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Roman Britain

as silver and gold and some lead, iron and copper. Other exports probably included agricultural products, oysters and salt, whilst large quantities of coin would have been re-exported back to the continent as well.[48][56][57][59]

These products moved as a result of private trade and also through payments and contracts established by the Roman state to support its military forces and officials on the island, as well as through state taxation and extraction of resources.[48][59] Up until the mid-3rd century, the Roman state’s payments appear to have been unbalanced, with far more products sent to Britain, to support its large military force (which had reached c. 53,000 by the mid-2nd century), than were extracted from the island.[48][59]

It has been argued that Roman Britain’s continental trade peaked in the late 1st century AD and thereafter declined as a result of an increasing reliance on local products by the population of Britain, caused by economic development on the island and by the Roman state’s desire to save money by shifting away from expensive long-distance imports.[56][58][59][60] Evidence has, however, been outlined that suggests that the principal decline in Roman Britain’s continental trade may have occurred in the late 2nd century AD, from c. 165 AD onwards.[48] This has been linked to the economic impact of contemporary Empire-wide crises: the Antonine Plague and the Marcomannic Wars.[48]

From the mid-3rd century onwards, Britain no longer received such a wide range and extensive quantity of foreign imports as it did during the earlier part of the Roman period; however, vast quantities of coin from continental mints reached the island, whilst there is historical evidence for the export of large amounts of British grain to the continent during the mid-4th century.[48][57][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69] During the latter part of the Roman period British agricultural products, paid for by both the Roman state and by private consumers, clearly played an important role in supporting the military garrisons and urban centres of the northwestern continental Empire.[48][57][63] This came about as a result of the rapid decline in the size of the British garrison from the mid-3rd century onwards (thus freeing up more goods for export), and because of ‘Germanic’ incursions across the Rhine, which appear to have reduced rural settlement and agricultural output in northern Gaul.[48][63]

Economy

Industrial production in Roman Britain
Development of Dolaucothi Gold Mines

Mineral extraction sites such as the Dolaucothi gold mine was probably first worked by the Roman army from c. 75, and at some later stage passed to civilian operators. The mine developed as a series of opencast workings, mainly by the use of hydraulic mining methods. They are described by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History in great detail. Essentially, water supplied by aqueducts was used to prospect for ore veins by stripping away soil to reveal the bedrock. If veins were present, they were attacked using fire-setting and the ore removed for crushing and comminution. The dust was washed in a small stream of water and the heavy gold dust and gold nuggets collected in riffles. The diagram at right shows how Dolaucothi developed from c. 75 through to the 1st century. When opencast work was no longer feasible, tunnels were driven to follow the veins. The evidence from the site shows advanced technology probably under the control of army engineers.

The Wealden ironworking zone, the lead and silver mines of the Mendip Hills and the tin mines of Cornwall seem to have been private enterprises leased from the government for a fee. Although mining had long been practised in Britain (see Grimes Graves), the Romans introduced new technical knowledge and large-scale industrial production to revolutionise the industry. It included hydraulic mining to prospect for ore by removing overburden as well as work alluvial deposits. The water needed for such large-scale operations was supplied by one or more aqueducts, those surviving at Dolaucothi being especially impressive. Many prospecting areas were in dangerous, upland country, and, although mineral exploitation was presumably one of the main reasons for the Roman invasion, it had to wait until these areas were subdued.

Although Roman designs were most popular, rural craftsmen still produced items derived from the Iron Age La Tène artistic traditions. Local pottery rarely attained the standards of the Gaulish industries although the Castor ware of the Nene Valley was able to withstand comparison with the imports. Most native pottery was unsophisticated however and intended only for local markets.

By the 3rd century, Britain's economy was diverse and well established, with commerce extending into the non-Romanised north. The design of Hadrian's Wall especially catered to the need for customs inspections of merchants' goods.

Provincial government

Under the Roman Empire, administration of peaceful provinces was ultimately the remit of the Senate, but those, like Britain, that required permanent garrisons were placed under the Emperor's control. In practice imperial provinces were run by resident governors who were members of the Senate and had held the consulship. These men were carefully selected often having strong records of military success and administrative ability. In Britain, a governor's role was primarily military, but numerous other tasks were also his responsibility such as maintaining diplomatic relations with local client kings, building roads, ensuring the public courier system functioned, supervising the civitates and acting as a judge in important legal cases. When not campaigning he would travel the province hearing complaints and recruiting new troops.

To assist him in legal matters he had an adviser, the legatus juridicus, and those in Britain appear to have been distinguished lawyers perhaps because of the challenge of incorporating tribes into the imperial system and devising a workable method of taxing them. Financial administration was dealt with by a procurator with junior posts for each tax-raising power. Each legion in Britain had a commander who answered to the governor and in time of war probably directly ruled troublesome districts. Each of these commands carried a tour of duty of two to three years in different provinces. Below these posts was a network of administrative managers covering intelligence gathering, sending reports to Rome, organising military supplies and dealing with prisoners. A staff of seconded soldiers provided clerical services.

Colchester was probably the earliest capital of Roman Britain, but it was soon eclipsed by London with its strong mercantile connections. The different forms of municipal organisation in Britannia were known as civitas (which were subdivided, amongst other forms, into colonies such as York, Colchester, Gloucester and Lincoln and municipalities such as Verulamium), and were each governed by a senate of local landowners, whether Brythonic or Roman, who elected magistrates concerning judicial and civic affairs.[70] The various civitas sent representatives to a yearly provincial council in order to profess loyalty to the Roman state, to send direct petitions to the Emperor in times of extraordinary need, and to worship the imperial cult.[70]

Provincial subdivisions

 
 
 
 
 
Roman Britain
43 – early 3rd c.
Capital Camulodunum
(43 – c. 65),
then Londinium
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Britannia Inferior,
early 3rd c. – 293,
capital at Eboracum
 
Britannia Superior
early 3rd c. – 293,
capital at Londinium
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Flavia Caesariensis,
293–410,
capital Lindum
 
Britannia Secunda,
293–410,
capital Eboracum
 
Maxima Caesariensis,
293–410,
capital Londinium
 
Britannia Prima,
293–410,
capital Corinium

Town and country

Britannia as shown on the Tabula Peutingeriana

During their occupation of Britain the Romans founded a number of important settlements, many of which still survive. The towns suffered attrition in the later 4th century, when public building ceased and some were abandoned to private uses. Though place names survived the deurbanised Sub-Roman and early Anglo-Saxon periods, and historiography has been at pains to signal the expected survivals, archaeology shows that a bare handful of Roman towns were continuously occupied. According to S.T. Loseby,[71] the very idea of a town as a centre of power and administration was reintroduced to England by the Roman Christianising mission to Canterbury, and its urban revival was delayed to the 10th century.

Roman towns can be broadly grouped in two categories. Civitates, "public towns" were formally laid out on a grid plan, and their role in imperial administration occasioned the construction of public buildings.[72] The much more numerous category of vici, "small towns" grew on informal plans, often round a camp or at a ford or crossroads; some were not small, others were scarcely urban, some not even defended by a wall, the characteristic feature of a place of any importance.[73]

Cities and towns which have Roman origins, or were extensively developed by them are listed with their Latin names in brackets; civitates are marked C

Religion

Pagan

Artist's reconstruction of Pagans Hill Roman Temple, Somerset

The druids, the Celtic priestly caste who were believed to originate in Britain,[75] were outlawed by Claudius,[76] and in 61 they vainly defended their sacred groves from destruction by the Romans on the island of Mona (Anglesey).[77] However, under Roman rule the Britons continued to worship native Celtic deities, such as Ancasta, but often conflated with their Roman equivalents, like Mars Rigonemetos at Nettleham.

The degree to which earlier native beliefs survived is difficult to gauge precisely. Certain European ritual traits such as the significance of the number 3, the importance of the head and of water sources such as springs remain in the archaeological record, but the differences in the votive offerings made at the baths at Bath, Somerset, before and after the Roman conquest suggest that continuity was only partial. Worship of the Roman emperor is widely recorded, especially at military sites. The founding of a Roman temple to Claudius at Camulodunum was one of the impositions that led to the revolt of Boudica. By the 3rd century, Pagans Hill Roman Temple in Somerset was able to exist peaceably and it did so into the 5th century.

Eastern cults such as Mithraism also grew in popularity towards the end of the occupation. The Temple of Mithras is one example of the popularity of mystery religions amongst the rich urban classes and temples to Mithras also exist in military contexts at Vindobala on Hadrian's Wall (the Rudchester Mithraeum) and at Segontium in Roman Wales (the Caernarfon Mithraeum).

Christianity

Fourth century Chi-Rho fresco from Lullingstone Roman Villa, Kent, which contains the only known Christian paintings from the Roman era in Britain.[78]

It is not clear when or how Christianity came to Britain. A 2nd-century "word square" has been discovered in Mamucium, the Roman settlement of Manchester.[79] It consists of an anagram of PATER NOSTER carved on a piece of amphora. There has been discussion by academics whether the "word square" is actually a Christian artefact, but if it is, it is one of the earliest examples of early Christianity in Britain.[80] The earliest confirmed written evidence for Christianity in Britain is a statement by Tertullian, c. 200 AD, in which he described "all the limits of the Spains, and the diverse nations of the Gauls, and the haunts of the Britons, inaccessible to the Romans, but subjugated to Christ".[81] Archaeological evidence for Christian communities begins to appear in the 3rd and 4th centuries. Small timber churches are suggested at Lincoln and Silchester and baptismal fonts have been found at Icklingham and the Saxon Shore Fort at Richborough. The Icklingham font is made of lead, and visible in the British Museum. A Roman Christian graveyard exists at the same site in Icklingham. A possible Roman 4th century church and associated burial ground was also discovered at Butt Road on the south-west outskirts of Colchester during the construction of the new police station there, overlying an earlier pagan cemetery. The Water Newton Treasure is a hoard of Christian silver church plate from the early 4th century and the Roman villas at Lullingstone and Hinton St Mary contained Christian wall paintings and mosaics respectively. A large 4th century cemetery at Poundbury with its east-west oriented burials and lack of grave goods has been interpreted as an early Christian burial ground, although such burial rites were also becoming increasingly common in pagan contexts during the period.

The Church in Britain seems to have developed the customary diocesan system, as evidenced from the records of the Council of Arles in Gaul in 314: represented at the Council were bishops from thirty-five sees from Europe and North Africa, including three bishops from Britain, Eborius of York, Restitutus of London, and Adelphius, possibly a bishop of Lincoln. No other early sees are documented, and the material remains of early church structures are far to seek.[82] The existence of a church in the forum courtyard of Lincoln and the martyrium of Saint Alban on the outskirts of Roman Verulamium are exceptional.[71] Alban, the first British Christian martyr and by far the most prominent, is believed to have died in the early 4th century (although some date him in the middle 3rd century), followed by Saints Julius and Aaron of Isca Augusta. Christianity was legalised in the Roman Empire by Constantine I in 313. Theodosius I made Christianity the state religion of the empire in 391, and by the 5th century it was well established. One belief labelled a heresy by the church authorities — Pelagianism — was originated by a British monk teaching in Rome: Pelagius lived c. 354 to c. 420/440.

A letter found on a lead tablet in Bath, Somerset, datable to c. 363, had been widely publicised as documentary evidence regarding the state of Christianity in Britain during Roman times. According to its first translator, it was written in Wroxeter by a Christian man called Vinisius to a Christian woman called Nigra, and was claimed as the first epigraphic record of Christianity in Britain. However, this translation of the letter was apparently based on grave paleographical errors, and the text, in fact, has nothing to do with Christianity, and in fact relates to pagan rituals.[83]

Environmental changes

The Romans introduced a number of species to Britain, including possibly the now-rare Roman nettle (Urtica pilulifera),[84] said to have been used by soldiers to warm their arms and legs,[85] and the edible snail Helix pomatia.[86] There is also some evidence they may have introduced rabbits, but of the smaller southern mediterranean type. The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) prevalent in modern Britain is assumed to have been introduced from the continent after the Norman invasion of 1066.[87]

Legacy

Roman roads

During their occupation of Britain the Romans built an extensive network of roads which continued to be used in later centuries and many are still followed today. The Romans also built water supply, sanitation and sewage systems. Many of Britain's major cities, such as London (Londinium), Manchester (Mamucium) and York (Eboracum), were founded by the Romans.

Britain is the largest European region of the former Western Roman Empire whose majority language is neither:

  • A Romance language (although English, descended from the speech of Germanic tribes which arrived after the Romans had left Britain, has had a heavy influence from French, due primarily to the Norman conquest of England), nor
  • A language descended from the pre-Roman inhabitants, though Welsh exists as a living minority language, with many borrowings from Latin, such as llaeth ("milk", latte in modern Italian), ffenestr ("window", finestra in modern Italian). Fragmentary use of Cornish lasted into the early modern period and the language has been seeing a renaissance since the late 20th century.

See also

References

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  2. ^ Alan and Veronica Palmer (1992). The Chronology of British History. Century Ltd. pp. 20–22.  
  3. ^  .
  4. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de bello Gallico (in Latina), V 1–23 , abridged by Cassius Dio, Historia Romana (in Latina), 40.1–4 .
  5. ^  .
  6. ^ The completion date of 128 derives from inscriptions hailing the Emperor Hadrian as pater patriae (Father of his Country), which title he assumed in that year.
  7. ^ The dating is based on an interpretation of the archaeological evidence. Briefly stated, inscriptions suggest that events were contained within the period of Pius's third consulship, 140–144.
  8. ^ The dating is based on the evidence of an inscription found at Heddon-on-the-Wall, on the line of Hadrian's Wall, recording refurbishment work there by the Legio VI Victrix (RIB 1389).
  9. ^  . The precise dating is uncertain, and the province does not appear to have been divided until the reign of Caracalla.
  10. ^ The reorganisation is usually attributed to Constantine the Great; it first appears in the Verona List of c. 314.
  11. ^ George Patrick Welsh (1963). Britannia: the Roman Conquest and Occupation of Britain. pp. 27–31. 
  12. ^  
  13. ^  
  14. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico (in Latina), IV 20–36 
  15. ^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico (in Latina), V 8–23 
  16. ^ Cassius Dio, Historia Romana [Roman History] (in Latina), 49.38, 53.22, 53.25 
  17. ^  
  18. ^ Keith Branigan (1985). Peoples of Roman Britain: The Catuvellauni. Sutton Publishing.  
  19. ^  
  20. ^  
  21. ^ John Creighton (2000). Coins and power in Late Iron Age Britain. Cambridge University Press.  
  22. ^  
  23. ^ Cassius Dio, Historia Romana (in Latina), 59.25 
  24. ^
  25. ^ Tacitus,  
  26. ^ Tacitus, Annals, 14.32 
  27. ^ Tacitus, Annals, 14.34 
  28. ^ Graham Webster (1998). The Roman Imperial Army of the first and second centuries AD (New ed of 3rd revised ed.). University of Oklahoma Press. p. 66.  
  29. ^ For example:  
  30. ^ Suetonius,  
  31. ^ Tacitus,  
  32. ^ Tacitus, Annals, 12:31–38 
  33. ^ Tacitus, Agricola, 14.17 
  34. ^ Tacitus, Annals, 14.29–39 
  35. ^ Cassius Dio, Historia Romana (in Latina), 62.1–12 
  36. ^ Suetonius,  
  37. ^ Tacitus, Agricola (in Latina), 16–17 
  38. ^ Tacitus, Histories, 1.60, 3.45 
  39. ^ Tacitus, Agricola (in Latina), 18.38 
  40. ^ Anonymous,  
  41. ^  
  42. ^  
  43. ^  
  44. ^ Archaeological evidence of late 4th-century urban collapse is analysed by Simon Esmonde Cleary (1989). The Ending of Roman Britain. ; the "de-romanisation" of Britain is the subject of several accounts by Richard Reece, including "Town and country: the end of Roman Britain", World Archaeology 12 (1980:77–92) and "The end of the city in Roman Britain", in J. Rich (ed.), The City in Antiquity (1992:136-44); Simon T. Loseby, (2000). "Power and towns in Late Roman Britain and early Anglo-Saxon England". In Gisela Ripoll and Josep M. Gurt. Sedes regiae (ann. 400–800) (in Latina). Barcelona. 326f.  makes a strong case for discontinuity of urban life.
  45. ^  , noted in Loseby (2000)
  46. ^ Sam Moorhead and David Stuttard (2012). The Romans who Shaped Britain. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 238.  
  47. ^ Stuart Laycock (2008). Britannia: the Failed State. The History Press.  
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Francis Morris (2010). North Sea and Channel Connectivity during the Late Iron Age and Roman Period (175/150 BC – AD 409). British Archaeological Reports International Series (2157). Archaeopress. 
  49. ^ a b c Michael Fulford (2007), "Coasting Britannia: Roman trade and traffic around the shores of Britain", in Chris Gosden, Helena Hamerow, Philip de Jersey, and Gary Lock, Communities and Connections: Essays in Honour of Barry Cunliffe, Oxford University Press, pp. 54–74,  
  50. ^ Barry Cunliffe (2002). Facing the Ocean: the Atlantic and its Peoples 8000 BC – AD 1500. Oxford University Press.  
  51. ^
  52. ^ Paul Tyers (1996). Roman Pottery in Britain. London: Batsford.  
  53. ^ Paul Tyers (1996). "Roman amphoras in Britain". Internet Archaeology (Council for British Archaeology) 1.  
  54. ^ D. P. S. Peacock and D. F. Williams (1986). Amphorae in the Roman Economy. London: Longman.  
  55. ^ César Carreras Monfort and P. P. A. Funari (1998). Britannia y el Mediterráneo: Estudios Sobre el Abastecimiento de Aceite Bético y africano en Britannia [Britain and the Mediterranean: Studies on the Betic and African oil supply in Britannia] (in Spanish). Barcelona: Publicacions Universitat de Barcelona.  
  56. ^ a b c Michael Fulford (1991), "Britain and the Roman Empire: the evidence for regional and long distance trade", in R. F. J. Jones, Roman Britain: Recent Trends, Sheffield: J. R. Collis Publications, pp. 35–47,  
  57. ^ a b c d Michael Fulford (2004), "Economic Structures", in Malcolm Todd, A Companion to Roman Britain, Oxford: Blackwell,  
  58. ^ a b
  59. ^ a b c d Michael Fulford (1984), "Demonstrating Britannia’s economic dependence in the first and second centuries", in T. F. C. Blagg and Anthony King, Military and Civilian in Roman Britain: Cultural Relationships in a Frontier Province, Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, p. 129–142 
  60. ^ Michael Fulford (1989), "The economy of Roman Britain", in Malcolm Todd, Research on Roman Britain 1960–89, London: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, pp. 175–201,  
  61. ^ Michael Fulford (1977), "Pottery and Britain’s foreign trade in the Later Roman period", in D.P.S. Peacock, Pottery and Early Commerce. Characterization and Trade in Roman and Later Ceramics, London: Academic Press, pp. 35–84,  
  62. ^ Michael Fulford (1978), "The interpretation of Britain’s late Roman trade: the scope of medieval historical and archaeological analogy", in Joan du Plat Taylor and Henry Cleere, Roman Shipping and Trade: Britain and the Rhine Provinces, London: Council for British Archaeology, pp. 59–69,  
  63. ^ a b c Michael Fulford (1996), "Economic hotspots and provincial backwaters: modelling the late Roman economy", in Cathy E. King and David G. Wigg, Coin Finds and Coin Use in the Roman World, Studien zu Fundmünzen der Antike, Berlin: Mann Verlag, pp. 153–177,  
  64. ^ Anthony R. Birley (2005). The Roman Government of Britain. Oxford University Press. pp. 423–24.  
  65. ^  
  66. ^  
  67. ^  
  68. ^  
  69. ^  
  70. ^ a b Michael E. Jones (1998). The End of Roman Britain. Cornell University Press. p. 147.  
  71. ^ a b Simon T. Loseby, (2000). "Power and towns in Late Roman Britain and early Anglo-Saxon England". In Gisela Ripoll and Josep M. Gurt. Sedes regiae (ann. 400–800) (in Latina). Barcelona. p. 326f. 
  72. ^ Martin Millet (1992) [first published in 1990]. The Romanization of Britain: an essay in archaeological interpretation. Cambridge University Press. 102f.  ).
  73. ^ Barry C. Burnham and J. S. Wacher (1990). The 'Small Towns' of Roman Britain. Batsford.  
  74. ^ Noviomagus Reginorum: meaning "new field" or "new clearing" of the Regni ( )
  75. ^ Julius Caesar. Commentarii de Bello Gallico. 6.13. 
  76. ^ Suetonius,  
  77. ^ Tacitus, Annals, 14.30 
  78. ^ "From Paganism to Christianity".  
  79. ^ G. H. R. Horsley (1987). New Documents Illustrating Early Christianity: a Review of the Greek Inscriptions and Papyri Published in 1979.  
  80. ^ David Shotter (2004) [first published in 1993]. Romans and Britons in North-West England. Lancaster: Centre for North-West Regional Studies. pp. 129–130.  
  81. ^  
  82. ^ Charles Thomas (1981). Christianity in Roman Britain to AD 500. Routledge.  
  83. ^ R. S. O. Tomlin (1994). "Vinisius to Nigra: Evidence from Oxford of Christianity in Roman Britain" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 100: 93–108. Retrieved 13 December 2006. 
  84. ^ Gulsel M. Kavalali (2003). Urtica: therapeutic and nutritional aspects of stinging nettles. CRC Press. p. 15.  
  85. ^ Homer Nearing, Jr (1949). "Local Caesar Traditions in Britain".  
  86. ^
  87. ^ "Unearthing the ancestral rabbit", British Archaeology (86), 2006 

Further reading

Iron Age background

  • John Creighton (2000). Coins and power in Late Iron Age Britain. Cambridge University Press.  
  • Barry Cunliffe (2005). Iron Age Communities in Britain (4th ed.). London: Routledge. 

General works on Roman Britain

  •  
  • Simon Esmonde-Cleary (1989). The Ending of Roman Britain. London: Batsford.  
  • Sheppard Frere (1987). Britannia. A History of Roman Britain (3rd ed.). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.  
  • Barri Jones and David Mattingly (2002) [first published in 1990]. An Atlas of Roman Britain (New ed.). Oxford: Oxbow.  
  • Stuart Laycock (2008). Britannia: the Failed State. The History Press.  
  • David Mattingly (2006). An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire. London: Penguin.  
  • Martin Millet (1992) [first published in 1990]. The Romanization of Britain: an essay in archaeological interpretation. Cambridge University Press.  
  • Patricia Southern (2012). Roman Britain: A New History 55 BC – AD 450. Stroud: Amberley Publishing.  
  • Sam Moorhead and David Stuttard (2012). The Romans who Shaped Britain. London: Thames & Hudson.  
  • Peter Salway (1993). A History of Roman Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  
  • Malcolm Todd, ed. (2004). A Companion to Roman Britain. Oxford: Blackwell.  

Historical sources and inscriptions

  • V. A. Maxfield and B. Dobson (2006) [first published 1969]. Inscriptions of Roman Britain.  
  • Anthony R. Birley (2005). The Roman Government of Britain. Oxford University Press. 
  • R. G. Collingwood and R. P. Wright, with RSO Tomlin (1995) [first published 1965]. Vol. I: Inscriptions on Stone.  
  • R. G. Collingwood and R. P. Wright (1990). Sheppard Frere and RSO Tomlin, ed.  
  • Sheppard Frere and R. S. O. Tomlin, ed. (1991–1995).  
  • Stanley Ireland (2008) [first published 1986]. Roman Britain: a Sourcebook. London: Routledge.  
  • Andreas Kakoschke (2011). ]Personal names in Roman Britain [Die Personennamen im römischen Britannien. Hildesheim: Olms-Weidmann.  
  • A. L. F. Rivet and C. Smith (1979). The Place-names of Roman Britain. London: Batsford.  

Trade

  • César Carreras Monfort and P. P. A. Funari (1998). Britannia y el Mediterráneo: Estudios Sobre el Abastecimiento de Aceite Bético y africano en Britannia [Britain and the Mediterranean: Studies on the Betic and African oil supply in Britannia] (in Spanish). Barcelona: Publicacions Universitat de Barcelona.  
  • Joan du Plat Taylor and Henry Cleere, ed. (1978). Roman Shipping and Trade: Britain and the Rhine Provinces. London: Council for British Archaeology.  
  • Michael Fulford (1977), "Pottery and Britain’s foreign trade in the Later Roman period", in D.P.S. Peacock, Pottery and Early Commerce. Characterization and Trade in Roman and Later Ceramics, London: Academic Press, pp. 35–84,  
  • Michael Fulford (1984), "Demonstrating Britannia’s economic dependence in the first and second centuries", in T. F. C. Blagg and Anthony King, Military and Civilian in Roman Britain: Cultural Relationships in a Frontier Province, Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, p. 129–142 
  • Michael Fulford (1991), "Britain and the Roman Empire: the evidence for regional and long distance trade", in R. F. J. Jones, Roman Britain: Recent Trends, Sheffield: J. R. Collis Publications, pp. 35–47,  
  • Michael Fulford (2007), "Coasting Britannia: Roman trade and traffic around the shores of Britain", in Chris Gosden, Helena Hamerow, Philip de Jersey, and Gary Lock, Communities and Connections: Essays in Honour of Barry Cunliffe, Oxford University Press, pp. 54–74,  
  • Francis Morris (2010). North Sea and Channel Connectivity during the Late Iron Age and Roman Period (175/150 BC – AD 409). British Archaeological Reports International Series (2157). Archaeopress. 
  • D. P. S. Peacock and D. F. Williams (1986). Amphorae in the Roman Economy. London: Longman.  
  • Paul Tyers (1996). Roman Pottery in Britain. London: Batsford.  
  • Paul Tyers (1996). "Roman amphoras in Britain". Internet Archaeology (Council for British Archaeology) 1.  

Economy

  • L. Allason-Jones (2002). "The jet industry and allied trades in Roman Britain". In Peter R. Wilson and Jennifer Price. Aspects of Industry in Roman Yorkshire and the North. Oxford: Oxbow. pp. 125–132.  
  • J. R. L. Allen and Michael Fulford (1996). "The distribution of South-East Dorset Black Burnished Category I Pottery in South-West Britain". Britannia (Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies) 27: 223–281.  
  • J. R. L. Allen, Michael Fulford and J. A. Todd (2007). "Burnt Kimmeridgian shale at Early Roman Silchester, south-east England, and the Roman Poole-Purbeck complex-agglomerated geomaterials industry". Oxford Journal of Archaeology 26 (2): 167–191.  
  • Henry Cleere and D. Crossley (1995). Jeremy Hodgkinson, ed. The Iron Industry of the Weald (2nd ed.). Merton Priory Press.  
  • Michael Fulford (1989), "The economy of Roman Britain", in Malcolm Todd, Research on Roman Britain 1960–89, London: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, pp. 175–201,  
  • Michael Fulford (2004), "Economic Structures", in Malcolm Todd, A Companion to Roman Britain, Oxford: Blackwell,  
  • C. J. Going (1992). "Economic ‘Long Waves’ in the Roman Period? A Reconnaissance of the Romano-British Ceramic Evidence". Oxford Journal of Archaeology 11 (1): 93–117.  
  • Barri Jones and David Mattingly (2002) [first published in 1990]. An Atlas of Roman Britain (New ed.). Oxford: Oxbow.   (see pp. 179–232).
  • David Mattingly (2006). An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire. Penguin.   (see pp. 491–528).
  • Richard Reece (2002). The Coinage of Roman Britain. Stroud: The History Press.  
  • Paul Tyers (1996). Roman Pottery in Britain. London: Batsford.  
  • Christopher J. Young (1977). The Roman Pottery Industry of the Oxford Region. British Archaeological Reports (43). Oxford: Archaeopress.  

Provincial government

  • Anthony R. Birley (2005). The Roman Government of Britain. Oxford University Press.  

Provincial development

  • Alfonso Burgers (2001). The Water Supplies and Related Structures of Roman Britain. British Archaeological Reports. Oxford: Archaeopress.  
  • Barri Jones and David Mattingly (2002) [first published in 1990]. An Atlas of Roman Britain (New ed.). Oxford: Oxbow.   (see pp. 141–178).
  • Ivan D. Margary (1973) [first published 1967]. Roman Roads in Britain (3rd ed.). London: J. Baker.  
  • David Mattingly (2006). An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire. Penguin.  
  • Martin Millet (1992) [first published 1990]. The Romanization of Britain: an essay in archaeological interpretation. Cambridge University Press.  

The Roman military in Britain

  • Yvette and D. W. Rathbone (2012). Literary Sources for Roman Britain.  
  •  
  • Alan K. Bowman (2004). Life and Letters on the Roman Frontier: Vindolanda and its People (2nd revised ed.). London:  
  • Barri Jones and David Mattingly (2002) [first published in 1990]. An Atlas of Roman Britain (New ed.). Oxford: Oxbow.   (see pp. 64–140).
  •  
  • David J. P. Mason (2009). Roman Britain and the Roman Navy (Paperback 1st ed.). The History Press.  
  • David Mattingly (2006). An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire. Penguin.   (see pp. 85–252).
  • Andrew Pearson (2002). The Roman Shore Forts: Coastal Defences of Southern Britain. The History Press.  

Urban life

  • David Mattingly (2006). An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire. Penguin.   (see pp. 253–350).
  • Martin Millet (1992) [first published in 1990]. The Romanization of Britain: an essay in archaeological interpretation. Cambridge University Press.  
  • John Wacher (1995). The Towns of Roman Britain (2nd revised ed.). Routledge.  

Rural life

  • Barri Jones and David Mattingly (2002) [first published in 1990]. An Atlas of Roman Britain (New ed.). Oxford: Oxbow.   (see pp. 233–263).
  • David Mattingly (2006). An Imperial Possession: Britain in the Roman Empire. Penguin.   (see pp. 351–427).
  • Martin Millet (1992) [first published in 1990]. The Romanization of Britain: an essay in archaeological interpretation. Cambridge University Press.  
  • John Percival (1976). The Roman Villa: A Historical Introduction. Batsford Studies in Archaeology. London: Batsford.  

Religion

  • Martin Henig (1984). Religion in Roman Britain. London: Batsford.  
  • Barri Jones and David Mattingly (2002) [first published in 1990]. An Atlas of Roman Britain (New ed.). Oxford: Oxbow.   (see pp. 264–305).

Art

  • Martin Henig (1995). The Art of Roman Britain. London: Batsford.  

External links

  • Roman Britain on In Our Time at the BBC. (listen now)
  • The Romans in Britain
  • Roman Britain, by Kevan W. White
  • The Roman Army and Navy in Britain, by Peter Green
  • Roman Britain, by Guy de la Bédoyère
  • Roman Britain at LacusCurtius
  • Roman London: "In their own words" PDF by Kevin Flude
  • Roman Britain – History
  • Roman Colchester
  • Roman Wales RCAHMW
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