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Mustafa II

Mustafa II
Caliph of Islam
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Reign February 6, 1695 – December 8, 1703
Predecessor Ahmed II
Successor Ahmed III
Consorts Saliha Sultan
Şehsuvar Sultan
Alicenab Kadınefendi
Hafise Kadınefendi
Ivaz Kadınefendi
Afife Kadınefendi
Bahtiyar Kadınefendi
Hanife Hanımefendi
Fatma Şahin Hanımefendi
Royal house House of Osman
Father Mehmed IV
Mother Emetullah Rabia Gülnûş Sultan
Religion Sunni Islam
Tughra

Mustafa II (Ottoman Turkish: مصطفى ثانى Muṣṭafā-yi sānī) (February 6, 1664 – December 28/30, 1703) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1695 to 1703.

Contents

  • Biography 1
  • Military Campaigns 2
  • References 3
  • Sources 4
  • See Also 5
  • External links 6

Biography

He was born at Edirne Palace a son of sultan Mehmed IV (1648–87) and Valide Sultan Mah-Para Ummatullah Rabia Gül-Nush, originally named Evemia,[1] who was of Greek Cretan descent.[2][3][4][5][6] Mustafa II abdicated in favor of his brother Ahmed III (1703–30) in 1703.

Military Campaigns

During his reign the Great Turkish War, which had started in 1683, was still going on. After the failure of the second Siege of Vienna (1683) the Holy League had captured large parts of the Empire's territory in Europe. The Habsburg armies came as far as Nis, modern-day Serbia. Sultan Mustafa II was determined to recapture the lost territories and therefore he personally commanded his armies. First, the Ottoman navy recaptured the island of Chios after defeating the Venetian Fleet twice, in the Battle of the Oinousses Islands (1695) and in the Battle of Chios (1695), in February 1695.[7]

In June 1695, Mustafa II left Edirne for his first military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. By September 1695 the town of Lipova was captured. On 18 September 1695 after the Naval Victory of Zeytinburnu the Venetian Navy was destroyed. A few days later the Habsburg army was defeated in the Battle of Lugos. Afterwards the Ottoman Army returned to the capital. Meanwhile the Ottoman fortress in Azov was successfully defended against the besieging Russian forces.[7]

On April 1696 Mustafa II left Edirne for his second military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. In August 1696 the Russians besieged Azov for the second time and captured the fortress. In August 1696 the Ottoman troops defeated the Habsburg army in the Battle of Ulaş and in the Battle of Cenei. After these victories the Ottoman troops captured Timişoara and Koca Cafer Pasha was appointed as the protector of Belgrade. Afterwards the army returned to the Ottoman capital.[7]

In June 1697 Mustafa II left the capital on his third military campaign against the Habsburg Empire. However, the Ottoman Army suffered a defeat in the Battle of Zenta and Grand Vizier Elmas Mehmed Pasha died in the battle. Afterwards the Ottomans signed a treaty with the Holy League.[7]

The most traumatic event of his reign was the loss of Hungary by the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. This event marked the beginning of the long decline of the Ottoman Empire.

At the end of his reign, Mustafa II sought to restore power to the Sultanate, which had been an increasingly symbolic position since the middle of the 17th century, when Mehmed IV had signed over his executive powers to the Grand Vizier. Mustafa II's strategy was to create an alternative base of power for himself by making the position of timars, the Ottoman cavalrymen, hereditary and thus loyal to him. The timars, however, were at this point increasingly an obsolete part of the Ottoman military machine.

The strategem (called the "Edirne event" by historians) failed, and Mustafa II was deposed in the same year, 1703. He died at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople.

He married twice, to Valide Sultan Saliha Sabkati, mother of Mahmud I, and to Valide Sultan Shehsuvar, mother of Osman III.

References

  1. ^ Baker, Anthony E (1993). The Bosphorus. Redhouse Press. p. 146.  
  2. ^ Freely, John (2001). The lost Messiah. Viking. p. 132.  
  3. ^ Palmer, Alan (2009). The decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire. Barnes & Noble. p. 27.  
  4. ^ Bromley, J. S. (1957). The New Cambridge Modern History. University of California: University Press. p. 554.  
  5. ^ Sardo, Eugenio Lo (1999). Tra greci e turchi: fonti diplomatiche italiane sul Settecento ottomano. Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche. p. 82.  
  6. ^ Library Information and Research Service (2005). The Middle East. Library Information and Research Service. p. 91. She was the daughter of a Cretan (Greek) family and she was the mother of Mustafa II (1664-1703), and Ahmed III (1673-1736). 
  7. ^ a b c d Bilgi

Sources

  • Abou-El-Haj, R. A. (1974). "The Narcissism of Mustafa II (1695-1703): A Psychohistorical Study". Studia Islamica (40): pp. 115–131. 

See Also

External links

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

Mustafa II
Born: February 6, 1664 Died: December 28, 1703[aged 39]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ahmed II
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Feb 6, 1695 – Dec 28, 1703
Succeeded by
Ahmed III
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Ahmed II
Caliph of Islam
Feb 6, 1695 – Dec 28, 1703
Succeeded by
Ahmed III
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