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Title: Epuh  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Urshu, Mari, Syria
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


King of Yamhad
Tenure c. 1810 BC – c. 1780 BC. Middle chronology
Successor Yarim-Lim I
King of Yamhad
Wife Sumunna-Abi
Issue Yarim-Lim I

Sumu-Epuh (reigned c. 1810 BC – c. 1780 BC Middle chronology) is the first attested king of Yamhad (Halab).[1] He founded the Yamhad dynasty which controlled northern Syria throughout the 17th and 18th centuries BC.


Although Sumu-Epuh's early life or the way he ascended the throne isn't known, he is considered the first king of Yamhad, and his realm included Alalakh and Tuba.[2][3] Sumu-Epuh entered the historical records when he was mentioned by Yahdun-Lim of Mari, as one of the leaders who fought against him.[4] Yahdun-Lim was an ambitious ruler who campaigned in the north claiming to have reached the Mediterranean, in spite of having a dynastic alliance with Yamhad to oppose Assyria.[5] Those campaigns caused Sumu-Epuh to support the Yaminite tribes centered at Tuttul against the Mariote king,[6][7] who emerged victorious but was soon killed by his own son. Yahdun-Lim death was followed by Shamshi-Adad I of Assyria conquest of Mari.

War Against Assyria

Sumu-Epuh aided by Khashshum attacked a kingdom in Zalmakum (a marshy region between the Euphrates and lower Balikh).[8] Khashshum later shifted alliance and joined Shamshi-Adad, who surrounded Yamhad by alliances with the city of Urshu and king Aplahanda of Charchemish in the north, and by conquering Mari in the east (after the death of Yahdun-Lim) in c. 1796 BC, and installing his son Yasmah-Adad on its throne. Shamshi-Adad then concluded an alliance with Yamhad rival to south Qatna, by marrying his son Yashmah-Adad to princess Beltum, the daughter of Ishi-Adad king of Qatna.[9]

Sumu-Epuh welcomed Zimri-Lim the heir of Mari who fled to Yamhad, in hope that he might be useful some day since in the eyes of the people of Mari, Zimri-Lim was the legitimate king.[10] Shamshi-Adad coalition attacked Aleppo but failed to take the city, Sumu-Epuh allied himself with the Suteans and the Turukkaeans tribes, who attacked the Assyrian king from the east and the south,[9] he also conquered The Assyrian fortress Dur-Shamshi-Adad and renamed it Dur-Sumu-Epuh.[11]

Death and Legacy

Sumu-Epuh apparently was killed in c. 1780 BC during his fight with Shamshi-Adad,[7] his successor was Yarim-Lim I, his son by his queen Sumunna-Abi. The dynasty of Sumu-Epuh continued to hold power in the Levant until c. 1344 BC.

King Sumu-Epuh of Yamhad (Halab)
Died: 1780 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Yamhad
1810 – 1780 BC
Succeeded by
Yarim-Lim I



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