per annum, primarily from the Greenbushes pegmatite of Western Australia and from some Chinese and Chilean sources. The Talison mine in Greenbushes, Western Australia has an estimated reserve of 13 million tonnes.[6]

Some think that spodumene will become a less important source of lithium due to the emergence of alkaline brine lake sources in Chile, China and Argentina, which produce lithium chloride directly. Lithium chloride is converted to lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide by reaction with sodium carbonate and calcium hydroxide respectively. However, pegmatite-based projects benefit from being quicker to move into production than brines, which can take 18 months to 3 years, depending on evaporation rates. With pegmatites, once a mill is built, the production of lithium carbonate takes only a matter of days.

Another key advantage that spodumene has over its more popular brine rivals is the purity of the lithium carbonate it can produce. While all product used by the battery industry has to grade at least 99.5% lithium carbonate, the makeup of the remaining 0.5% is important; higher amounts of iron, magnesium or other deleterious materials make for a less attractive product.

Gemstone varieties


Hiddenite is a pale emerald green gem variety first reported from Alexander County, North Carolina, U. S. A.

This emerald green variety of spodumene is colored by chromium, just like emeralds. Not all green spodumene is colored with chromium, which tend to have a lighter color, and therefore are not true hiddenite.


Kunzite is a pink to lilac colored gemstone, a variety of spodumene with the color coming from minor to trace amounts of manganese. Some (but not all) kunzite used for gemstones has been heated to enhance its color. It is also frequently irradiated to enhance the color.

Kunzite was discovered in 1902, and was named after Tiffany & Co's chief jeweler at the time, and a noted mineralogist. It has been found in Brazil, USA, Canada, CIS, Mexico, Sweden, Western Australia, Afghanistan and Pakistan.

One notable example of kunzite used in jewellery is in the Russian Palmette tiara and necklace worn by the Duchess of Gloucester.[7]

See also


  1. ^ a b Spodumene,
  2. ^ a b Anthony, John W., Bideaux, Richard A., Bladh, Kenneth W., and Nichols, Monte C. (1990). Handbook of Mineralogy. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, Arizona
  3. ^ Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed., ISBN 0-471-80580-7
  4. ^ a b Deer, Howie and Zussman, Rock Forming Minerals, v. 2 Chain Silicates, Wiley, 1963 pp. 92-98
  5. ^ Robert Louis Bonewitz, 2005, Rock and Gem, London, Dorling Kindersley
  6. ^ "Spodumene". Bunbury Port Authority. February 26, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  7. ^ State Visit from India: HRH The Duchess of Gloucester,


  • Kunz, George Frederick (1892). Gems and Precious Stones of North America. New York: The Scientific Publishing Company.
  • Palache, C., Davidson, S. C., and Goranson, E. A. (1930). "The Hiddenite deposit in Alexander County, N. Carolina". American Mineralogist Vol. 15 No. 8 p. 280
  • Webster, R. (2000). Gems: Their Sources, Descriptions and Identification (5th ed.), pp. 186–190. Great Britain: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • The key players in Quebec lithium, “Daily News”, The Northern Miner. August 11, 2010.

External links

  • Texts on Wikisource:
    • "Kunzite".  
    • Frederick William Rudler (1911). "Spodumene".  
    • "Spodumene".  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.