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Gianni Agnelli

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Subject: Ginevra Elkann, Marella Agnelli, Guido Carli, Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli, The Agnelli family
Collection: 1921 Births, 2003 Deaths, 20Th-Century Italian Politicians, Agnelli Family, Cancer Deaths in Italy, Deaths from Prostate Cancer, Fiat People, Italian Automotive Pioneers, Italian Billionaires, Italian Businesspeople, Italian Life Senators, Italian Military Personnel of World War II, Italian Newspaper Publishers (People), Members of the Steering Committee of the Bilderberg Group, Newspaper Publishers (People), People from Turin, Presidents of Confindustria, University of Turin Alumni
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Gianni Agnelli

Senator for life
Giovanni Agnelli
OMRI OML OMCA CGVM CMG
Personal details
Born (1921-03-12)12 March 1921
Turin, Italy
Died 24 January 2003(2003-01-24) (aged 81)
Turin, Italy
Nationality Italian
Spouse(s) Princess Marella Caracciolo di Castagneto
Relations Giovanni Agnelli (grandfather)
John Elkann (grandson)
Children Edoardo Agnelli III
Countess Margherita Agnelli de Pahlen
Parents Edoardo Agnelli II (father)
Princess Virginia Bourbon del Monte (mother)
Alma mater University of Turin
Occupation Industrialist

Giovanni "Gianni" Agnelli OMRI OML OMCA CGVM CMG (Italian: ; 12 March 1921 – 24 January 2003), also known as L'Avvocato, was an influential Italian industrialist and principal shareholder of Fiat. As the head of Fiat, he controlled 4.4% of Italy's GDP, 3.1% of its industrial workforce, and 16.5% of its industrial investment in research. He was the richest man in modern Italian history.[1]

As a public figure, Agnelli was also known worldwide for his impeccable, slightly eccentric fashion sense,[2] which has influenced both Italian and international men’s fashion.

Agnelli was awarded the decoration Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic in 1967 and the title Knight of Labour (Cavaliere del lavoro) in 1977.[3] Following his death in 2003, control of the firm was gradually passed to his grandson and chosen heir, John Elkann.[1]

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Head of Fiat 2
  • Later life and death 3
  • Style 4
  • Ancestry 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Early life

Gianni Agnelli (left) with his grandfather Giovanni Agnelli Sr. in 1940.

Agnelli was born in Turin[4] but he maintained a strong ties with the village of Villar Perosa, near Turin in the Piedmont region. His father was the prominent Italian industrialist Edoardo Agnelli and his mother was Princess Virginia Bourbon del Monte, daughter of Carlo, 4th Prince of San Faustino, head of a noble family established in Perugia. Agnelli was named after his grandfather Giovanni Agnelli, the founder of the Italian car manufacturer Fiat. His maternal grandmother was American.

Gianni — as he was known to differentiate from his grandfather, with whom he shared his first name — inherited the command of Fiat and the Agnelli family assets in general in 1966, following a period in which Fiat was temporarily "ruled" by Vittorio Valletta while Gianni was learning how his family's company worked. Agnelli raised Fiat to become the most important company in Italy, and one of the major car-builders of Europe. He also developed the accessory business, with minor companies also operating in military industry. Agnelli and Fiat would come to share a common vision, Agnelli meaning Fiat and, more sensibly, Fiat meaning Agnelli.

Agnelli was educated at Pinerolo Cavalry Academy, and studied law at the University of Turin, although he never practiced law. He joined a tank regiment in June 1940 when Italy entered World War II on the side of the Axis powers. He fought at the Russian front, being wounded twice. He also served in a Fiat-built armoured-car division to North Africa, where he was shot in the arm by a German officer during a bar fight over a woman. After Italy surrendered, due to his fluency in English, he became a liaison officer with the occupying US troops. His grandfather, who had manufactured vehicles for the Axis during the war, was forced to retire from Fiat but named Valletta to be his successor. Gianni's grandfather died, leaving Gianni head of the family but Valletta running the company. Fiat then began producing Italy's first inexpensive mass-produced car.

Prior to his marriage on 19 November 1953 to Donna Marella Caracciolo dei principi di Castagneto — a half-American, half-Neapolitan noblewoman who made a small but significant name as a fabric designer, and a bigger name as a tastemaker[5] — Agnelli was a noted playboy whose mistresses included the socialite Pamela Harriman. Though Agnelli continued to be involved with other women during his marriage, including the film star Anita Ekberg and the American fashion designer Jackie Rogers,[6] the Agnellis remained married until his death of prostate cancer in 2003. He was universally considered to be a man of exquisite taste. He left his extraordinary paintings to the city of Turin in 2002.

Their only son, Edoardo Agnelli, was born seven months after the couple's wedding, in New York City on 9 June 1954. Gianni gave up trying to groom him to take over Fiat, seeing how the boy was more interested in mysticism than making cars (he studied religion at Princeton and took part in a world day of prayer in Assisi). Edoardo — who seemed burdened by the mantle of his surname — committed suicide on 15 November 2000 by jumping off a bridge in Turin; Gianni himself joined police at the scene. Edoardo never married, but he had one son (born out of wedlock in 1973), who was not recognized by Gianni Agnelli .

Head of Fiat

Agnelli became president of Fiat in 1966. He opened factories in many places, including Russia (at the time the Soviet Union) and South America, and started international alliances and joint-ventures (like Iveco), which marked a new industrial mentality. In the 1970s, during the international petrol crisis, he sold part of the company to Lafico, a Libyan company owned by Colonel Qaddhafi; Agnelli would later repurchase these shares, however.

Gianni Agnelli (in the center) and the FIAT board of directors meet President Sandro Pertini (at his right) during an official visit to the new Sevel Val di Sangro factory, 1981.

His relationships with the Left, especially with Guido Rossa. Agnelli's politics and the events at Fiat in the 1970s were the subject of Dario Fo's 1981 satirical play Trumpets and Raspberries.

Agnelli was named senator for life in 1991 and subscribed to the independent parliamentary group; he was later named a member of the senate's defence commission.

In the early 2000s, Agnelli made overtures to General Motors resulting in an agreement under which General Motors progressively became involved in Fiat. The recent serious crisis of Fiat found Agnelli already fighting against cancer, and he could take little part in these events.

Agnelli was also closely connected with Juventus, the most renowned Italian football club,[7] of which he was a fan and the direct owner. His phone calls, every morning at 6 am, from wherever he was, whatever was he doing, to the club's president Giampiero Boniperti, were legendary.

Nicknamed L'Avvocato ( the lawyer ) because he had a degree in law (though he was never admitted to the Order of Lawyers), Agnelli was the most important figure in Italian economy, the symbol of capitalism throughout the second half of 20th century, and regarded by many as the true "King of Italy". A cultivated man of keen intelligence and a peculiar sense of humour, he was perhaps the most famous Italian abroad, forming deep relationships with international bankers and politicians, largely through the Bilderberg Group, whose conferences he attended regularly since 1958. Some of the other Bilderberg regulars became close friends, among them Henry Kissinger. Another longtime associate was David Rockefeller (yet another Bilderberg regular), who appointed him to the International Advisory Committee (IAC) of Chase Manhattan Bank, of which Rockefeller was chairman; Agnelli sat on this committee for thirty years. He was also a member of a syndicate with Rockefeller that for a time in the 1980s owned Rockefeller Center.[8]

Later life and death

Agnelli stepped down in 1996, but stayed on as honorary chairman until his death. Giovanni Alberto Agnelli, the son of Gianni's younger brother, Societé Générale de Surveillance (SGS).

Gianni Agnelli died in 2003 of prostate cancer at age 81 in Turin.

Fiat-owned Scuderia Ferrari named their 2003 F1 contender the F2003-GA, in tribute to Agnelli.[9]

Style

Agnelli’s fashion sense stood out, even in a country like Italy, where dressing well and fashionably is generally perceived as very important. His style has inspired and influenced menswear throughout the years in Italy and around the world. In his retirement speech, Milanese fashion designer Nino Cerruti named Agnelli as one of his biggest inspirations among James Bond and John F. Kennedy.[10] Esquire Magazine named Agnelli as one of five best dressed men in the history of the World.[2]

Agnelli’s dress style was a combination of a foundation of classic suits, combined with eye-catching personal tricks. He had a large number of bespoke Caraceni suits, which were of very high quality and classic design, and yet had the signature Italian bravura. It was the accessories and the way they were worn that made Agnelli stand out as a fashionisto. He is known for wearing his wristwatch over his cuff, wearing his tie askew or wearing (fashionable) high brown hiking boots under a bespoke suit. All these tricks were carefully chosen in order to convey sprezzatura, the Italian art of making the difficult look easy. His outfits were scrupulously chosen to the last detail, yet the accessory choices appeared as errors, making it look as if he did not care or make an effort about the way he was dressed.

Apart from his dress sense, Agnelli’s homes were work of designers and looked like studies in elegant living.[10] Additionally, he was interested in sailing, fast cars, Cresta tobogganing, skiing and horses.

Agnelli's nickname of "The Rake of the Riviera", inspired the classical menswear magazine The Rake.[11]

Ancestry

References

  1. ^ a b  
  2. ^ a b Raab, Scott (20 August 2007). "The Best Dressed Men in the History of the World". Esquire. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  3. ^ "Presidenza della Repubblica Italiana – Le Onorificenze: Giovanni Agnelli". Quirinale. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  4. ^ "From municipality of villarPerosa website". Villar Perosa. 19 July 2004. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  5. ^ Almanach de Gotha (Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1942), 398–399.
  6. ^ "Jackie, Oh!". The New York Observer. 23 October 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  7. ^ Jeff Israely (25 June 2006). "All In The Family". TIME. p. 3. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  8. ^ Association with David Rockefeller – see his Memoirs, New York: Random House, 2002 (pp. 208, 479, 481)
  9. ^ "Ferrari F2003-GA –". F1technical. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  10. ^ a b Tagliabue, John (25 January 2003). "Giovanni Agnelli, Fiat Patriarch and a Force in Italy, Dies at 81". New York Times. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  11. ^ Interview with editor on A Continuous Lean blog

External links

  • giovanniagnelli.it Gianni Agnelli's life in images
  • Obituary: Gianni Agnelli dead at 81 From United Press International
Business positions
Preceded by
Renato Lombardi
President of Confindustria
1974–1976
Succeeded by
Guido Carli
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