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Ottoman–Safavid War (1532–55)

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Subject: Matrakçı Nasuh, Ottoman–Persian Wars, Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–90), Ottoman–Safavid War (1603–18), Capture of Baghdad (1638)
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Ottoman–Safavid War (1532–55)

Ottoman-Safavid War of 1532–1555
Part of the Ottoman–Persian Wars

Miniature depicting Suleiman marching with an army in Nakhchivan, summer 1554, at the end of the Ottoman-Safavid War.
Date 1532–1555
Location Iraq, Armenia, Persia
Result Peace of Amasya
Territorial
changes
Ottomans gain large parts of [1]
Persians retain Eastern Armenia, Dagestan, and Azerbaijan[2] and the rest of their north-western borders as they were prior to the war
Erzurum, Van, and Shahrizor become buffer zones
Belligerents
Safavid Empire  Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Tahmasp I Suleiman the Magnificent
Pargali Ibrahim Pasha (until 1535 when he was sent to Istanbul)
İskender Çelebi (until his execution in 1535)
Selim II (1553-1555 in the Nakhchivan campaign)
Alqas Mirza POW (until his capture by his brother Tahmasp in 1549)
Strength
60,000 men
10 pieces of artillery
200,000 men
300 pieces of artillery

The Ottoman–Safavid War of 1532–1555 was one of the many military conflicts fought between the two arch rivals, the Ottoman Empire led by Suleiman the Magnificent, and the Persian Safavid Empire led by Tahmasp I.

Background

The war was triggered by territorial disputes between the two empires, especially when the Bey of Bitlis decided to put himself under Persian protection.[3] Also, Tahmasp had the governor of Baghdad, a sympathiser of Suleiman, assassinated.

On the diplomatic front, Persia had been engaged in discussions with the Habsburgs for the formation of a Habsburg-Persian alliance that would attack the Ottoman Empire on two fronts.[3]

Campaign of the Two Iraqs (First campaign, 1532–1536)

The Ottomans, first under the Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha, and later joined by Suleiman himself, successfully attacked Safavid Iraq, recaptured Bitlis, and proceeded to capture Tabriz and then Baghdad in 1534.[3] Tahmasp remained elusive as he kept retreating ahead of the Ottoman troops, adopting a scorched earth strategy.

Second campaign (1548–1549)

Attempting to defeat the Shah once and for all, Suleiman embarked upon a second campaign in 1548–1549. Again, Tahmasp adopted a scorched earth policy, laying waste to Georgia.

Third campaign (1553–1555) and aftermath

In 1553 Suleiman began his third and final campaign against the Shah, in which he first lost and then regained Euphrates and Tigris, and part of the Persian Gulf coast. Persia retained the rest of all its northwestern territories in the Caucasus.

Due to his heavy commitment in Persia, Suleiman was only able to send limited naval support to France in the Franco-Ottoman Invasion of Corsica (1553).

Notes

  1. ^ The Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, 1520-1566, V.J. Parry, A History of the Ottoman Empire to 1730, ed. M.A. Cook (Cambridge University Press, 1976), 94.
  2. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. II, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010). 516.
  3. ^ a b c The Cambridge history of Islam by Peter Malcolm Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis p. 330 [1]
  4. ^ a b The Cambridge history of Iran by William Bayne Fisher p.384ff
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