Northern Mongoloid

For other uses, see Mongoloid (disambiguation).

Mongoloid /ˈmɒŋ.ɡə.lɔɪd/[1][2] refers to populations that share certain phenotypic traits such as epicanthic fold and shovel-shaped incisors and other physical traits common in most of Asia (including Central Asia, South East Asia, East Asia, etc.), the Arctic, the Americas and most of the Pacific Islands. In terms of population, they are the most dominant race – more than one third of the human race.

The word is formed by the base word "Mongol" and the suffix "-oid" which means "resembling", so therefore the term literally means "resembling Mongols". It was introduced by early ethnology primarily to describe various central and east Asian populations, one of the proposed three major races of humanity. Although some forensic anthropologists and other scientists continue to use the term in some contexts (such as criminal justice), the term mongoloid is now considered derogatory by most anthropologists due to its association with disputed typological models of racial classification.[3][4][5][6] Asian proponents of the same or similar concept have used the term East Asian race to refer to people of East Asian descent that only include people from Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia, which makes up only a section of the Asian people.[7]

Populations included

The term "Mongoloid" comes from the Mongol people who caused great terror throughout Eurasia during the Mongol Empire invasions, and the new appearance of the Mongols and paranoia was used throughout the Western world to create a new racial classification. The words "Mongol", "Mongolian", "Mongoloid" were extensively used throughout European history since the 13th century usually in a negative manner. However in the modern sense, "Mongol" refers to the Mongol ethnic group and "Mongolian" refers to something related with the country of Mongolia not necessarily in terms of ethnicity. The first use of the term Mongolian race was by Christoph Meiners in a "binary racial scheme". His "two races" were labeled "Tartar-Caucasians", which comprised Celtic and Slavic groups, and "Mongolians".[8]

Johann Blumenbach said he borrowed the term Mongolian from Christoph Meiners to describe the race he designated "second, [which] includes that part of Asia beyond the Ganges and below the river Amoor [Amur], which looks toward the south, together with the islands and the greater part of these countries which is now called Australian".[9]


In 1861, Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire added the Australian as a secondary race (subrace) of the principal race of Mongolian.[10] In the nineteenth century Georges Cuvier used the term Mongolian again as a racial classification, but additionally included American Indians under the term.[11] Arthur de Gobineau defined the extent of the Mongolian race, "by the yellow the Altaic, Mongol, Finnish and Tartar branches".[12][13] Later, Thomas Huxley used the term Mongoloid and included American Indians as well as Arctic Native Americans.[14] Other nomenclatures were proposed, such as Mesochroi (middle color),[15] but Mongoloid was widely adopted.

In 1882 Augustus Henry Keane said the Mongolic type included the following races: Tibetans, Burmese, Tai, Koreans, Japanese, Lu-Chu, Finno-Tatars and Malays.[16] Keane said the following peoples are mixed Mongolo-Caucasic varieties: Anatolian Turks, Uzbegs, and Tajiks of Turkestan.[16] Keane said the Kazaks are intermediate between the Túrki and Mongolian races.[16] Keane said the Mongolian race is best represented by the Buriats.[16]

In 1940, anthropologist Franz Boas included the American race as part of the Mongoloid race of which he mentioned the Aztecs of Mexico and the Maya of Yucatan.[17] Boas also said that, out of the races of the Old World, the American native had features most similar to the east Asiatic.[17]

In 1983, Douglas J. Futuyma, professor of evolutionary processes at the University of Michigan, said that the inclusion of Native Americans and Pacific Islanders under the Mongoloid race was not recognized by many anthropologists who consider them distinct races.[18]

In 1984, Roger J. Lederer Professor of Biological Sciences at the California State University at Chico,[19] separately listed the Mongoloid race from Pacific islanders and American Indians when he enumerated the "geographical variants of the same species known as races... we recognize several races Inuit, American Indians, Mongoloid... Polynesian".[20]

In 1995, Dr. Marta Mirazon Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University said all Asian populations are grouped under the name "Mongoloid".[21]

In 1998, Jack D. Forbes, professor of Native American Studies and Anthropology at the University of California, Davis, said that the racial type of the indigenous people of the Americas does not fall into the Mongoloid racial category.[22] Forbes said that due to the various physical traits indigenous Americans exhibit, some with "head shapes which seem hardly distinct from many Europeans", indigenous Americans must have either been formed from a mixture of Mongoloid and Caucasoid races or they descend from the ancestral, common type of both Mongoloid and Caucasoid races.[22]

Of Europeans, Finns were previously considered by some scholars to be partly mongoloid, dating to claims by Friedrich Blumenbach. This is no longer the case as Finns are considered typically European.[23]

Subraces


In 1900, Joseph Deniker said, the "Mongol race admits two varieties or subraces: Tunguse or Northern Mongolian... and Southern Mongolian".[10]

In the 1944 edition of Rand McNally's World Atlas, the three subraces of the Mongolian race are depicted as being the Mongolian race proper, the Malayan race, and the American Indian race.[24]

Archaeologist Peter Bellwood claims that the vast majority of people in Southeast Asia, the region he calls the "clinal Mongoloid-Australoid zone", are Southern Mongoloids but have a high degree of Australoid admixture.[25]

Professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru (Japanese:赤沢威) at the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, said that there are Neo-Mongoloids and Paleo-Mongoloids.[26] Akazawa said Neo-Mongoloids have "extreme Mongoloid, cold-adapted features" and they include the Chinese, Buryats, Eskimo and Chukchi.[26] In contrast, Akazawa said Paleo-Mongoloids are less Mongoloid and less cold-adapted.[26] He said Burmese,Filipinos, Polynesians, Jōmon and the indigenous peoples of the Americas were Paleo-Mongoloid.[26]

History of the concept

The earliest systematic use of the term was by Blumenbach in De generis humani varietate nativa (On the Natural Variety of Mankind, University of Göttingen, first published in 1775, re-issued with alteration of the title-page in 1776). Blumenbach included East and South East Asians, but not Native Americans or Malays, who were each assigned separate categories.

In 1865, biologist Thomas Huxley presented the views of polygenesists (Huxley was not one of them) as "some imagine their assumed species of mankind were created where we find them... the Mongolians from the Orangs".[27]

In 1972, physical anthropologist Carleton Coon said, "From a hyborean [sic] group there evolved, in northern Asia, the ancestral strain of the entire specialized Mongoloid family".[28] In 1962, Coon believed that the Mongoloid "subspecies" existed "during most of the Pleistocene, from 500,000 to 10,000 years ago".[29] According to Coon, the Mongoloid race had not completed its "invasions and expansions" into Southeast Asia, the Americas, and the Pacific Islands until "[t]oward the end of the Pleistocene".[29] By this time Coon hypothesis that the Mongoloid race had become "sapien".[29][verification needed]

Paleo-anthropologist Milford Wolpoff and Rachel Caspari characterize "his [Carleton Coon's] contention [as being] that the Mongoloid race crossed the 'sapiens threshold' first and thereby evolved the furthest".[30]

Mohinder Kumar Bhasin (Hindi: महेंद्र कुमार भसीन) of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Delhi suggested in a review of an article referencing Mourant 1983 that "The Caucasoids and the Mongoloid almost certainly became differentiated from one another somewhere in Asia" and that "Another differentiation, which probably took place in Asia, is that of the Australoids, perhaps from a common type before the separation of the Mongoloids".[31]

Douglas J. Futuyma, professor of evolutionary processes at the University of Michigan, said the Mongoloid race "diverged 41,000 years ago" from a Mongoloid and Caucasoid group which diverged from Negroids "110,000 years ago".[18]

In 1996, professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru (Japanese:赤沢威) of the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, said Mongoloids originated in Xinjiang during the "Ice Age".[26]

In 1999, Peter Brown of the Department of Anthropology and Paleoanthropology at the University of New England evaluated three sites with early East Asian modern human skeletal remains (Liujiang, Liuzhou, Guangxi, China; Shandingdong Man of (but not Peking Man) Zhoukoudian's Upper Cave; and Minatogawa in Okinawa) dated to between 10,175 to 33,200 years ago, and finds lack of support for the conventional designation of skeletons from this period as "Proto-Mongoloid"; this would make Neolithic sites 5500 to 7000 years ago (e.g. Banpo) the oldest known Mongoloid remains in East Asia, younger than some in the Americas. He concludes that the origin of the Mongoloid phenotype remains unknown, and could even lie in the New World.[32]

The human fossil remains of the Ordos Man from Salawusu site in Inner Mongolia dated between 50,000 and 35,000 BCE show strong Mongoloid features, specifically on the fore-tooth and occipital bone.[33]

In 2006, Yali Xue (Chinese: 薛亞黎) et al. of the genome research Sanger Institute conducted a study of linkage disequilibrium that found that northern populations in East Asia started to expand in number between 34 and 22 thousand years ago, before the last glacial maximum at 21–18 KYA, while southern populations started to expand between 18 and 12 KYA, but then grew faster, and suggests that the northern populations expanded earlier because they could exploit the abundant megafauna of the "Mammoth Steppe", while the southern populations could increase in number only when a warmer and more stable climate led to more plentiful plant resources such as tubers.[34]

In 2008, Juan Frijolé Reixach professor of cultural anthropology at the University of Barcelona showcased the racial classification systems of Carleton S. Coon and H.V. Vallois in his 2008 book series about human races.[35] Reixach said Vallois said the "Yellow Race" included the following groups: Siberian, North Mongoloid, Central Mongoloid, South Mongoloid, Indonesian, Polynesian, Eskimo and Amerindian.[35]

Features

See also: Asian features and Epicanthal fold


In 2004, forensic anthropologist Caroline Wilkenson said Mongoloids are characterized by absent browridges.[36] R.G. Ong of the Department of Oral Radiology, Perth Dental Hospital, Australia found that Mongoloid subjects had about "20% higher bone density at the angle of the mandible" when compared to Caucasoid subjects.[37]

Louis R. Sullivan, Curator of Physical Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, said Samoans are of the Mongoloid race but their features represent a "slightly different evolution since the time of their separation and isolation from their parental stock" or a retention of features that have been lost in other Mongoloid types.[38] Sullivan said the wavy and wooly hair of the Samoan is one such retention compared to the stiff, coarse hair that typifies the Mongoloid.[38] Sullivan lists most of the characteristics of the Samoan as having Mongoloid affinities such as: skin color, hair color, eye color, conjuctiva, amount of beard, hair on chest, nasal bridge, nostrils, lips, face width, biogonial width, cephalo-facial index, nasal height, ear height and chin.[38]

Dr. Rukang Wu (Chinese: 吴汝康) of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, said Mongoloid features are a mesocranic skull, fairly large and protruding cheekbones, nasal bones are flat and broad, nasal bridge is slightly concave without depression in the nasion, "the lower borders of the piriform aperature are not sharp but guttered", prenasal fossae are shallow, small anterior nasal spine, trace amounts of canine fossae and moderate alveolar prognathism.[39]

Dr. Marta Mirazon Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University said the Paleoindian has proto-Mongoloid morphology such as pronounced development of supraorbital ridges low frontals, marked post-orbital constriction, prominent and protruding occipitals, small mastoids, long crania and a relatively narrow bizygomatic breadth.[21]

In 1882, Irish anthropologist Augustus Henry Keane who was professor at University College, London, said that the features of the Japanese that "attest their relationship with the great Mongolian family" are slightly oblique eyes, small nose, black lank hair, sparse beard, salient cheek-bones and yellowish complexion.[16]

Shunsuke Yuzuriha (Japanese:杠俊介) et al. of Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan, said the Mongoloid eyelid is characterized by puffiness of the upper eyelid, "superficial expansion of the levator aponeurosis" that are "turned up around this transverse ligament to become the orbital septum", "low position of the preaponeurotic fat" and narrowness of the palpebral fissure.[40]

Theodore G. Schurr of the Department of Anthropology at University of Pennsylvania said the Mongoloid racial type is distinguished by forward-projecting malar (cheek) bones, comparatively flat faces, large circular orbits, "moderate nasal aperture with a slightly pointed lower margin", larger, more gracile braincase, broader skull, broader face and flatter roof of the nose.[41]

Akazawa said Mongoloid skin has thick skin cuticle and an abundance of carotene (yellow pigment).[26] Rodney P.R. Dawber of the Oxford Hair Foundation and Clinical Lecturer in Dermatology said Mongoloid males have "little or no facial or body hair".[42] Mildred Trotter of the School of Medicine St. Louis Missouri said Mongoloid hair is coarse, straight, blue-black and weighs the most out of the races.[43] Mildred Trotter of the School of Medicine St. Louis Missouri and Oliver H. Duggins of the Department of Anatomy Washington University said the size of the average Mongoloid hair is 0.0051 square millimetres (7.9×10−6 sq in) based on samples from Chinese, North and South American Indians, Eskimos and Thais.[44] Daniel Hrdy of the Department of Anthropology at Harvard University said that Mongoloid hair whether it be Sioux, Ifugao or Japanese has the thickest diameter out of all human hair.[45] Professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru (Japanese:赤沢威) of the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, said Mongoloids evolved hairlessness to keep clean while wearing heavy garments for months without bathing during the Ice Age.[26]

In 1996, Rebecca Haydenblit of the Hominid Evolutionary Biology Research Group at Cambridge University did a study on the dentition of four pre-Columbian Mesoamerican populations and compared their data to other Mongoloid populations.[46] She found that Tlatilco, Cuicuilco, Monte Albán and Cholula populations followed an overall Sundadont dental pattern characteristic of Southeast Asia rather than a Sinodont dental pattern characteristic of Northeast Asia.[46]

Robert B. Pickering Professor of Anthropology at the University of Tulsa said the traits of the Mongoloid skull are: long and broad skulls of intermediate height, arched sagittal contour, very wide facial contour, high face height, rounded orbital opening, narrow nasal opening, wide, flat nasal bones, sharp lower nasal margin, straight facial profile, moderate and white palate shape, 90%+ shovel-shaped incisors and large, smooth general form.[47]

Miquel Hernández of the Department of Animal Biology at the University of Barcelona said East Asians (Kyushu, Atayal, Philippines, Chinese, Hokkaido and Anyang) and Amerinds (Yaujos, Santa Cruz and Arikara) have the typical Mongoloid cranial pattern, but other Mongoloids such as Pacific groups (Easter Island, Mokapu, Guam and Moriori people), arctic groups (Eskimos and Buriats), Fuegians (Selk’nam, Ya´mana, Kawe´skar) and the Ainu differ from this by having "larger cranial dimensions over many variables".[48]

Proto-Mongoloids


Anthropologist Elsie Clews Parsons physical features of the Proto-Mongoloid were characterized as, "a straight-haired type, medium in complexion, jaw protrusion, nose-breadth, and inclining probably to round-headedness".[51]

Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Sussex said Kanzō Umehara considered the Ainu and Ryukyuans to have "preserved their proto-Mongoloid traits".[52]

Mark J. Hudson Professor of Anthropology at Nishikyushu University, Kanzaki, Saga, Japan, said Japan was settled by a Proto-Mongoloid population in the Pleistocene who became the Jōmon and their features can be seen in the Ainu and Okinawan people.[53] Hudson said that, later, during the Yayoi period, the Neo-Mongoloid type entered Japan.[53] Hudson said genetically Japanese people are primarily Neo-Mongoloid with Proto-Mongoloid admixture.[53]

Theodore G. Schurr of the Department of Anthropology at University of Pennsylvania said Mongoloid traits emerged from Transbaikalia, central and eastern regions of Mongolia, and several regions of Northern China.[41] Schurr said that studies of cranio-facial variation in Mongolia suggest that the region of modern-day Mongolians is the origin of the Mongoloid racial type".[41]

Dr. Rukang Wu (Chinese: 吴汝康) of the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology, Academia Sinica, China, said that the remains of Liukiang human fossils were an early type of evolving Mongoloid that indicated South China was the birthplace where the Mongoloid race originated.[39]

Dr. Marta Mirazon Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University said there are two hypotheses on the origin of Mongoloids.[21] Lahr said one hypothesis is that Mongoloids originated in north Asia due to the regional continuity in this region and this population conforming best to the standard Mongoloid features.[21] Lahr said the other hypothesis is that Mongoloids originate from Southeast Asian populations that expanded from Africa to Southeast Asia during the first half of the Upper Pleistocene and then traveled to Australia-Melanesia and East Asia.[21] Lahr said the morphology of the Paleoindian is consistent with the proto-Mongoloid definition.[21]

Anthropologist Arnold Henry Savage Landor described the Ainu as having deep-set eyes and an eye shape typical of Europeans, with a large and prominent browridge, large ears, hairy and prone to baldness, slightly-flattened hook nose with large and broad nostrils, prominent cheek bones, large mouth and thick lips and a long region from nose to mouth and small chin region.[54]

Neoteny

Main article: Neoteny

According to Ashley Montagu who taught anthropology at Princeton University, "The Mongoloid skull has proceeded further than in any other people".[55] "The Mongoloid skull, whether Chinese or Japanese, has been rather more neotenized than the Caucasoid or European".[55] "The female skull, it will be noted, is more pedomorphic in all human populations than the male skull".[55] In Ashley Montagu's list of "[n]eotenous structural traits in which Mongoloids... differ from Caucasoids", Montagu lists "Larger brain, larger braincase, broader skull, broader face, flat roof of the nose, inner eye fold, more protuberant eyes, lack of brow ridges, greater delicacy of bones, shallow mandibular fossa, small mastoid processes, stocky build, persistence of thymus gland into adult life, persistence of juvenile form of zygomatic muscle, persistence of juvenile form of superior lip muscle, later eruption of full dentition (except second and third molars), less hairy, fewer sweat glands, fewer hairs per square centimeter [and] long torso".[55]

According to Clive Bromhall who has a Ph.D. in zoology from Oxford University, "Mongoloid races are explained in terms of being the most extreme pedomorphic humans".[56]

Richard Grossinger, professor of anthropology at University of Maine at Portland, said "The intuition that advanced human development was pedomorphic rather than recapitulationary and accelerated was disturbing to many Eurocentric nineteenth century anthropologists".[57] "If juvenilization was the characteristic for advanced status, then it was clear that the Mongoloid races were more deeply fetalized in most respects and thus capable of the greatest development".[57]


Stephen Oppenheimer of the Institute of Cognitive & Evolutionary Anthropology at Oxford University said "An interesting hypothesis put forward by paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould many years ago was that the package of the Mongoloid anatomical changes could be explained by the phenomenon of neoteny, whereby an infantile or childlike body form is preserved in adult life. Neoteny in hominids is still one of the simplest explanations of how we developed a disproportionately large brain so rapidly over the past few million years. The relatively large brain and the forward rotation of the skull on the spinal column, and body hair loss, both characteristic of humans, are found in foetal chimps. Gould suggested a mild intensification of neoteny in Mongoloids, in whom it has been given the name pedomorphy. Such a mechanism is likely to involve only a few controller genes and could therefore happen over a relatively short evolutionary period. It would also explain how the counterintuitive retrousse [turned up at the end] nose and relative loss of facial hair got into the package".[58] "[D]ecrease unnecessary muscle bulk, less tooth mass, thinner bones and smaller physical size; ...this follows the selective adaptive model of Mongoloid evolution".[58]

Cold adaption


Professor of anthropology, Akazawa Takeru (Japanese:赤沢威) of the International Research Center for Japanese Studies in Kyoto Japan, said Mongoloid features are an adaption to the cold of the Mammoth steppe.[26] He mentions the Lewis waves of warm blood cyclical vasodilation and vasoconstriction of the peripheral capillaries in Mongoloids as an adaption to the cold.[26] He lists the short limbs, short noses, flat faces, epicanthic fold and lower surface to mass ratio as further Mongoloid adaptions to cold.[26]

Takasaki Yuji (Japanese:高崎裕治) of Akita University, Japan,[60] in the Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science said, "Mongoloid ancestors had evolved over time in cold environments" and the short limbs of the Mongoloid was due to Allen's ecological rule.[61]

Professor of anthropology at Trent University Ontario, Canada, Joseph K. So (Chinese: ) (198) cited a study by J. T. Steegman (1965) that the so-called cold-adapted Mongoloid face has been shown in an experiment, using Japanese and European subjects, to not offer greater protection to frostbite.[62] In explaining Mongoloid cold-adaptiveness, So () cites the work of W. L. Hylander (1977) where Hylander said that in the Eskimo, for example, the reduction of the brow ridge and flatness of the face is due to internal structural configurations that are cold adapted in the sense that they produce a large vertical bite force necessary to chew frozen seal meat.[62]

Miquel Hernández of the Department of Animal Biology at the University of Barcelona said the high and narrow nose of Eskimos and Neanderthals is an adaption to a cold and dry environment, since it contributes to warming and moisturizing the air and the "recovery of heat and moisture from expired air".[48]

A.T. Steegman of the Department of Anthropology at State University of New York investigated the assumption that Allen's rule caused the structural configuration of the Arctic Mongoloid face.[63] Steegman did an experiment that involved the survival of rats in the cold.[63] Steegman found the rats with narrow nasal passages, broader faces, shorter tails and shorter legs survived the best in the cold.[63] Steegman paralleled his findings with the Arctic Mongoloids, particularly the Eskimo and Aleut, by claiming these Arctic Mongoloids have similar features in accordance with Allen's rule: a narrow nasal passage, relatively large heads, long to round heads, large jaws, relatively large bodies, and short limbs.[63]

Kenneth L. Beals of the Department of Anthropology at Oregon State University noted that the indigenous people of the Americas have cephalic indexes that are an exception to Allen's rule, since the indigenous people of the hot climates of North and South America have cold-adapted, high cephalic indexes.[64] Beals explanation is that these peoples have not yet evolved the appropriate cephalic index for their climate, being, comparatively, only recently descended from the cold-adapted Arctic Mongoloid.[64]

Genetic research

Genetic Distances and Effective Divergence Times Between The Three Major Races of Man (3) by Masatoshi Nei (Japanese: 根井正利), Professor of Biology at Pennsylvania State University[65]
Comparison Proteins
(62 loci)
Blood groups
(23 loci)
Total
(85 loci)
Effective divergence time (years)
Caucasoid/Mongoloid 0.011 0.043 0.019 41,000 ± 15,000
Caucasoid/Negroid 0.030 0.038 0.032 113,000 ± 34,000
Negroid/Mongoloid 0.031 0.096 0.047 116,000 ± 34,000


In 1994, geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford University divided a principal coordinant map of 42 Asian populations into three groupings: Asian Caucasoids, Northeast and East Asian and Southeast Asian.[68] Along Southeast Asia, Cavalli-Sforza said there is a separation between northern and southern Mongoloids.[68] To the West, Cavalli-Sforza said there is an approximate boundary between Caucasoids and Mongoloids from the Urals to the eastern part of India.[68] Along this boundary there has been hybridization, causing a Caucasoid-Mongoloid gradient.[68] More specifically, the ethnic groups Cavalli-Sforza said were in the Northeast and East Asian cluster were the Koryak, Chukchi, Reindeer Chukchi, Nganasan Samoyed, Northern Tungus, Nentsy, N. Chinese, Tibetan, Bhutanese, Ainu, Mongol, Japanese and Korean.[68] Moving south, the ethnic groups Cavalli-Sforza said were in the Southeast Asian cluster were the Indonesian, Malaysian, Taiwan aborigines, Muong people, Thai, Filipino, S. Chinese, Balinese and Gurkha.[68] Other studies also show that S. Chinese being an intermediate between the N. Chinese and Southeast Asian.[69][70] Moving off the coast, Cavalli-Sforza said there are Australoid and Negrito peoples, but also that the Polynesians are a diluted Mongoloid type, the Negritos of the Andaman Islands and Semang Negritos have a high frequency of the Mongoloid inner epicanthic eyefold and that among Australoid Micronesians some individuals look more Mongoloid.[68] Moving to the Americas, Cavalli-Sforza said the Eskimos and Aleuts derived from the Siberian Mongoloids and came after the American Indians who are both Mongoloid in general and uniform racially.[68]

In 2008, biochemist Boris Abramovich Malyarchuk (Russian: Борис Абрамович Малярчук) et al. of the Institute of Biological Problems of the North, Russian Academy of Sciences, Magadan, Russia, used a sample (n=279) of Czech individuals to determine the frequency of Mongoloid mtDNA lineages.[71] Malyarchuk found Czech mtDNA lineages were typical of Slavic populations with 1.8% Mongoloid mtDNA lineage.[71] Malyarchuk added that Slavic populations almost always contain Mongoloid mtDNA lineage.[71] Malyarchuk said the Mongoloid component of Slavic people was partially added before the split of Balto-Slavics in 2,000–3,000 BCE with additional Mongoloid mixture occurring among Slavics in the last 4,000 years.[71] Malyarchuk said the Russian population was developed by the assimilation of the indigenous pre-Slavic population of Eastern Europe by true Slavs with additional assimilation of Finno-Ugric populations and long-lasting interactions with the populations of Siberia and Central Asia.[71] Malyarchuk said that other Slavs Mongoloid component was increased during the waves of migration from steppe populations (Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Mongols), especially the decay of the Avar Khaganate.[71]

In 1999, Vladimir Orekhov (Russian: Владимир Орехов) et al. of the Institute of General Genetics, Moscow, Russia, found that there is evidence for influence of Mongoloid populations on the ethnogenesis of Russians due to the presence of mytotypes 26, 33, and 47 of Mongoloid haplogroup C in the Russian population as well as evidence for Finno-Ugric populations in the ethnogenesis of Eastern Slavs due to the presence of Finno-Ugric mitotype (mitotype 31) in the Russian population, but he found that that Russian mtDNA pools differed by Russian regions with Russians of the Eastern-European plain close to European ethnic groups.[72]

Atsushi Tajima (Japanese: 田嶋敦) et al. of Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan, found evidence for four separate populations, carrying distinct sets of non-recombining Y chromosome lineages, within the traditional Mongoloid category: North Asians, Han Chinese, Southeast Asians, and Japanese.[73]

In 1997, Masatoshi Nei (Japanese: 根井正利), Professor of Biology at Pennsylvania State University, said clusters of genetic distances conform to the customary three major races of man, namely, Negroids, Caucasoids and Mongoloids.[74] Moreover, Nei said that Mongoloid populations irrespective of north and south show small genetic distances from any populations in Oceania and Americas.[74] Nei said the Northern Mongoloid included the Evens, Buryat, Hui, Mongolian, Tibetan, Japanese, Ainu, Northern Chinese and Korean.[74] In the Southern Mongoloid, Nei included the Dong, Zhuang, Southern Chinese, Taiwanese-aborigines, Thai, Indonesian and Filipino.[74] Based on genetic data, Nei said the Amerindians descend from two populations: an original Northeast Asians migration which became the Paleo-Indian and a later migration which became both the Na-Dene and Eskimos.[74] Based on the genetic data, Nei said Southeast Asian Mongoloids are closer to the Micronesian and Polynesian than to the Papuan and Australian.[74] In 1993, Nei said the Mongoloids were contained within a larger genetic grouping called the Greater Asians or Greater Mongoloids[74] which also included Pacific Islanders and Australopapuans.[75] In the Australopapuan grouping, Nei included Dravidians, Andamanese, Australian, Papuan and Philippine Negritos.[75] Since Nei found Australopapuans were most closely related to East Asians, Nei offered an explanation for their peculiar traits. Nei rejected the hypothesis that Australopapuans have traits of black Africans due to convergent-evolution, since he estimated it would have taken far longer for them to have re-evolved frizzled-hair.[75] Nei supported the other hypothesis put forward by Chris B. Stringer of the Paleontology Department of the Natural History Museum that there were two populations and that the original African population had absorbed most of its gene pool from the Mongoloid group.[75]

Satoshi Horai (Japanese: 宝来聡) of the Japanese National Institute of Genetics, said phylogenetic analysis indicated that the there are two distinct groups of Mongoloids – one which early on diverged from Negroids and another that diverged from Caucasoids later.[76] Horai said Mongoloid distribution corresponds to North and South America, Oceania, Southeast Asia, east Asia, and Siberia.[76]

A study conducted by the HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium in 2009 used principal components analysis, which makes no prior population assumptions, on genetic data sampled from a large number of points across Asia. They found that East Asian and South-East Asian populations clustered together, and suggested a common origin for these populations. At the same time they observed a broad discontinuity between this cluster and South Asia, commenting most of the Indian populations showed evidence of shared ancestry with European populations. It was noted that genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography.[77]

In 2010, Sung-Soo Hung et al. (Korean:윤승수) of the Department of Biology at Seoul National University found that Mongoloids were relatively homogenous in 9-bp deletion type of the mtDNA COM/ tRNALys intergenic region.[78]

"Estimates of the Number of Nucleotide Differences per Site Both Among (dxy) and within (dx or dy) Each of the Three Races, and Net Nucleotide Differences (d) among the Races" made by Satoshi Horai (Japanese:宝来聡) of the Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizouka, Japan.[76]
Caucasoid
(N=20)
Mongoloid
(N=71)
Negroid
(N=10)
Caucasoid 0.0094 0.0012 0.0028
Mongoloid 0.0128 0.0137 0.0015
Negroid 0.0194 0.0203 0.0238

Criticism

Dr. George W. Gill, professor of anthropology at the University of Wyoming and Dennis O'Neil professor of anthropology at Palomar College, said that "Mongoloid" concept originated with a now disputed typological method of racial classification.[79][80] All the -oid racial terms (e.g. Mongoloid, Caucasoid, Negroid, etc.) are now often controversial in both technical and non-technical contexts and may sometimes give offense no matter how they are used.[81]

According to Ward O. Conner who wrote a book about John Langdon Down, since people with Down syndrome may have epicanthic folds, Down syndrome was widely called "Mongol" or "Mongoloid Idiocy".[82] In slang usage the term came to be used as an insult. A shortened version of the term, mong or mongol, is also used in the United Kingdom.[83]

For many people of Asian descent the term "mongoloid" is highly offensive due to its use as a perjorative to describe people with Down's syndrome.

See also

References

External links

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