World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Retroflex flap

Article Id: WHEBN0000524856
Reproduction Date:

Title: Retroflex flap  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: R, List of consonants, Retroflex approximant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar flaps, R with tail
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Retroflex flap

Retroflex flap
IPA number 125
Entity (decimal) ɽ
Unicode (hex) U+027D
Kirshenbaum *.
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)

The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɽ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r`.


  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5


Features of the retroflex flap:

  • Its manner of articulation is flap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (usually the tongue) is thrown against another.
  • Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch[1][2] North Brabant[3] riem [ɽim] 'belt' A rare variant of /r/;[4][5] occurs almost exclusively word-initially.[6] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Northern Netherlands[3][7]
Elfdalian luv [ɽʏːv] 'permission'
Enga la [jɑɽɑ] 'shame'
Hausa bara [bəɽa] 'servant' Represented in Arabic script with ر
Hindustani बड़ा [bəɽäː] 'big' Represented by ड़. Hindustani contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Hindustani phonology
Nepali[8] भाड़ा [bʱaɽa] 'rent' See Nepali phonology
Norwegian Eastern and central dialects blad [bɽɑː] 'leaf', 'blade' Allophone of /ɭ/. See Norwegian phonology
Almost the same as above bord [buːɽ] 'board', 'table' Allophone of /r/. See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Some European speakers[9] falar [fəˈlaɽ] 'to speak' Allophone of /ɾ/. May rhotacize ("color") preceding vowel. See Portuguese phonology
Brazilian caipira speakers[10][11] madeira [mɐˈdeːɽə] 'wood', 'timber'
Some sertanejo speakers[12] gargalhar [ɡaɽɡɐˈʎaɽ] 'to chortle',
'to guffaw'
Punjabi ਘੋੜਾ [kòːɽɑ̀ː] 'horse'
Swedish Some dialects blad [bɽɑːd] 'leaf' Allophone of /l/. See Swedish phonology

Toda has a retroflex trill, which is transcribed with the same IPA symbol.

See also


  1. ^ Goeman & van de Velde (2001:91, 94-95, 97, 101, 107)
  2. ^ Verstraten & van de Velde (2001:50-51, 53-55)
  3. ^ a b Goeman & van de Velde (2001:107)
  4. ^ Goeman & van de Velde (2001:95, 97, 101 and 107)
  5. ^ Verstraten & van de Velde (2001:50-51, 53-54)
  6. ^ Goeman & van de Velde (2001:95)
  7. ^ Verstraten & van de Velde (2001:54)
  8. ^ Khatiwada (2009:377)
  9. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (Portuguese)
  10. ^ (Portuguese) Acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the Brazilian Portuguese's retroflex /r/: data from respondents in Pato Branco, Paraná. Irineu da Silva Ferraz. Pages 19–21
  11. ^ (Portuguese) Syllable coda /r/ in the "capital" of the paulista hinterland: sociolinguistic analisis. Cândida Mara Britto LEITE. Page 111 (page 2 in the attached PDF)
  12. ^ (Portuguese) Rhotic consonants in the speech of three municipalities of Rio de Janeiro: Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty. Pages 22 and 23.


  • Goeman, Ton; van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Co-occurrence constraints on /r/ and /ɣ/ in Dutch dialects", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 91–112,  
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 39 (3): 337–380,  
  • Verstraten, Bart; van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Socio-geographical variation of /r/ in standard Dutch", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 45–61,  

Heide, Eldar, 2010: «Tjukk l – Retroflektert tydeleggjering av kort kvantitet. Om kvalitetskløyvinga av det gamle kvantitetssystemet.» Maal og minne, s. 3-44.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.