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Malappuram district

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Title: Malappuram district  
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Malappuram district

Malappuram district
മലപ്പുറം ജില്ല
Thunjan Parambu in Tirur
Thunjan Parambu in Tirur
Nickname(s): MLP
Malappuram district is located in Kerala
Malappuram district
Malappuram district
Country India
State Kerala
Headquarters Malappuram
 • Collector T.Bhaskaran
 • Total 3,550 km2 (1,370 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 4,110,956
 • Rank 1
 • Density 1,158/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-KL-MLP
Vehicle registration KL-10, KL-53, KL-54, KL-55, KL-65, KL-71
Sex ratio 1096 /
Literacy 93.55%
Website .in.nic.malappuramwww

Malappuram district, with its headquarters at Malappuram, is a district in the state of Kerala, India. The district was formed on 16 June 1969. Malappuram district is composed of portions of the former Palakkad and Kozhikode districts: Ernad taluk and portions of Tirur taluk in Kozhikode district, and portions of Perinthalmannna and Ponnani taluks in Palakkad district.

TThe district includes Thirunavaya, the classic medieval center of Vedic learning;Kottakkal, home of Ayurveda medicine; Ponnani, one of the oldest centres of Islamic education in the region. In 1921 the present-day Malappuram district was part of the Moplah rebellions, followed by decades of stagnant economic, social and political development. In the early years of Communist rule in Kerala, Malappuram experienced land reform under the Land Reform Ordinance. During the 1970s Persian Gulf oil reserves were opened to commercial extraction, and thousands of unskilled workers migrated to the Gulf. They sent money home, supporting the rural economy, and by the late 20th century the region had First World health standards and near-universal literacy.[1]

Malappuram district contains abundant wildlife and a number of small hills, forests, rivers and streams flowing to the west, backwaters and paddy, arecanut, cashew nut, pepper, ginger, pulses, coconut, banana, tapioca, and rubber plantations. Malappuram is one of two Muslim-majority districts in south India. The Hindu temples and Moplah mosques of the region are known for their colorful festivals, and it is the most populous district in Kerala.[2] Religions practised in the district include Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism and tribal religions.[3]


  • History 1
  • Geography 2
    • Rivers 2.1
  • Demographics 3
  • Languages 4
  • Legislative constituencies 5
  • Parliament constituencies 6
  • Administrative subdivisions 7
    • Taluks 7.1
    • Blocks and panchayats 7.2
    • Municipalities 7.3
  • Art and culture 8
    • Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics 8.1
    • Fairs and festivals 8.2
  • Industry 9
  • Healthcare 10
  • Transport 11
    • Air 11.1
    • Rail 11.2
    • Road 11.3
    • Vehicle registration 11.4
  • Proposed projects 12
  • Education 13
    • Medical colleges 13.1
    • Dental colleges 13.2
    • Ayurvedic medical colleges 13.3
    • Engineering colleges 13.4
    • Law Colleges 13.5
    • Polytechnic colleges 13.6
    • Government Arts and Science Colleges 13.7
    • Pharmacy colleges 13.8
    • Private arts and science colleges 13.9
  • Post and telecommunications 14
  • Media 15
  • See also 16
  • References 17
  • External links 18


Malappuram, meaning "terraced place atop the hills", derives from the geography of the district headquarters. Before the district's formation, the region was known as Eranad and Valluvanad etc.

The district has a rich cultural and political heritage. The port of Ponnani (roughly identified with Tyndis) was a centre of trade with Ancient Rome. After the Chera Dynasty a number of dynasties controlled the area, and by the ninth century the region was ruled by the Kulasekharas of Mahodayapuram. After the disintegration of the Kulasekhara kingdom a number of Nair city-states emerged, including Valluvanad, Vettattunadu (Tanur), Parappanad and Nediyiruppu (ruled by the Zamorins). During the 13th century, the Samoothiri of Calicut expanded their territories to Malabar. Thirunavaya, the seat of Mamankam, was in Malappuram district.

European colonial powers first landed in Malabar during the 15th century, and the Samoothiris often allied with foreign powers. During the 18th century, the de facto Mysore kingdom rulers Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan marched into the Samoothiris’ districts.

Older man in traditional dress, looking left
Ali Musliyar, one of the chief Moplah rebels

Malappuram has been part of movements such as Khilafat Movement and Moplah Rebellion in the early 20th century. Before Indian independence in 1947, Malappuram was part of Malabar District in the Madras Presidency of British India. The present district was administered as parts of Kozhikode, Eranad taluk, Valluvanad Taluk and Ponnani taluk. Malabar District remained part of Madras state for some time after independence, but on 1 November 1956 it merged with Travancore-Cochin to form the state of Kerala. Large-scale changes in the territorial jurisdiction of the region took place in 1957 and 1969. On 1 January 1957, Tirur taluk was formed from portions of Eranad taluk and Ponnani taluk. Another portion of Ponnani taluk was transferred to the new Chavakkad taluk, and the remainder is present-day Ponnani taluk. Perinthalmanna taluk was formed from the former Valluvanad Taluk. Of these, Eranad Taluk and Tirur remained in Kozhikode District and Perinthalmanna Taluk and Ponnani taluk remained in Palakkad District. The new district of Malappuram was formed with four taluks (Eranad, Perinthalmanna, Tirur and Ponnani), four towns, fourteen developmental blocks and 100 panchayats. Two more taluks, Tirurangadi taluk and Nilambur taluk, were formed from Tirur Taluk and Eranad taluk.


Peaceful, tree-lined river
Kadalundi River

The district, in northern Kerala, is bounded on the north by Wayanad and Kozhikkode districts, on the northeast by Tamil Nadu, on the southeast and south by Palakkad District, on the southwest by Thrissur District, on the west by the Arabian Sea and on the northwest by Kozhikode District.


In Tirur and Ponnani taluks, the villages of Biyyam, Veliyancode, Manur and Kodinhi have fishing and boating facilities.


Religions in Malappuram District
Religion Percent
Distribution of religions
Source: 2011 Census.

In the 2011 census the district had a population of 4,112,920,[2] roughly equal to that of New Zealand[4] and the US state of Oregon.[5] Malappuram is the 50th-most-populous of India's 640 districts,[2] with a population density of 1,158 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,000/sq mi).[2] Its population-growth rate from 2001 to 2011 was 13.39 percent.[2] Malappuram has a sex ratio of 1096 women to 1000 men,[2] and its literacy rate is 93.55 percent.[2] Islam (68.53 percent of the district's population) is the majority religion, followed by Hinduism (29.17 percent) and Christianity (2.22 percent).


Malayalam is the district's principal language. Minority Dravidian languages are Allar (350 speakers)[6] and Aranadan, kept alive by the low education level of its 200 speakers.[7]

Legislative constituencies

The district has the largest number of legislative constituencies in Kerala.
Constituency Local body MLA Political party Kerala ministry
Malappuram Malappuram Municipality, Pulpetta, Anakkayam, Morayur, Pokkottur Panchayaths of Eranad Taluk and Kodur Panchayath of Perintalmanna Taluk P. Ubaidullah Muslim League
Manjeri Manjeri Municipality, Pandikkad, Thrikkalangode panchayaths of Eranad Taluk and Edappatta, Kizhattur Panchayaths of Perintalmanna Taluk Adv. M. Ummar Muslim League
Kondotty Kondotty municipality, Cherukavu, Muthuvalloor, Vazhayur, Vazhakkad, Pulikkal, Nediyirippu and Cheekkode Panchayaths of Eranad Taluk Mammunny Haji Muslim League
Eranad Chaliyar Panchayath of Nilambur Taluk, Areekkode, Oorngattiri, Kavanur, Keezhu paramba, Kuzhimanna and Edavanna Panchayaths of Eranad Taluk P.K. Basheer Muslim League
Mankada Mankada, Angadippuram, Kuruva, Koottilangadi, Puzhakkatteeri, Moorkkanad and Makkaraparamba Panchayaths of Perintalmanna Taluk T.A. Ahammad Kabeer Muslim League
Perinthalmanna Perintalmanna Municipality, Aliparamba, Elamkulam, Thazhekode, Vettathoor, Pulamanthole and Melattur Panchayaths of Perintalmanna Taluk Manajalam Kuzhi Ali Muslim League Minister of Urban Affairs, Town Planning, Development Authority and Minority Welfare
Thirurangadi Thirurangadi municipality, Parappanagadi municipality, Nannambra, Thennala and Edarikode Panchayaths of Thirurangadi Taluk and Perumanna-Klari Panchayath of Tirur Taluk P.K. Abdu Rrabb Muslim League Minister for Education
Vengara Vengara, AR Nagar, Kannamangalam, Oorakam, Othukkungal and Parappur Panchayaths of Thirurangadi Taluk P.K.Kunjali Kutty Muslim League Minister for Industries, Information Technology and Urban Affairs
Vallikunnu Vallikkunnu, Pallikkal Bazar, Chelembra, Moonniyur, Thenjippalam and Peruvalloor Panchayaths of Thirurangadi Taluk Adv. KNA Kader Muslim League
Tirur Tirur Municipality, Athavanadu, Kalpakanchery, Valavannur, Vettam, Thalakkad and thirunavaya Panchayaths of Tirur Taluk C.Mammutty Muslim League
Tanur Tanur municipality, Thanalur, Niramaruthoor, Cheriyamundom, Ponmundom and Ozhur Panchayaths of Tirur Taluk Abdu Rahman Randathani Muslim League
Kottakkal Kottakkal Municipality, Valanchery, Ponamala, Marakkara, Edayur, Irimbiliyam, and Kuttippuram Panchayaths of Tirur Taluk Abdussamad Samadani Muslim League
Nilambur Nilambur Municipality, Vazhikkadavu, Pothukal, Edakkara, Muthedam, Chungathara, Amarambalam and Karulai Panchayaths of Nilambur Taluk Aryadan Muhammad INC Minister for Power
Wandoor Wandoor, Tiruvali, Mampad, Porur, Kalikavu, Chokkad, Karuvarakundu and Thuvvoor Panchayaths of Nilambur Taluk A.P. Anil Kumar INC Minister for Welfare of Scheduled Castes & Backward Classes and Tourism
Ponnani Ponnani Municipality, Alankode, Maranchery, Nannammukku, Perumpadappu and Veliyancode Panchayaths of Ponnani Taluk P.Sreerama Krishnan CPI(M)
Tavanur Tavanur, Kaladi, Vattamkulam, Edappal Panchayaths of Ponnani Taluk and Mangalam, Purathoor, Thrippangode Panchayaths of Tirur Taluk KT. Jaleel CPI(M) Ind.

Parliament constituencies

Parliamentary constituency Assembly constituencies MP Political party
Malappuram Malappuram, Manjeri, Mankada, Perinthalmanna, Vallikunnu, Kondotty and Vengara. E. Ahamed Muslim League
Ponnani (portion) Thirurangadi, Tirur, Tanur, Ponnani, Kottakkal and Tavanur. E.T. Muhammed Basheer Muslim League
Waynad (portion) Eranad, Wandoor and Nilambur. M.I. Shanavas INC

Administrative subdivisions

The district consists of two revenue divisions (Tirur and Perintalmanna), six taluks, 135 villages, 15 blocks, seven municipalities and 100 panchayats.


  • Ernad
  • Tirur
  • Tirurangadi
  • Ponnani
  • Perintalmanna
  • Nilmabur
  • Kondotty

Blocks and panchayats

Block Panchayats
Malappuram Anakkayam, Morayur, Pokkottur, Kodur, Ponmala and Othukkungal
Perumpadappu Perumpadappu, Alankode, Marancheri, Nannammukku and Veliyankode
Tirur Purathoor, Thrippangode, Thalakkad, Vettom, Mangalam and Tirunavaya
Tirurangadi Vallikkunnu, Thenjippalam, Moonniyoor, Peruvalloor and Nannambra
Vengara Vengara, AR Nagar, Parappur, Kannamangala, Oorakam, Edarikode and Thennala
Ponmundam Tanalur, Niramaruthoor, Ozhur, Perumanna-Klari, Valavanoor, Thenhippalam and Cheriyamundom
Kuttippuram Kuttippuram, Athavanadu, Kalapakancheri, Edayur, Irimbiliyam, Marakkara
Mankada Mankada, Kuruva, Koottilangadi, Puzhakkattiri, Moorkkanad and MakkaraParamba
Perintalmanna Aliparamba, Elamkulam, Thazkekode, Vettathur, Pulamanthole, Melattur, Keezhattur and Angadippuram
Ponnani Edappal, Thavanur, Kaladi and Vattamkulam
Areecode Areecode, Orngattiri, Kavanur, Keezhuparamba, Kuzhimanna, Edavanna, Cheekode and Pulpetta
Kalikavu Kalikavu, Chokkadu, Karuvarakundu, Thuvvoor, Amarambalam, Karulai and Edappatta
Kondotty Vherukavu, Muthuvalloor, Vazhayur, Vazhakkad, Pulikkal, Nediyiruppu, Pallikkal and Chelembra
Wandoor Wandoor, Tiruvali, Mampad, Porur, Pandikkad and Thrikkalangode
Nilambur Vazhikkadavu, Pothukal, Edakkara, Muthedam, Chungathra Chaliyar and karulai


Art and culture

Thunchath Ezhuthachan, the father of Malayalam literature, was born in Trikkandiyur (near Tirur). Mampuram was a centre of the Moplah Rebellion of 1921, and Mampuram Thangal is buried there. It is the birthplace of Omar Qazi, a Muslim scholar and a leader of anti-British movements. Kathakali musician Tirur Nambissan was born in Ezhoor, and the poets Mahakavi Vallathol Narayana Menon, V.C. Balakrishna Paniker and Moyinkutty Vaidyar were born in Malappuram. Malappuram is also the birthplace of Poonthanam, remembered for his poetic masterpiece "Jnanappana".

Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics

Mathematicians from Madhava of Sangamagrama's Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri, Achyuta Pisharati and Kelallur Nilakantha Somayaji were born in Thrikandiyur in Tirur. Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri is known for his Narayaneeyam.

Fairs and festivals

Kondotty Nercha is a week-long festival in March at the 18th-century Pazhayangadi Mosque. The tomb of the Sufi Mohammed Shah is near the Mughal-style mosque. The Andu Nercha of Puthenpalliis held at Perumpadappu, in the southwestern part of the district. During the festival, ney choru (rice with ghee) is distributed to devotees and the poor. The Omanoor Nercha is a mosque festival which commemorates martyrs.

Low, square building with a decorated wood-shingle roof
Thriprangodu Shiva Temple

Vairamkode Vela (temple festival), or Theeyaattu, is a six-day festival held in February from Sunday to Friday featuring processions, fireworks and markets. The seven-day Thirumandhamkunnu pooram, in March or April, is a temple festival in central Malabar. Tirumanthamkunnu Temple is, with Kodungallur and Panayarakavu, one of Kerala's three main Bhagavati temples. Kottakkal is also noted for its March–April temple festival, Kottakkal pooram, where Indian classical artists perform. The Nilambur Pattu is a week-long festival, held in January at its Kovilakam. The Malaparamba Perunnal is a church festival in Malaparamba, near Angadipuram, and there are also summer church festivals in Pariyapuram, Chungathara and Edakkara.


About 1,000 people are aided annually under a self-employment programme. There are KINFRA food-processing and IT industrial estates in Kakkancherry, Inkel SME Park at Panakkad for Small and Medium Industries and a rubber plant and industrial estate in Payyanad. MALCOSPIN, The Malappuram Spinning Mills Limited is one of the oldest industrial establishment in the district under state Government. Wood-related industries are common in Kottakkal, Edavanna, Vaniyambalam, Karulai, Nilambur and Mampad. Sawmills, furniture manufacturers and the timber trade are the most important businesses in the district. Employees' State Insurance has its branch office at Malappuram. Wood-related industries are in Kottakkal, Edavanna, Vaniyambalam, Karulai, Nilambur and Mampad. Sawmills, furniture manufacturers and the timber trade are the most important businesses in the district. Employees' State Insurance has a branch office in Malappuram.


Malappuram currently has two Medical colleges, Government Medical College, Malappuram and MES Medical College. All the towns of the district has multiple quality hospitals both in government and private sector. Out of which the towns of Perinthalmanna and Kottakkal attracts a large number of patients under general as well as health tourism category. Considering the number of health related institutions established and upcoming in the district, Government of Kerala has decided to promote the region as Health city under Vision 2030.


Modern, glass-fronted buildings
Karipur International Airport


Calicut International Airport is in Karipur, 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the Malappuram city centre.


Two railway lines pass through the district. The Mangalore-Madras line runs along the coast, with stations (from north to south) at Vallikkunnu, Parappanangadi, Tanur, Tirur, Tirunavaya and Kuttippuram. The Nilambur–Shoranur railway line runs through the eastern part of the district, with stations at Nilambur, Vaniyambalam, Thuvur, Melattur, Pattikkad, Angadipuram and Cherukara.


Bus service is available throughout the district, with 93 routes operated by Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) on major roads and 300 intercity routes passing through the district. There are four KSRTC bus stations, at Malappuram Depot, Ponnani, Perinthalmanna and Nilambur.

National Highway 17, renumbered NH 66, enters the district at Idimuzhikkal in the north and runs for 82 kilometres (51 mi) through Calicut University, Kottakkal, Valanchery, Kuttipuram, Thavanur, Ponnani, Puduponnani, Veliyancode and Kadikkad before entering Thrissur district in the south. National Highway 213, renumbered NH 966, enters the district at Iykarappadi (near Ramanattukara) and runs for 68 kilometres (42 mi) through Kondotty, Malappuram and Perinthalmanna to Karinkallathani.

Fish being brought into a harbor
Ponnani Harbor

State highways such as Tirur-Malappuram-Manjeri, Malappuram-Parappanangadi, Valanchery-Nilambur and the Kozhikode-Nilambur-Gudalur road pass through the district. The district has 208 kilometres (129 mi) of state highway, 1,220 kilometres (760 mi) of major district roads, 102 kilometres (63 mi) of other district roads and 160 kilometres (99 mi) of rural roads.

The Chaliyar, Kadalundipuzha, Bharathapuzha and Thutha rivers and their tributaries flow through the district, requiring a number of road bridges. Bridges include the Kuttippuram, Thutha and Pulamanthole bridges across the Bharathapuzha, bridges at Kottakadavu, Parakkadav, Thayyilakadav, Panampuzha, Koomankallu, Nooradi, Kottilangadi, Aanakkayam, Melattur, Kalikavu, Olipram Kadavu, Koomankallu, Kuzhipram Kadavu and Panakkadu across the Kadalundi River, bridges at Areekode, Edavanna, Mampad, Vadapuram, Myladi, Karimpuzha, Koorad, Kattadikadavu, Cherupuzha, Kadungallur and Poonkudi across the Chaliyar and its tributaries and bridges at Edakulam, Thalakadathur, Tirur, Unniyal, Mangattiri, Ettirikkadavu across the Tirur River.

Vehicle registration

According to the Motor Vehicles Act 1988, the Government of India has assigned "KL" to Kerala for the first part of the state's licence-plate number. The second part was a numerical district code with 01 for Trivandrum, 14 for Kasargod and 15 for the KSRTC.

Governmental vehicle-registration designations in the district are:

  • KL-10 : Malappuram RTO (Ernad and Kondotty taluks)
  • KL-53 : Perintalmanna SRTO (Perintalmanna taluk)
  • KL-54 : Ponnani SRTO (Ponnani taluk)
  • KL-55 : Tirur SRTO (Tirur Taluk)
  • KL-65 : Tirurangadi SRTO (Tirurangadi taluk)
  • KL-71 : Nilambur SRTO (Nilambur taluk)

The district's old registration numbers were KLM, KLL and KRM.

Proposed projects

  • Formation of a Malappuram Development Authority for the sustainable development of Malappuram and its surrounding panchayats, similar to the development authorities of other cities in the state
  • A Kozhikode-Malappuram-Angadipuram-Ottappalam railway line connecting Malappuram with Karippur Airport and Kozhikode.
  • Expediting construction of the KSRTC bus terminal and shopping complex in Uphill
  • Expediting Edu-Health City construction in Panakkad, including a cancer hospital
  • Modernisation and relocation of Down Hill Market and bus stand to Down Hill bypass area
  • Completion of the Kottappadi Bypass
  • A new road from Malappuram to Valanchery, as proposed in Malappuram District Urbanization Report by state planning department.
  • Two new National Highways: Malappuram-Manjeri-Gudalur and Malappuram-Kolathur-Pulamanthol-Thrissur
  • Rerouting of NH66 from Ponnani to Feroke via Tirur, Parappanangadi


The district has four education districts (Tirur, Malappuram, Wandoor and Tirurangadi) and 17 education sub-districts. The University of Calicut is in Thenjipalam, and AMU (Aligarh Muslim University) Malappuram Centre is in Chelamala. Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan Malayalam University is in Thunchan Parambu, 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the Malappuram city centre.

Medical colleges

Dental colleges

  • Educare Institute of Dental Sciences, Chattiparamba, Malappuram[8]

Ayurvedic medical colleges

  • VPSV Ayurveda College, Kottakkal

Engineering colleges

  • Calicut University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Thenhipalam
  • Eranad Knowledge City Technical Campus (EKC), Cherukulam, Manjeri
  • Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Tavanur
  • M.E.S. Engineering College, Kuttippuram
  • M.E.A. Engineering College, Perinthalmanna
  • Veda Vyasa Institute of Technology, Karadparamba
  • Cochin College of Engineering and Technology, Valancheri

Law Colleges

  • MCT College of Legal studies, Malappuram
  • KMCT Law College, Kuttippuram

Polytechnic colleges

  • S.S.M. Polytechnic College, Tirur
  • Government Polytechnic College, Perinthalmanna
  • Government Polytechnic College, Tirurangadi
  • Government Women's Polytechnic College, Kottakal
  • Maidin Polytechnic College, Malappuram
  • NTTF Malappuram
  • NTTF Kuttipuram

Government Arts and Science Colleges

  • Government College, Malappuram
  • Government College for Women, Malappuram
  • College of Applied Science Malappuram
  • Pookkoya Thangal Memorial Government College, Perintalmanna
  • Thunchan Memorial Government College, Tirur

Pharmacy colleges

  • Devaki Amma Memorial College of Pharmacy, Chelembra
  • Jamia Salafiya Pharmacy College, Pulikkal
  • Moulana College of Pharmacy, Perinthalmanna
  • Al Shifa College of Pharmacy, Perinthalmanna

Private arts and science colleges

  • P.S.M.O. College, Tirurangadi
  • Priyadarshini College, Malappuram
  • M.E.S. College, Valanchery
  • MAJLIS Arts and Science, Puramannur, Valanchery
  • H.M. College, Manjeri
  • G.E.M.S. College, Ramapuram
  • M.I.C. Arts and Science College
  • M.E.S. College, Mambad
  • M.E.S. Ponnani College, Ponnani
  • N.S.S. College, Manjeri
  • MOULANA COLLEGE, Kuttayi, Tirur
  • Safa college of arts and science, pookattiri valanchery

Post and telecommunications

The district has two postal divisions (Manjeri and Tirur), four head post offices, 120 post sub-offices and 284 branch post offices. Speed post facilities are in Malappuram, Manjeri, Perinthalmanna, Calicut University, Karipur, Ponnani, Kottakkal, Kuttippuram and Edappal.

For telecommunications, the district is in the Malappuram Secondary Switching Area. Divisional offices are in Manjeri, Nilambur, Perinthalmanna, Tirur, Ponnani and Parappanangadi.


The morning daily newspapers Malayala Manorama, Mathrubhumi, Madhyamam, Chandrika and Deshabhimani have printing centres in the district. Prahelika and the Flash are the evening dailies. Monthly, fortnightly and weekly periodicals, primarily devoted to religion and culture, are also published. Local cable-TV channels include Malappuram Cable Vision (MCV), Asianet Cablevision (ACV) and Den Malabar Vision. The Malappuram Press Club is in Up Hill. Doordarshan has relay stations at Malappuram and Manjeri, and All India Radio has an FM station at Manjeri.

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d e f g
  3. ^ pp. 396, Malayala Manorama Yearbook 2006, Kottayam, 2006 ISSN 0970-9096
  4. ^ New Zealand
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^

External links

  • Official website of Malappuram district
  • [1] Places in Malappuram
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