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Equidae

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Title: Equidae  
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Subject: Horse, Onager, Odd-toed ungulate, Evolution of the horse, Zebra
Collection: Equidae, Mammal Families, Ypresian First Appearances
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Equidae

Equidae
Temporal range: 54–0Ma
Є
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
Early Eocene to Recent
Wild horses
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Suborder: Hippomorpha
Family: Equidae
Gray, 1821

Equidae (sometimes known as the horse family) is the taxonomic family of horses and related animals, including the extant horses, donkeys, and zebras, and many other species known only from fossils. All extant species are in the genus Equus. Equidae belongs to the order Perissodactyla, which includes the extant tapirs and rhinoceros, and several other extinct families.

The term equid refers to any member of this family, including any equine.

Evolution

Extinct equids restored to scale. Left to right: Mesohippus, Neohipparion, Eohippus, Equus scotti and Hypohippus

The oldest known fossils assigned to Equidae date from the early Eocene, 54 million years ago. They formerly were assigned to the genus Hyracotherium, but the type species of that genus now is regarded to be not a member of this family, but the other species have been split off into different genera. These early Equidae were fox-sized animals with three toes on the hind feet, and four on the front feet. They were herbivorous browsers on relatively soft plants, and already adapted for running. The complexity of their brains suggest that they already were alert and intelligent animals.[1] Later species reduced the number of toes, and developed teeth more suited for grinding up grasses and other tough plant food.

The family became relatively diverse during the Miocene, with many new species appearing. By this time, equids were more truly horse-like, having developed the typical body shape of the modern animals.[2] Many of these species bore the main weight of their bodies on their central, third, toe, with the others becoming reduced, and barely touching the ground, if at all. The sole surviving genus, Equus, had evolved by the early Pleistocene, and spread rapidly through the world.[3]

Classification

Skeletons
Protorohippus
Hipparion

References

  1. ^ Palmer, D., ed. (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. London: Marshall Editions. p. 255.  
  2. ^ MacFadden, B. J. (March 18, 2005). "Fossil Horses--Evidence for Evolution". Science 307 (5716): 1728–1730.  
  3. ^ Savage, RJG, & Long, MR (1986). Mammal Evolution: an illustrated guide. New York: Facts on File. pp. 200–204.  

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