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January 1913

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January 1913

January 17, 1913: Raymond Poincaré elected as 10th President of France
January 9, 1913: Future U.S. President Richard Nixon (2nd from right) born in California
Dutch calendar for January 1913, designed by Theo van Hoytema

The following events occurred in January 1913:

Contents

  • January 1, 1913 (Wednesday) 1
  • January 2, 1913 (Thursday) 2
  • January 3, 1913 (Friday) 3
  • January 4, 1913 (Saturday) 4
  • January 5, 1913 (Sunday) 5
  • January 6, 1913 (Monday) 6
  • January 7, 1913 (Tuesday) 7
  • January 8, 1913 (Wednesday) 8
  • January 9, 1913 (Thursday) 9
  • January 10, 1913 (Friday) 10
  • January 11, 1913 (Saturday) 11
  • January 12, 1913 (Sunday) 12
  • January 13, 1913 (Monday) 13
  • January 14, 1913 (Tuesday) 14
  • January 15, 1913 (Wednesday) 15
  • January 16, 1913 (Thursday) 16
  • January 17, 1913 (Friday) 17
  • January 18, 1913 (Saturday) 18
  • January 19, 1913 (Sunday) 19
  • January 20, 1913 (Monday) 20
  • January 21, 1913 (Tuesday) 21
  • January 22, 1913 (Wednesday) 22
  • January 23, 1913 (Thursday) 23
  • January 24, 1913 (Friday) 24
  • January 25, 1913 (Saturday) 25
  • January 26, 1913 (Sunday) 26
  • January 27, 1913 (Monday) 27
  • January 28, 1913 (Tuesday) 28
  • January 29, 1913 (Wednesday) 29
  • January 30, 1913 (Thursday) 30
  • January 31, 1913 (Friday) 31
  • References 32

January 1, 1913 (Wednesday)

  • Parcel post was inaugurated in the United States.[1][2]
  • Louis Armstrong, as an 11-year-old boy in New Orleans, was arrested by police after firing his stepfather's pistol to celebrate the arrival of the new year. He was sentenced by the juvenile court to 18 months at the Colored Waifs' Home, where his musical talent would be perfected, and he would go on to fame as one of America's greatest jazz artists.[3]
  • The Council of the Russian Empire adopted a law freeing the last of the Russian serfs. In 1861, the Caucasus had been exempt from the emancipation of serfs there.[4]
  • The "Six Powers" (the United States, Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany and Japan) agreed to a $125,000,000 loan to China at 6 percent interest.[5]
  • Born: Shih Kien, Hong Kong character actor, in Shigang Village, Guangzhou, China (d. 2009)

January 2, 1913 (Thursday)

  • U.S. Representative W. W. Wedemeyer of Michigan jumped overboard from the ocean liner Panama while returning to the United States, in an apparent suicide. Wedemeyer, who had been defeated in November 1912 in his bid for reelection, had accompanied U.S. President Taft in December on a visit to Panama as part of a 30-member congressional inspection party and was treated for depression in a Canal Zone hospital before sailing for home.[6]

January 3, 1913 (Friday)

  • Thomas Edison gave the first demonstration of his new invention, the kinetophone, at his laboratory in West Orange, New Jersey, described as "a combination of the moving picture machine and the phonograph, with a synchronizing device that is a marvel of mechanical ingenuity".[8]
  • Portugal's Prime Minister Duarte Leite resigned.[9]
  • The steamer Julia Luckenbach sank after a collision with the British steamer Indrakuala in Chesapeake Bay.[10]
  • U.S. Senator Joseph W. Bailey of Texas resigned with less than two months left in his term; he was replaced by Rienzi Johnston.[2]
  • Died: U. S. Senator Jefferson Davis, 50, Arkansas senator since 1907.

January 4, 1913 (Saturday)

January 5, 1913 (Sunday)

January 6, 1913 (Monday)

  • The explosion of a boiler on the French battleship Massena killed 8 members of the crew.[12]
  • Born: Edward Gierek, Polish Communist leader, 1970–80, in Porąbka (d. 2001); and Loretta Young, American film and television actress, in Salt Lake City (d. 2000)

January 7, 1913 (Tuesday)

  • The steamship Rosecrans was wrecked in a gale and ran aground on Peacock Spit, a spit off the coast of Oregon, killing 33 of the crew of 36.[13]
  • William M. Burton was awarded U.S. Patent No. 1,049,667 for his thermal cracking process, that would dramatically increase the supply of gasoline that could be developed from crude oil.[14]
  • Born: Shirley Ross, American actress and singer, as Bernice Gaunt in Omaha, Nebraska (d. 1975)
  • Died: Paul Cleveland Bennett Nash, 35, U.S. Ambassador to Hungary was found dead in his room at London's Claridge Hotel

January 8, 1913 (Wednesday)

Caricature of Lt-Colonel Sir Robert William Inglis, published in Vanity Fair, January 8, 1913, as "Men of the Day" Number 2306
  • Serbia gave up its demand for a port on the Adriatic Sea as part of its negotiation at the London peace conference to end the Balkan War.[15]
  • Alfred Deakin resigned as leader of the opposition in Australia.[2]
  • Dr. Alfonso Costa became the Portuguese premier.[2]
  • The Hotel McAlpin, largest in New York, opened with rooms for 2,500 guests. An unusual feature of the 25-story hotel was that was one floor was reserved exclusively for men, another for women, and the "sleepy sixteenth" floor was to be kept "quiet as a tomb" during the daytime.[16]
  • Died: Xavier Mertz, 30, Swiss-born Antarctic explorer and member of the ill-fated Far Eastern Party; of hypervitaminosis A. (b. 1882)

January 9, 1913 (Thursday)

  • The explosion of a boiler on the riverboat James T. Staples killed 26 people and injured 21 others.[17]
  • Born: Richard M. Nixon, 37th President of the United States (1969–74), in Yorba Linda, California, at 9:35 p.m.[18] (d. 1994)
  • Born: Eric Berry, British stage and film actor, in London (d. 1993)

January 10, 1913 (Friday)

January 11, 1913 (Saturday)

  • Having recently proclaimed their independence from China, Tibet and Mongolia signed a mutual defense treaty that, under it terms, was "for all time".[20]
Kirstie's Cairn, Changue Forest The memorial reads "In memory of Christopher McTaggart, shepherd, who perished in snow storm near this spot, 11 January 1913, aged 19 years." The copyright on this image is owned by Oliver Dixon and is licensed for reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 license.
  • The Paris intra-urban transit system went entirely to electric streetcars, as the last horse-drawn streetcar made its final run on the city's rails.[21]
  • Ottawa's County Clerk was accidentally locked inside the vault at the courthouse, and nobody in the office knew the combination except for him. Fortunately, former clerk John Bell, living in Salina, remembered the combination "after spending an hour searching his memory for the correct numerals". After 2 1/2 hours, when the vault was opened, "the liberated Baldwin fell to the floor unconscious" from lack of oxygen but survived.[22]
  • Born: Lona Cohen, aka Helen Kroger, American Communist who became a spy for the Soviet Union; in Adams, Massachusetts. After fleeing the U.S., she and her husband, Morris Cohen, were given the identities of New Zealanders "Helen and Peter Kroger" and spied against the United Kingdom in the 1950s (d. 1992)

January 12, 1913 (Sunday)

  • Alexandre Millerand quit as France's minister of war after Colunel du Paty de Clane was reinstated.[23]

January 13, 1913 (Monday)

  • U.S. Commerce Court judge Robert W. Archbald was convicted on five of 13 articles of impeachment by the U.S. Senate and removed from office. The vote was 68-5 on the first article, sufficient for removal. In all, he was convicted on three articles, acquitted on the other ten. He became only the third U.S. government official to be removed by the impeachment process.[24]
  • Electors in the 48 United States, chosen in the presidential election in November, met in their respective state legislatures to cast their electoral votes. Woodrow Wilson received 435 votes from 40 states, Theodore Roosevelt 88 from six states, and incumbent President Taft, favored only by Utah and Vermont, won eight votes.[25]
  • The Sir Edward Carson and Sir James Craig to resist the Irish Home Rule Movement.[26]
  • Delta Sigma Theta, and African-American sorority, was founded by 22 women at Howard University who had become dissatisfied with the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority. A century later, it would have 900 chapters in eight nations.[27]
  • The Harvard University Press was established at a meeting of the president and fellows of the university.[28]
  • Born: Murray Bowen, American psychiatrist and pioneer in differentiation of self and in family counseling, in Waverly, Tennessee (d. 1990)

January 14, 1913 (Tuesday)

  • The London Peace Conference ended as the Balkan states and the Ottoman Empire were unable to reach an agreement in negotiations.[29]
  • Born: Luderin Darbone, American Cajun musician, in Evangeline Parish, Louisiana (d. 2008)

January 15, 1913 (Wednesday)

  • The members of Britain's [30]
  • The first sickness benefits were paid under Britain's National Insurance Act 1911 as its provisions took effect. Men were eligible to receive ten shillings per week for illness, and women seven shillings and sixpence per week. After 13 weeks, the benefits for both men and women were five shillings a week.[31]
  • First Balkan War: The Ottoman battle cruiser Medjidie attacked and sank the Greek merchant ship Macedonia, which had been armed for use as a troop transport.[32]
  • Born: Lloyd Bridges, American film and television actor, best known for portraying a free-lance scuba diver and adventurer on Sea Hunt TV series, in San Leandro, California (d. 1998); and Alexander Marinesko, captain of the S-13 submarine which sank the German ship Wilhelm Gustloff, killing 9,000 people; in Odessa (d. 1963)

January 16, 1913 (Thursday)

  • The United Kingdom House of Commons passed the Irish Home Rule Bill on its third reading, by a vote of 367 to 257.[33] The measure moved on to the House of Lords, which was expected to veto the bill, which happened on January 30.[34]
  • Russia's Grand Duke Michael was stripped of his rank as officer in the Russian Army, after his controversial marriage was met by the disapproval of his brother, Tsar Nicholas II.[35]
  • Srinivasa Ramanujan, a 26-year-old student in Madras, India, sent a letter to English mathematician G. H. Hardy, admitting that he had no formal mathematical training, but submitting more than 100 theorems that Hardy recognized as ingenious.[36]
  • The first wireless transmission between the U.S. and Germany was sent in the inauguration of a new telegraph system at Sayville, New York, with the message received in Berlin.[37]
  • Died: Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, 80, American meteorologist and balloonist, pioneer in aerial reconnaissance

January 17, 1913 (Friday)

  • Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré was elected as the new President of France. After none of the three candidates received a majority on the first ballot, the result on the second round was Prime Minister Poincaré 483, Agriculture Minister Jules Pams 296 and Marie Eduard Maillant 69.[38]
  • Ag-ed Alach-Sultan became the new Premier of Persia.[37]
  • The six European powers sent a joint note advising the Ottoman Empire to surrender Adrianople and the Aegean Islands.[2]

January 18, 1913 (Saturday)

  • British Antarctic Expedition: The Terra Nova was finally able to break through the ice outside of Antarctica's McMurdo Sound to pick up the Northern Party, the remaining members of the expedition. The group had set out to locate explorer the Southern Party that had been led by Robert Falcon Scott. Victor Campbell reported to the Terra Nova crew that Scott's party had reached the South Pole on January 17, 1912, but had all died on the return journey.[39]
  • Born: Danny Kaye, American film actor, as David Daniel Kaminsky in Brooklyn (d. 1987)

January 19, 1913 (Sunday)

  • Born: Rudolf Wanderone, American billiards player and entertainer who billed himself as "Minnesota Fats" after the release of the 1961 film The Hustler; in New York (d. 1982)
  • Died: Claas Epp, Jr., 74, Russian Mennonite who had developed a following by predicting the Second Coming for March 8, 1889 and again on March 8, 1891

January 20, 1913 (Monday)

  • Outgoing U.S. president Taft accepted a position as a professor at the Yale University College of Law.[40]
  • Aristide Briand was selected as the Prime Minister of France, to replace Raymond Poincaré, who had vacated the office after being elected president.[41]
  • Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro presented an ultimatum to the Ottoman Empire, giving the Turks 14 days to make a favorable reply to their demands or face a resumption of war.[42]
  • The first film footage of war scenes in color was shown, having been taken during the First Balkan War under the direction of British war correspondent Frederic Villiers, who accompanied a division of the Greek Army.[43]
  • Died: José Guadalupe Posada, 60, Mexican cartoonist and illustrator

January 21, 1913 (Tuesday)

  • Canadian Member of Parliament W.F. MacLean of South York made the first proposal for a central Canadian bank, in a speech on the floor of the House of Commons.[44]
  • Died: Fanny Jackson Coppin, 75, African-American religious leader and education proponent

January 22, 1913 (Wednesday)

Jim Thorpe at the New York Polo Grounds in 1913
  • The Worcester Gazette of Worcester, Massachusetts, published a story that cost Jim Thorpe his Olympic medals. One of the sportswriters for the Gazette had played minor league baseball in the Eastern Carolina League for the Fayetteville Highlanders and was aware that Thorpe had played in the league in the 1909 and 1910 seasons. The Gazette editor had spent eight days verifying the fact before breaking the news that Thorpe had played professional ball for Fayetteville and for the Rocky Mount Railroaders.[45] The headline was "Thorpe With Professional Baseball Team Says Clancy", and quoted Charley Clancy, who had tipped off reporter Roy Johnson.[46]
  • The Ottoman Grand Council voted to surrender Edirne (Adrianople) to the Balkan Allies and to accept the other demands for peace, including ceding its Aegean islands and Edirne.[47]
  • Helen Miller Gould, America's "Queen Philanthropist", married Finley J. Shepard.[48]
  • Born: William Conway, Irish Roman Catholic cardinal, Primate of All Ireland; in Belfast (d. 1977); and Carl F. H. Henry, American Protestant theologian, first editor of Christianity Today, publisher, in Long Island, New York (d. 2003)

January 23, 1913 (Thursday)

Nazım Pasha, the Ottoman Minister of the Navy, killed on January 23

January 24, 1913 (Friday)

  • Former Socialist Party presidential candidate Eugene V. Debs was arrested at Terre Haute, weeks after being indicted for obstructing justice.[50] Debs was quickly released on bail, and the case would be dismissed in May.[51]
  • The Norwegian cabinet resigned.[2]
  • The U.S. Senate approved the Lincoln Memorial. On January 29, the House appropriated $2 million for the building.[2]

January 25, 1913 (Saturday)

  • In an article for the Russian-language Paris newspaper Sozial Demokrat, Bolshevik activist Josef Dzhugashvili first used the a pseudonym based on the Russian word for steel "Stal" (Стал). The issue was dated January 12 because of the differences between the Julian calendar used in Russia at the time, and the Gregorian calendar that would be adopted later. "The National Question and Social Democracy" was signed with the name "K. Stalin", a "steel man", a name that Joseph Stalin would use thereafter.[52]
  • The U.S. House of Representatives passed the Dillingham-Burnett immigration bill, requiring a literacy test for all incoming immigrants, by a 166-71 margin.[53]
  • Born: Witold Lutosławski, Polish composer, in Warsaw (d. 1994); and Huang Hua, Foreign Minister of China 1976-82 (d. 2010)

January 26, 1913 (Sunday)

  • The body of John Paul Jones was inhumed at the chapel of the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, more than seven years after it had been returned to the United States from France.[54]

January 27, 1913 (Monday)

Masonic Hall, Hawarden. Formerly the Boys Elementary School, built in 1834, the building was taken over by the Masons in 1912. After some internal alterations were carried out they convened their first meeting on 27th January 1913 and a plaque on the prominent chimney carries that date. The copyright on this image is owned by John S Turner and is licensed for reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 license.
  • The first new American five-cent pieces, known as "buffalo nickels", were manufactured at the Philadelphia mint.[55]
  • The British Cabinet voted to remove the women's suffrage bill from consideration in the House of Commons.[56]

January 28, 1913 (Tuesday)

January 29, 1913 (Wednesday)

January 30, 1913 (Thursday)

  • The United Kingdom's House of Lords rejected the Home Rule bill by a vote of 326-69.[34]
  • A no-confidence motion passed in the German Reichstag.[2]
  • The Ottoman Empire replied to the ultimatum of the Great Powers at the end of the First Balkan War and agreed to give up most of Edirne (Adrianople) except for the Muslim shrines, but it refused to surrender its Aegean islands.[58]
  • Born: Amrita Sher-Gil, Hungarian-born Indian woman painter, Budapest (d. 1941)
  • Died: Hasan Riza Pasha, 41, the Ottoman governor of Scutari and defender against the Montenegrin siege, was assassinated in a plot by Essad Pasha Toptani, who took over as commander of Ottoman forces the next day.[59]

January 31, 1913 (Friday)

References

  1. ^ "The Parcel Post Now in Operation", New York Times, January 2, 1913
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k The American Year Book, Volume 4 (T. Nelson & Sons, 1914)
  3. ^ "Armstrong, Louis", in Encyclopedia of African American History, Leslie Alexander, ed. (ABC-CLIO, 2010) p138
  4. ^ "Frees Last Russian Serfs", New York Times, January 2, 1913
  5. ^ "Agree on Loan to China", New York Times, January 2, 1913
  6. ^ "Wedemeyer Leaps into Sea and Dies", New York Times, January 4, 1913, p1
  7. ^ Robert C. Harvey, The Art of the Funnies: An Aesthetic History (University Press of Mississippi, 1994) p49; George McManus, Bringing Up Father: From Sea to Shining Sea (IDW Publishing, 2009) p11, p17; Toonpedia.com
  8. ^ "Films That Talk", Milwaukee Journal, January 4, 1913, p2
  9. ^ "Portuguese Cabinet Out", New York Times, January 6, 1913
  10. ^ "Fifteen Die at Sea; Daring Saves Eight", New York Times, January 5, 1913
  11. ^ "To Succeed von Kiderlen", New York Times, January 6, 1913
  12. ^ "Kills 8 on French Warship", New York Times, January 7, 1913
  13. ^ "Thirty-Three Perish in Wreck", Milwaukee Journal, January 8, 1913, p1
  14. ^ Marius Vassiliou, The A to Z of the Petroleum Industry (Scarecrow Press, 2009) pp107-108
  15. ^ "Servia Aids Peace", Milwaukee Journal, January 8, 1913, p1
  16. ^ "Hotels Within Hotels", Milwaukee Journal, January 8, 1913, p2
  17. ^ Rufus Ward, The Tombigbee River Steamboats: Rollodores, Dead Heads, and Side-wheelers (The History Press, 2010); "Boiler Kills Ten on Boat", Washington Post, January 10, 1913, p3
  18. ^ Stephen E. Ambrose, Nixon: Volume I- The Education of a Politician, 1913-1962 (Simon and Schuster, 1988) p21
  19. ^ Christopher Harrison, France and Islam in West Africa, 1860-1960 (Cambridge University Press, 2003) p110
  20. ^ Jennifer Siegel, Endgame: Britain, Russia and the Final Struggle for Central Asia (I.B.Tauris, 2002) p149
  21. ^ Martin Gilbert, A History of the Twentieth Century: The Concise Edition of the Acclaimed World History (HarperCollins, 2002) p68
  22. ^ "Memory Saves Life", Milwaukee Journal, January 12, 1913, p1
  23. ^ Michael Neiberg, The World War I Reader (New York University Press, 2006) p85
  24. ^ "ARCHBALD, COMMERCE COURT JUDGE, GUILTY OF IMPEACHMENT CHARGES", Spokane Daily Chronicle, January 13, 1913, p1
  25. ^ "435 Electors for Woodrow Wilson", New York Times, January 14, 1913
  26. ^ Peter Cottrell, The Anglo-Irish War: The Troubles of 1913-1922 (Osprey Publishing, 2006) p23
  27. ^ Delta Sigma Theta history
  28. ^ Max Hall, Harvard University Press: A History (Harvard University Press, 1986) p23
  29. ^ "Allies Order War's Renewal", Milwaukee Journal, January 14, 1913, p1
  30. ^ Max Jones, The Last Great Quest: Captain Scott's Antarctic Sacrifice (Oxford University Press, 2003) p94
  31. ^ Keith Laybourn, Modern Britain Since 1906: A Reader (I.B.Tauris, 1999) p17
  32. ^ "Greek Ship Sunk", Milwaukee Journal, January 16, 1913, p1
  33. ^ "Home Rule Is Voted", Washington Post, January 17, 1913, p1
  34. ^ a b Alan O'Day, Irish Home Rule, 1867-1921 (Manchester University Press, 1998) p254
  35. ^ "Czar Degrades Eldest Brother", Milwaukee Journal, January 16, 1913, p1
  36. ^ Edna E. Kramer, The Nature and Growth of Modern Mathematics (Princeton University Press, 1983) p526
  37. ^ a b c "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (June 1912), pp289-292
  38. ^ "Poincare Wins in French Vote", Milwaukee Journal, January 18, 1913, p1
  39. ^ Susan Solomon, The Coldest March: Scott's Fatal Antarctic Expedition (Yale University Press, 2001) p262
  40. ^ "President Formally Accepts Kent Chair", New York Times, January 21, 1913
  41. ^ "Briand to Become Premier of France", New York Times, January 19, 1913
  42. ^ "Final Word Given", Milwaukee Journal, January 20, 1913, p1
  43. ^ Patrick Robertson, Robertson's Book of Firsts: Who Did What for the First Time (Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2011)
  44. ^ George S. Watts and Thomas K. Rymes, Bank of Canada: Origins and Early History (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1993) p.6
  45. ^ William A. Cook, Jim Thorpe: A Biography (McFarland, 2011) p73
  46. ^ Joseph Bruchac, Jim Thorpe, Original All-American (Penguin, 2008)
  47. ^ "Turkey Gives Up Adrianople", Milwaukee Journal, January 8, 1913, p1
  48. ^ "America's Queen Philanthropist Married To Railroad Man", Milwaukee Journal, January 22, 1913, p1
  49. ^ "Moslem Chief Is Shot Down", Milwaukee Journal, January 24, 1913, p1
  50. ^ "Debs Is Arrested", Milwaukee Journal, January 24, 1913, p1
  51. ^ J. Robert Constantine, ed., Letters of Eugene V. Debs (Volume 2: 1913-1919) (University of Illinois Press, 1990) p557
  52. ^ Samad Shaheen, The Communist (Bolshevik) Theory of National Self-determination: Its Historical Evolution up to the October Revolution (W. van Hoeve, 1956) p41; Roman Brackman, The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life (Taylor & Francis, 2003) pp82-83
  53. ^ "Immigrants to Read", Milwaukee Journal, January 26, 1913, p1
  54. ^ Michael Lee Lanning, The American Revolution 100: The People, Battles, and Events of the American War for Independence, Ranked by Their Significance (Sourcebooks, 2008) p216
  55. ^ "Coins New Nickels", Milwaukee Journal, January 27, 1913, p1
  56. ^ "Cabinet Kills Suffrage Bill", Milwaukee Journal, January 27, 1913, p1
  57. ^ Lawrence C. Ross, The Divine Nine: The History of African American Fraternities and Sororities (Kensington Publishing, 2001) p198
  58. ^ "'Take All Save Our Holy City'", Milwaukee Journal, January 30, 1913, p1
  59. ^ "Hasan Riza Pasha", in A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History, Robert Elsie, ed. (I.B. Tauris, 2012) p.193
  • "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (June 1912), pp. 289–292
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