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Angela Merkel

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Angela Merkel

Angela Merkel
Chancellor of Germany
Assumed office
22 November 2005
President Horst Köhler
Christian Wulff
Joachim Gauck
Deputy Franz Müntefering
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Guido Westerwelle
Philipp Rösler
Sigmar Gabriel
Preceded by Gerhard Schröder
Leader of the Christian Democratic Union
Assumed office
10 April 2000
Preceded by Wolfgang Schäuble
Minister for the Environment
In office
17 November 1994 – 26 October 1998
Chancellor Helmut Kohl
Preceded by Klaus Töpfer
Succeeded by Jürgen Trittin
Minister for Women and Youth
In office
18 January 1991 – 17 November 1994
Chancellor Helmut Kohl
Preceded by Ursula Lehr
Succeeded by Claudia Nolte
Personal details
Born Angela Dorothea Kasner
(1954-07-17) 17 July 1954
Hamburg, West Germany
(now Germany)
Political party Democratic Awakening (1989–1990)
Christian Democratic Union (1990–present)
Spouse(s) Ulrich Merkel (1977–1982)
Joachim Sauer (1998–present)
Alma mater University of Leipzig
Religion Lutheranism

Angela Dorothea Merkel[1] (née Kasner; born 17 July 1954) is a German politician and former research scientist who has been the Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and the Leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000. She is the first woman to hold either office.[7]

Having earned a doctorate as a physical chemist, Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989, briefly serving as a deputy spokesperson for the first democratically elected East German Government in 1990. Following German reunification in 1990, she was elected to the Bundestag for Stralsund-Nordvorpommern-Rügen in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, a seat she has held ever since. She was later appointed as the Minister for Women and Youth in 1991 under Chancellor Helmut Kohl, later becoming the Minister for the Environment in 1994. After Kohl was defeated in 1998, she was elected Secretary-General of the CDU before becoming the party's first female leader two years later in the aftermath of a donations scandal that toppled Wolfgang Schäuble.

Following the 2005 federal election, she was appointed Germany's first female Chancellor at the head of a grand coalition consisting of the CDU, its Bavarian sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU), and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). In the 2009 federal election, the CDU obtained the largest share of the vote and Merkel was able to form a coalition government with the support of the Free Democratic Party (FDP).[8] At the 2013 federal election, Merkel won a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote, falling just short of an overall majority, and formed a second grand coalition with the SPD, after the FDP lost all of its representation in the Bundestag.[9]

In 2007, Merkel was President of the European Council and chaired the G8, the second woman to do so. She played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon and the Berlin Declaration. One of her priorities was also to strengthen transatlantic economic relations by signing the agreement for the Transatlantic Economic Council on 30 April 2007. Merkel was seen as having played a crucial role in managing the financial crisis at the European and international level, and has been referred to as "the decider."[10] In domestic policy, health care reform and problems concerning future energy development have been major issues during her Chancellorship.

Merkel has been described as the de facto leader of the European Union, and was ranked as the world's second most powerful person by Forbes magazine in 2012, the highest ranking ever achieved by a woman; she is currently ranked fifth.[11][12][13][14][15][16] On 26 March 2014, she became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union. Merkel is currently the Senior G7 leader. In May 2015, she was named the most powerful woman in the world for a record ninth time by Forbes.[17]


  • Background and early life 1
  • Early political career, 1991–2005 2
    • Leader of the Opposition (2000–05) 2.1
  • Chancellor (2005–present) 3
    • Domestic policy 3.1
    • Foreign affairs 3.2
    • Eurozone crisis 3.3
    • Europe's social expenditures overly high 3.4
    • Approval ratings 3.5
  • Cabinets 4
  • Personal life 5
    • Ancestry 5.1
  • Honours and awards 6
    • National honours 6.1
    • Honorary degrees 6.2
    • Other 6.3
  • Comparisons 7
  • Controversies 8
  • Other 9
  • In the arts and media 10
  • Notes 11
  • References 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14

Background and early life

Merkel was born Angela Dorothea Kasner in 1954 in Hamburg, West Germany, the daughter of Horst Kasner (1926–2011),[18][19] a native of Berlin, and his wife Herlind, born in 1928 in Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) as Herlind Jentzsch, a teacher of English and Latin. Her mother was the daughter of the Danzig politician Willi Jentzsch and maternal granddaughter of the city clerk of Elbing (now Elbląg, Poland) Emil Drange. Herlind Jentzsch was once a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and briefly served as a member of the municipal council in Templin following the German reunification.[20] Merkel has Polish ancestry through her paternal grandfather, Ludwig Kasner, a German national[21] of Polish origin from Posen (now Poznań).[22] The family's original name Kaźmierczak was Germanized to Kasner in 1930.[23][24]

Religion played a key role in Angela Merkel's migration to East Germany. Her father was born a Catholic, but the Kasner family eventually converted to Lutheranism,[22] and he studied Lutheran theology in Heidelberg and afterwards in Hamburg. In 1954, Angela's father received a pastorate at the church in Quitzow (a quarter of Perleberg in Brandenburg), which then was in East Germany, and the family resultingly moved to Templin. Merkel thus grew up in the countryside 80 km (50 mi) north of East Berlin.

Like most young people in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Merkel was a member of the Free German Youth (FDJ), the official youth movement sponsored by the ruling Socialist Unity Party. Membership was nominally voluntary, but those who did not join found it all but impossible to gain admission to higher education. She did not participate in the secular coming of age ceremony Jugendweihe, however, which was common in East Germany. Instead, she was confirmed. Later, at the Academy of Sciences, she became a member of the FDJ district board and secretary for "Agitprop" (Agitation and Propaganda). Merkel claimed that she was secretary for culture. When Merkel's one-time FDJ district chairman contradicted her, she insisted that: "According to my memory, I was secretary for culture. But what do I know? I believe I won't know anything when I'm 80."[25] Merkel's progress in the compulsory Marxism–Leninism course was graded only genügend (sufficient, passing grade) in 1983 and 1986.[26]

At school, she learned to speak Russian fluently, and was awarded prizes for her proficiency in Russian and Mathematics.[27] Merkel was educated in Templin and at the University of Leipzig, where she studied physics from 1973 to 1978. While a student, she participated in the reconstruction of the ruin of the Moritzbastei, a project students initiated to create their own club and recreation facility on campus. Such an initiative was unprecedented in the GDR of that period, and initially resisted by the University of Leipzig; however, with backing of the local leadership of the SED party, the project was allowed to proceed.[28] Merkel worked and studied at the Central Institute for Physical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences in Berlin-Adlershof from 1978 to 1990. After being awarded a doctorate (Dr. rer. nat.) for her thesis on quantum chemistry,[29] she worked as a researcher and published several papers.

Merkel and Lothar de Maiziere, 1990

In 1989, Merkel got involved in the growing democracy movement after the fall of the Berlin Wall, joining the new party Democratic Awakening. Following the first (and only) multi-party election of the East German state, she became the deputy spokesperson of the new pre-unification caretaker government under Lothar de Maizière.[30] In April 1990, the Democratic Awakening merged with the East German CDU, which in turn merged with its western counterpart after reunification.

Early political career, 1991–2005

Merkel stood for election at the 1990 federal election, the first since reunification, and was elected to the Bundestag for the constituency of Stralsund – Nordvorpommern – Rügen, which is in the district of Vorpommern-Rügen. She has won re-election for this constituency at the six federal elections since. After her first election, she was almost immediately appointed to the Cabinet, serving as Minister for Women and Youth under Chancellor Helmut Kohl. In 1994, she was promoted to becoming Minister for the Environment and Nuclear Safety, which gave her greater political visibility and a platform from which to build her political career. As one of Kohl's protégées and his youngest Cabinet Minister, she was frequently referred to by Kohl as "mein Mädchen" ("my girl").[31]

Leader of the Opposition (2000–05)

After the Kohl Government was defeated at the 1998 election, Merkel was appointed Secretary-General of the CDU, a key position as the party was no longer part of the federal government. Merkel oversaw a string of CDU election victories in six out of seven state elections in 1999, breaking the long-standing SPD-Green hold on the Bundesrat. Following a party funding scandal that compromised many leading figures of the CDU—including Kohl himself and his successor as CDU Leader, Wolfgang Schäuble, Merkel criticised her former mentor publicly and advocated a fresh start for the party without him. She was subsequently elected to replace Schäuble, becoming the first female leader of a German party on 10 April 2000. Her election surprised many observers, as her personality offered a contrast to the party she had been elected to lead; Merkel is a centrist Protestant originating from predominantly Protestant northern Germany, while the CDU is a male-dominated, socially conservative party with strongholds in western and southern Germany, and its Bavarian sister party, the CSU, has deep Catholic roots.

Merkel with Vladimir Putin, 2002

Following Merkel's election as CDU Leader, she enjoyed considerable popularity among the German population and polls indicated that many Germans would like to see her become Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's main challenger in the 2002 election. However, she was subsequently outmaneuvered politically by CSU Leader Edmund Stoiber, to whom she eventually ceded the privilege of challenging Schröder. He went on to squander a large lead in opinion polls to lose the election by a razor-thin margin. After Stoiber's defeat in 2002, in addition to her role as CDU Leader, Merkel became Leader of the Opposition in the Bundestag; Friedrich Merz, who had held the post prior to the 2002 election, was eased out to make way for Merkel.

Merkel supported a substantial reform agenda concerning Germany's economic and social system, and was considered more pro-market than her own party (the CDU). She advocated German labour law changes, specifically removing barriers to laying off employees and increasing the allowed number of work hours in a week. She argued that existing laws made the country less competitive, because companies cannot easily control labour costs when business is slow.[32]

Merkel argued that Germany should phase out nuclear power less quickly than the Schröder administration had planned.[33]

Merkel advocated a strong transatlantic partnership and German-American friendship. In the spring of 2003, defying strong public opposition, Merkel came out in favour of the U.S. invasion of Iraq, describing it as "unavoidable" and accusing Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of anti-Americanism. She criticised the government's support for the accession of Turkey to the European Union and favoured a "privileged partnership" instead. In doing so, she reflected public opinion that grew more hostile toward Turkish membership of the European Union.[34]

On 30 May 2005, Merkel won the CDU/CSU nomination as challenger to Chancellor Gerhard Schröder of the SPD in the 2005 national elections. Her party began the campaign with a 21-point lead over the SPD in national opinion polls, although her personal popularity lagged behind that of the incumbent. However, the CDU/CSU campaign suffered when Merkel, having made economic competence central to the CDU's platform, confused gross and net income twice during a televised debate. She regained some momentum after she announced that she would appoint Paul Kirchhof, a former judge at the German Constitutional Court and leading fiscal policy expert, as Minister of Finance.

Merkel and the CDU lost ground after Kirchhof proposed the introduction of a flat tax in Germany, again undermining the party's broad appeal on economic affairs and convincing many voters that the CDU's platform of deregulation was designed to benefit only the rich. This was compounded by Merkel proposing to increase VAT to reduce Germany's deficit and fill the gap in revenue from a flat tax. The SPD were able to increase their support simply by pledging not to introduce flat taxes or increase VAT. Although Merkel's standing recovered after she distanced herself from Kirchhof's proposals, she remained considerably less popular than Schröder, and the CDU's lead was down to 9% on the eve of the election.

On 18 September 2005, Merkel's CDU/CSU and Schröder's SPD went head-to-head in the national elections, with the CDU/CSU winning 35.3% (CDU 27.8%/CSU 7.5%) of the second votes to the SPD's 34.2%. Neither the SPD-Green coalition nor the CDU/CSU and its preferred coalition partners, the Free Democratic Party, held enough seats to form a majority in the Bundestag, and both Schröder and Merkel claimed victory. A grand coalition between the CDU/CSU and SPD faced the challenge that both parties demanded the chancellorship. However, after three weeks of negotiations, the two parties reached a deal whereby Merkel would become Chancellor and the SPD would hold 8 of the 16 seats in the cabinet.[35] The coalition deal was approved by both parties at party conferences on 14 November 2005.[36] Merkel was elected Chancellor by the majority of delegates (397 to 217) in the newly assembled Bundestag on 22 November 2005, but 51 members of the governing coalition voted against her.[37]

Reports had indicated that the grand coalition would pursue a mix of policies, some of which differ from Merkel's political platform as leader of the opposition and candidate for Chancellor. The coalition's intent was to cut public spending whilst increasing VAT (from 16 to 19%), social insurance contributions and the top rate of income tax.[38]

Merkel had stated that the main aim of her government would be to reduce unemployment, and that it is this issue on which her government will be judged.[39]

Chancellor (2005–present)

Merkel with U.S. President George W. Bush, 2007

On 22 November 2005, Merkel assumed the office of Chancellor of Germany following a stalemate election that resulted in a grand coalition with the SPD. Her party was re-elected in 2009 with an increased number of seats, and could form a governing coalition with the FDP. In the election of September 2013 the CDU/CSU parties emerged as winners, but formed another grand coalition with the SPD due to the FDP's failure to obtain the minimum of 5% of votes required to enter parliament.[9]

Domestic policy

In October 2010, Merkel told a meeting of younger members of her conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) party at Potsdam that attempts to build a multicultural society in Germany had "utterly failed",[40] stating: "The concept that we are now living side by side and are happy about it does not work"[41] and "we feel attached to the Christian concept of mankind, that is what defines us. Anyone who doesn't accept that is in the wrong place here."[42] She continued to say that immigrants should integrate and adopt Germany's culture and values. This has added to a growing debate within Germany[43] on the levels of immigration, its effect on Germany and the degree to which Muslim immigrants have integrated into German society.

Foreign affairs

Angela Merkel meets with Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff at the G-20 summit in Mexico, 2012

On 25 September 2007, Merkel met the 14th Dalai Lama for "private and informal talks" in the Chancellery in Berlin amid protest from China. China afterwards cancelled separate talks with German officials, including talks with Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries.[44]

One of Merkel's priorities was strengthening transatlantic economic relations – she signed the agreement for the Transatlantic Economic Council on 30 April 2007 at the White House. The Council, co-chaired by an EU and a US official, aims at removing barriers to trade in a further integrated transatlantic free-trade area.[45] This project has been described as ultra-liberal by the French left-wing politician Jean-Luc Mélenchon, fearing a transfer of sovereignty from citizens to multinationals and an alignment of the European Union on the American foreign policy and institutions.[46][47]

Der Spiegel reported that tensions between Chancellor Merkel and US President Barack Obama[48] eased during a meeting between the two leaders in June 2009. Commenting on a White House press conference held after the meeting, Der Spiegel stated, "Of course the rather more reserved chancellor couldn't really keep up with [Obama's]... charm offensive," but to reciprocate for Obama's "good natured" diplomacy, "she gave it a go... by mentioning the experiences of Obama's sister in Heidelberg, making it clear that she had read his autobiography".[49]

Merkel and Vladimir Putin, President of Russia, holding a joint press conference, 8 March 2008

In 2006 Merkel expressed concern about overreliance on Russian energy, but she received little support from others in Berlin.[50]

Merkel favors the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the European Union; but stated in December 2012 that its implementation depends on reforms in Ukraine.[51]

Merkel has visited

Political offices
Preceded by
Ursula Lehr
Minister for Women and Youth
Succeeded by
Claudia Nolte
Preceded by
Klaus Töpfer
Minister for the Environment
Succeeded by
Jürgen Trittin
Preceded by
Gerhard Schröder
Chancellor of Germany
Party political offices
Preceded by
Peter Hintze
General Secretary of the Christian Democratic Union
Succeeded by
Ruprecht Polenz
Preceded by
Wolfgang Schäuble
Leader of the Christian Democratic Union
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Vladimir Putin
Chairperson of the Group of 8
Succeeded by
Yasuo Fukuda
Preceded by
Herman van Rompuy
José Manuel Barroso
Chairperson of the Group of 8
Academic offices
Preceded by
Jerzy Buzek
Invocation Speaker of the College of Europe
Succeeded by
Giorgio Napolitano
Order of precedence
Preceded by
Norbert Lammert
as President of the Bundestag
Order of Precedence of Germany
as Chancellor
Succeeded by
Volker Bouffier
as President of the Bundesrat
  • Official Website of Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (English)
  • Merkel's personal website (German)
  • Merkel on her party's website (English)
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
  • Angela Merkel at the Internet Movie Database
  • Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Al Jazeera English
  • Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Bloomberg News
  • Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at The Economist
  • Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Forbes
  • Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at The New York Times
  • Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at Time
  • Angela Merkel collected news and commentary at The Wall Street Journal

External links

  • Skard, Torild (2014) "Angela Merkel" in Women of Power – Half a Century of Female Presidents and Prime Ministers Worldwide, Bristol: Policy Press, ISBN 978-1-44731-578-0

Further reading

  1. ^ a b Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in Deutsch) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. p. 156.  
  2. ^ Langguth, Gerd (2005). Angela Merkel (in Deutsch). Munich: dtv. p. 50.  
  3. ^ Duden, ed. (1996). Duden, Die deutsche Rechtschreibung (in Deutsch) (21st ed.). Dudenverlag. p. 112.  
  4. ^ "Angela". Duden Online. Retrieved 21 March 2015. 
  5. ^ Mangold, Max, ed. (1995). Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch (in Deutsch) (6th ed.). Dudenverlag. p. 548.  
  6. ^ Krech, Eva-Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz Christian; et al., eds. (2009). Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch (1st ed.). Walter de Gruyter. p. 739.  
  7. ^ "Biography". German Federal Press and Information Office. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  8. ^ "Germany's Merkel begins new term". BBC. 28 October 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009. 
  9. ^ a b "German Chancellor Angela Merkel makes a hat-trick win in 2013 Elections". Retrieved 23 September 2013. 
  10. ^ "Can Angela Merkel Fix Europe's Economic Crisis?". NPR. Retrieved 15 May 2012. 
  11. ^ Balasubramanyam, Ranjitha (16 September 2013). "All Eyes on Berlin". Foreign Policy Journal. Retrieved 23 September 2013. 
  12. ^ Gayle, Damien (18 July 2012). "50 Shades of Angela Merkel: German Chancellor's outfits recreated as Pantone colour chart (but none of them are very sexy)".  
  13. ^ Francis, David (22 September 2013). Mama" Merkel May Win Germany, But Not the Euro Zone""".  
  14. ^  
  15. ^ "'"Angela Merkel 'world's most powerful woman. The Daily Telegraph (London). 24 August 2011. 
  16. ^ "Profile Angela Merkel". Forbes. 18 April 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  17. ^ Allegretti, Aubrey (27 May 2015). "Angela Merkel Tops World's 100 Most Powerful Women - Shows World She's The Boss". Retrieved 4 October 2015. 
  18. ^  
  19. ^ "Merkels Vater gestorben – Termine abgesagt" (in Deutsch). newsecho. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2011. 
  20. ^ "Was an Angela Merkels Mutter vorbildlich ist". Welt Online (in Deutsch). 26 September 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2010. 'Nein, in der SPD bin ich nicht mehr.' 
  21. ^  
  22. ^ a b Stefan Kornelius (10 September 2013). "Six things you didn't know about Angela Merkel". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013. 
  23. ^ "The German chancellor's Polish roots".  
  24. ^ "Merkel hat polnische Wurzeln" [Merkel has Polish roots].  
  25. ^ "Die Schläferin".  
  26. ^ "Glänzend in Physik, mäßig in der Ideologie".  
  27. ^  
  28. ^ "Drogenwahn auf der Dauerbaustelle". Der Spiegel (in Deutsch). 27 March 2009. Archived from the original on 31 March 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  29. ^ Merkel, Angela (1986). Untersuchung des Mechanismus von Zerfallsreaktionen mit einfachem Bindungsbruch und Berechnung ihrer Geschwindigkeitskonstanten auf der Grundlage quantenchemischer und statistischer Methoden (Investigation of the mechanism of decay reactions with single bond breaking and calculation of their velocity constants on the basis of quantum chemical and statistical methods) (in Deutsch). Berlin:   and listed in the Catalogue of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek under subject code 30 (Chemistry)
  30. ^ Langguth, Gerd (August 2005) [2005]. Angela Merkel (in Deutsch). Munich: DTV. pp. 112–137.  
  31. ^ "Kohls unterschätztes Mädchen". Spiegel Online (in Deutsch). 30 May 2005. Archived from the original on 1 June 2005. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 
  32. ^ "Merkel fordert längere Arbeitszeit".  
  33. ^ "Merkel: Nuclear phase-out is wrong".  
  34. ^ Marlies Casier and Joost Jongerden, eds. Nationalisms and Politics in Turkey (2010) p 110
  35. ^ "Merkel named as German chancellor".  
  36. ^ "German parties back new coalition". BBC News. 14 November 2005. Archived from the original on 24 November 2005. 
  37. ^ "Merkel becomes German chancellor". BBC News. 22 November 2005. Archived from the original on 9 December 2005. 
  38. ^ "German coalition poised for power". BBC News. 11 November 2005. Archived from the original on 25 November 2005. 
  39. ^ "Merkel defends German reform plan". BBC News. 12 November 2005. Archived from the original on 15 March 2006. 
  40. ^ "Merkel says German multicultural society has failed". BBC News. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 17 October 2010. 
  41. ^ "Merkel Says German Multi-Cultural Society Has Failed".  
  42. ^ "Zentralrat der Juden kritisiert Seehofer: Debatte ist scheinheilig und hysterisch". Südwestrundfunk (in Deutsch). Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2010. Wir fühlen uns dem christlichen Menschenbild verbunden, das ist das, was uns ausmacht. Wer das nicht akzeptiert, der ist bei uns fehl am Platz 
  43. ^ "Germany's charged immigration debate". BBC News. 17 October 2010. Archived from the original on 16 October 2010. Retrieved 2011. 
  44. ^ "Merkel meets with the Dalai Lama". Euronews. Archived from the original on 15 May 2007. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  45. ^ "Enterprise policies" (PDF).  
  46. ^ """Jean-Luc Mélenchon: "Le futur grand marché transatlantique (in Français).  
  47. ^ "Intervention de Jean-Luc Mélenchon sur la Défense". Dailymotion. 4 April 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  48. ^ They're Not Getting any Warmer': Merkel Faces Difficult Talks in Washington"'".  
  49. ^ Gregor Peter Schmitz. "'"A Trans-Atlantic Show of Friendship: Obama Praises His 'Friend Chancellor Merkel. Spiegel Online. Archived from the original on 28 July 2010. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  50. ^ "Dependence on Russian gas worries some – but not all – European countries".  
  51. ^ "Klitschko, Merkel discuss prospects for signing EU-Ukraine association agreement".  
  52. ^ "Chancellor of Germany goes to Israel". The New York Times. 16 March 2008. Archived from the original on 18 June 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  53. ^ Roger Boyes (18 March 2008). "German Chancellor Angela Merkel tightens ties for Israel's 60th".  
  54. ^ "Friends in high places".  
  55. ^ "Photo Gallery: Merkel Wishes Israel Happy 60th". Spiegel Online. 17 March 2008. Archived from the original on 16 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  56. ^ MacIntyre, Donald (13 March 2008). "Israeli hardliners 'will walk out' when Merkel addresses Knesset in German". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  57. ^ "Merkel: Israel Must Stop Settlement Building".  
  58. ^ Keinon, Herb (31 January 2011). "PM, Merkel disagree openly on settlements".  
  59. ^ "Merkel arrives in Israel to talk peace". Haaretz. 24 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. 
  60. ^ a b c d "Germany and India – Celebrating 60 Years of Diplomatic relations". India. Archived from the original on 6 October 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2012. 
  61. ^ Audrey Kauffmann (31 May 2011). "Angela Merkel in India for joint cabinet meet".  
  62. ^ "Angela Merkel sets off for China to forge new economic ties". Herald Globe. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  63. ^ Parkin, Brian; Suess, Oliver (6 October 2008). "Hypo Real Gets EU50 Billion Government-Led Bailout".  
  64. ^ Carter Dougherty. "Germany guarantees all private bank accounts". Forbes. Archived from the original on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2008. 
  65. ^ Whitlock, Craig (6 October 2008). "Germany to guarantee Private Bank Accounts".  
  66. ^ a b "Bank uncertainty hits UK shares".  
  67. ^
  68. ^ Among others, in her speech on the occasion of her honorary doctoral degree at the University of Szeged in Hungary, see
  69. ^ a b
  70. ^
  71. ^ The economist fiscal pact”, see Tausch, Arno, Wo Frau Kanzlerin Angela Merkel Irrt: Der Sozialschutz in Der Welt, Der Anteil Europas Und Die Beurteilung Seiner Effizienz (Where Chancellor Angela Merkel Got it Wrong: Social Protection in the World, Europe's Share in it and the Assessment of its Efficiency) (September 4, 2015). Available at SSRN: or
  72. ^ Pidd, Helen (21 February 2011). "Angela Merkel's party crushed in Hamburg poll". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 24 February 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  73. ^ "German opposition hits 11-year high in polls".  
  74. ^ "Union dank Merkel im Umfrage-Aufwind".  
  75. ^ Penfold, Chuck (30 October 2009). "Merkel's new cabinet sworn in".  
  76. ^ Kirschbaum, Erik (1 August 2015). "Merkel to run for fourth term in 2017: Der Spiegel". Reuters. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  77. ^ "Biographie: Angela Merkel, geb. 1954". DHM. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  78. ^ "Joachim Sauer, das Phantom an Merkels Seite".  
  79. ^ "Das diskrete Gluck".  
  80. ^ James M Klatell (9 August 2006). "Germany's First Fella, Angela Merkel Is Germany's Chancellor; But Her Husband Stays Out Of The Spotlight". CBS News. Archived from the original on 10 August 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
  81. ^ "Angela Merkel im Fußballfieber". Focus (in Deutsch). 15 March 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  82. ^ "Kanzlerin Merkel kommt erst wieder zum Finale". Handelsblatt (in Deutsch). 23 June 2012. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  83. ^ "Angela Merkel fractures pelvis in ski fall".  
  84. ^ "Bundesverdienstkreuz für Merkel" (in Deutsch). tagesschau. Archived from the original on 4 February 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2010. 
  85. ^ "President Peres awards Germany's Merkel Medal of Distinction".  
  86. ^ Quirinale
  87. ^ "Tildelinger av ordener og medaljer". Kongehuset. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. 
  88. ^ "Russell among 15 Presidential Medal of Freedom honorees".  
  89. ^ The medal is presented to people who have made an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, or cultural or other significant public or private endeavors
  90. ^ "Executive Order 11085".  
  91. ^ "Honorary Doctorates". The  
  92. ^ "Pressemitteilung 2008/106 der Universität Leipzig" (in Deutsch). Universität Leipzig. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2010. 
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  1. ^ The correct pronunciation of her first name is unclear. There are two documented pronunciations of the name Angela: and [1] According to her biographer, Merkel prefers the pronunciation, with stress on the second syllable[2] ( with a long 'e', as in German: Beet,[1]:12 similar to the vowel sound of the English word say – especially in Lancashire dialect). This pronunciation is more common in Austria[3][4] German newsreaders have also used other pronunciations, such as and . Merkel is pronounced .[5][6]


Merkel features as a main character in two of the three plays that make up The Europeans Trilogy (Bruges, Antwerp, Tervuren) by Paris-based UK playwright Nick AwdeBruges (Edinburgh Festival 2014) and Tervuren (2016).

Merkel in Lübeck stencil graffiti street art

In the arts and media

In 2015, an open letter the ONE Campaign had collected signatures for was addressed to her and Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, urging them to focus on women as they serve as the head of the G7 in Germany and the AU in South Africa respectively, which will start to set the priorities in development funding before a main UN summit in September 2015 that will establish new development goals for the generation.[135]


Her statement "Islam is part of Germany" during a state visit of the Turkish prime minister Ahmet Davutoğlu in January 2015[133] induced criticism within her party. The parliamentary group leader Volker Kauder said that Islam is not part of Germany and that Muslims should deliberate on the question why so many violent people refer to the Quran.[134]

In August 2014, Merkel visited Ukraine to show her support for Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko.[131] Human Rights Watch said that "Merkel’s visit is an opportunity for her to denounce violations of international humanitarian law by the Ukrainian military."[132]

On 18 July 2014 Merkel said trust between Germany and the United States could only be restored by talks between the two, and she would seek to have talks. She reiterated the U.S. remained Germany's most important ally.[130]

Merkel has compared the NSA to the Stasi when it became known that her mobile phone was tapped by that agency. In response Susan Rice pledged that the USA will desist from spying on her personally, but said there would not be a no-espionage agreement between the two countries.[129]

In July 2013, Merkel defended the surveillance practices of the NSA, and described the United States as "our truest ally throughout the decades".[125][126] During a visit of U.S. President Barack Obama in Berlin, Merkel said on 19 June 2013 in the context of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures: "The Internet is virgin soil for us all". ("Das Internet ist Neuland für uns alle.") Her sentence led to various internet memes and online mockery of Merkel.[127][128]

Protestors rally against NSA's mass surveillance, Berlin, July 2013

Her trademark Merkel-Raute has been described as "probably one of the most recognisable hand gestures in the world". Its political symbolism received mixed reviews, ranging from being prominently used by the CDU during the 2013 election campaign, to accusations of a cult of personality that were brought forth by her opponents.[124]

The term alternativlos (German for "without an alternative"), which was frequently used by Angela Merkel to describe her measures addressing the European sovereign-debt crisis, was named the Un-word of the Year 2010 by a jury of linguistic scholars. The wording was criticised as undemocratic, as any discussion on Merkel's politics would thus be deemed unnecessary or undesirable.[122] The expression is credited for the name of the political party Alternative for Germany, which was founded in 2013.[123]

Members of her cabinet and Merkel herself also support state schools enabling Islamic religious instruction (similar to the provision of denominational Christian religious instruction).[119][120][121]

Merkel's position towards the negative statements by Thilo Sarrazin with regard to the integration problems with Arab and Turkish people in Germany has been critical throughout. According to her personal statements, Sarrazin’s approach is "totally unacceptable" and counterproductive to the ongoing problems of integration.[118]

Merkel has been criticised for being personally present and involved at the M100 Media Award handover[109] to Danish cartoonist Kurt Westergaard, who had triggered the Muhammad cartoons controversy. This happened at a time of fierce emotional debate in Germany over a book by the former Deutsche Bundesbank executive and finance senator of Berlin Thilo Sarrazin, which was critical of the Muslim immigration.[110] At the same time she condemned a planned burning of Korans by a fundamental pastor in Florida.[111] The Central Council of Muslims in Germany[112][113] and the Left Party[114] (Die Linke) as well as the German Green Party[115][116] criticised the action by the centre-right chancellor. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper wrote: "This will probably be the most explosive moment of her chancellorship so far."[117] Others have praised Merkel and called it a brave and bold move for the cause of freedom of speech.

Merkel with her hands in the characteristic Merkel-Raute position


In addition to being the first female German chancellor, the first to have grown up in the former East Germany (though she was born in the West[108]), and the youngest German chancellor since the Second World War, Merkel is also the first born after World War II, and the first chancellor of the Federal Republic with a background in natural sciences. She studied physics; her predecessors studied law, business or history or were military officers, among others.

As a female politician from a centre right party who is also a scientist, Merkel has been compared by many in the English-language press to former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Some have referred to her as "Iron Lady", "Iron Girl", and even "The Iron Frau" (all alluding to Thatcher, whose nickname was "The Iron Lady"—Thatcher also had a science degree from Oxford University in chemistry). Political commentators have debated the precise extent to which their agendas are similar.[105] Later in her tenure, Merkel acquired the nickname "Mutti" (a German familiar form of "mother"), said by Der Spiegel to refer to an idealised mother figure from the 1950s and 1960s.[106] She has also been called the "Iron Chancellor", in reference to Otto von Bismarck.[107]

Conservative leaders meet at congress of European People's Party in 2012


  • In 2006, Angela Merkel was awarded the Vision for Europe Award for her contribution toward greater European integration.
  • She received the Karlspreis (Charlemagne Prize) in 2008 for distinguished services to European unity.[97][98]
  • In March 2008 she received the B'nai B'rith Europe Award of Merit.[99]
  • Merkel topped Forbes magazine's list of "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women" in 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015.[100]
  • New Statesman named Angela Merkel in "The World's 50 Most Influential Figures" 2010.[101]
  • On 16 June 2010, the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Washington D.C. awarded Chancellor Merkel its Global Leadership Award (AICGS) in recognition of her outstanding dedication to strengthening German-American relations.[102]
  • On 21 September 2010, the Leo Baeck Institute, a research institution in New York City devoted to the history of German-speaking Jewry, awarded Angela Merkel the Leo Baeck Medal. The medal was presented by former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and current Director of the Jewish Museum Berlin, W. Michael Blumenthal, who cited Merkel's support of Jewish cultural life and the integration of minorities in Germany.[103]
  • On 31 May 2011, she received the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for the year 2009 from the Indian government. She received the award for International understanding.[104]
  • Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People ranked Merkel as the world's second most powerful person in 2012, the highest ranking achieved by a woman since the list began in 2009; she was ranked fifth in 2013 and 2014
  • On 28 November 2012, she received the Heinz Galinski Award in Berlin, Germany.
  • India: Indira Gandhi Peace Prize (2013)


Honorary degrees

Merkel in 2008

National honours

Honours and awards


On 6 January 2014, Merkel fractured a bone in her pelvis in a cross-country skiing accident in Switzerland.[83]

In 1977, Angela Kasner married physics student Ulrich Merkel and took his surname. The marriage ended in divorce in 1982.[77] Her second and current husband is quantum chemist and professor Joachim Sauer, who has largely remained out of the media spotlight. They first met in 1981,[78] became a couple later and married privately on 30 December 1998.[79] She has no children, but Sauer has two adult sons from a previous marriage.[80] She is a fervent football fan and has been known to listen to games while in the Bundestag and to attend games of the national team in her official capacity.[81][82]

Personal life

At the beginning of August 2015, Der Spiegel reported that Merkel had "evidently decided to run again in 2017".[76]

In 2013, Merkel won one of the most decisive victories in German history, achieving the best result for the CDU/CSU since reunification and coming within five seats of the first absolute majority in the Bundestag since 1957. However, with their preferred coalition partner, the FDP, failing to enter parliament for the first time since 1949, the CDU/CSU turned to the SPD to form the third grand coalition in postwar German history and the second under Merkel's leadership. The third Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on 17 December 2013.

Angela Merkel at the signing of the coalition agreement for the 18th election period of the Bundestag, December 2013

The first Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in at 16:00 CET on 22 November 2005. On 31 October 2005, after the defeat of his favoured candidate for the position of Secretary General of the SPD, Franz Müntefering indicated that he would resign as Party Chairman, which he did in November. Ostensibly responding to this, Edmund Stoiber (CSU), who was originally nominated as Minister for Economics and Technology, announced his withdrawal on 1 November 2005. While this was initially seen as a blow to Merkel's attempt at forming a viable coalition, the manner in which Stoiber withdrew earned him much ridicule and severely undermined his position as a Merkel rival. Separate conferences of the CDU, CSU, and SPD approved the proposed Cabinet on 14 November 2005. The second Cabinet of Angela Merkel was sworn in on 28 October 2009.[75]


Midway through her second term, Merkel's approval plummeted in Germany, resulting in heavy losses in state elections for her party.[72] An August 2011 poll found her coalition had only 36% support compared to a rival potential coalition's 51%.[73] However, she scored well on her handling of the recent euro crisis (69% rated her performance as good rather than poor), and her approval rating reached an all-time high of 77% in February 2012 and again in July 2014.[74]

Approval ratings

Although Ms Merkel stopped short of suggesting that a ceiling on social spending might be one yardstick for measuring competitiveness, she hinted as much in the light of soaring social spending in the face of an ageing population.[70][71]

The Financial Times commented:

She produces graphs of unit labour costs [...] at EU meetings in much the same way that the late Margaret Thatcher used to pull passages from Friedrich Hayek’s “Road to Serfdom” from her handbag.[69]

adding that:

If Mrs Merkel’s vision is pragmatic, so too is her plan for implementing it. It can be boiled down to three statistics, a few charts and some facts on an A4 sheet of paper. The three figures are 7%, 25% and 50%. Mrs Merkel never tires of saying that Europe has 7% of the world’s population, 25% of its GDP and 50% of its social spending. If the region is to prosper in competition with emerging countries, it cannot continue to be so generous.[69]

At the World Economic Forum in Davos, 2013, she started to say that Europe nowadays has only 7% of the global population and produces only 25% of the global GDP, but that it spends almost 50% of the global social expenditure. The solution to the economic ills of the continent only can consist in raising its competitiveness.[67] Since then, this comparison has become a central element in major speeches.[68] The international financial press has widely commented on her thesis, with the Economist saying that:

Europe's social expenditures overly high

On 4 October 2008, a Saturday, following the Irish Government's decision to guarantee all deposits in private savings accounts, a move she strongly criticised,[64] Merkel said there were no plans for the German Government to do the same. The following day, Merkel stated that the government would guarantee private savings account deposits, after all.[65] However, two days later, on 6 October 2008, it emerged that the pledge was simply a political move that would not be backed by legislation.[66] Other European governments eventually either raised the limits or promised to guarantee savings in full.[66]

Following major falls in worldwide stock markets in September 2008, the German government stepped in to assist the mortgage company Hypo Real Estate with a bailout, which was agreed on 6 October, with German banks to contribute €30 billion and the Bundesbank €20 billion to a credit line.[63]

Merkel, Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk and Italian PM Silvio Berlusconi, 2008

Eurozone crisis

In recognition of the importance of China to the German economy, by 2014 Merkel had led seven trade delegations to China since assuming office in 2005. The same year, in March, China's President Xi visited Germany.[62]

The Indian government presented the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for the year 2009 to Merkel. A statement issued by the Government of India stated that the award "recognises her personal devotion and enormous efforts for sustainable and equitable development, for good governance and understanding and for the creation of a world better positioned to handle the emerging challenges of the 21st century."[60]

Merkel and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh made a "Joint Declaration" emphasising the Indo-German strategic partnership in 2006.[60] It turned the focus of future cooperation onto the fields of energy, science and technology, and defence. A similar Declaration, signed during Merkel’s visit to India in 2007, noted the substantial progress made in Indo-German relations and set ambitious goals for their development in the future.[60] The relationship with India on the basis of cooperation and partnership was further strengthened with Merkel's visit to India in 2011. At the invitation of the Indian government, the two countries held their first intergovernmental consultations in New Delhi. These consultations set a new standard in the implementation of the strategic partnership, as India became only the third non-European country with which Germany has had this nature of comprehensive consultations.[60] India became the first Asian country to hold a joint cabinet meeting with Germany during Merkel's state visit.[61]

Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, Merkel, and her husband, Joachim Sauer, 2009

[59] Merkel's latest visit to Israel was on 25–27 February 2014. During her visit, Merkel was awarded Israel's highest civilian award by President Shimon Peres, for her "unwavering commitment to Israel's security and the fight against anti-Semitism and racism."[58] and disagreed with the Israeli government's behavior.[57]. Merkel has supported Israeli diplomatic initiatives, opposing the Palestinian bid for membership at the UN. However, Merkel requested that continued building of settlements beyond the Green Line should stop,G8 and the chair of the President of the European Council At the time, Merkel was also both the [56] but this provoked rumbles of opposition from Israeli MPs on the far right.[55], the only foreigner who was not a head of state to have done so,Israel's parliament Merkel spoke before [54][53]

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