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Outline of transhumanism

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Outline of transhumanism

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to transhumanism:

Transhumanism is an international intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of fundamentally transforming the human condition by developing and making widely available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities.[1] Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging and hypothetical technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations, as well as study the ethical matters involved in developing and using such technologies.[1] They predict that human beings may eventually be able to transform themselves into beings with such greatly expanded abilities as to merit the label "posthuman".[1] Transhumanism is often abbreviated as H+ or h+ ("humanism plus").




Transhumanists believe that humans can and should use technologies to become more than human. Examples of the types of technologies and potential technologies that have become the focus of transhumanism include:

  • Anti-aging – another term for "life extension".
  • Artificial intelligence – intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents",[9] where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."[10]
    • Artificial general intelligence – hypothetical artificial intelligence that demonstrates human-like intelligence – the intelligence of a machine that could successfully perform any intellectual task that a human being can. It is a primary goal of artificial intelligence research and an important topic for science fiction writers and futurists. Artificial general intelligence is also referred to as strong AI,[11] full AI[12] or as the ability to perform "general intelligent action".[13] Strong AI is the focus and hypothesized cause of the technological singularity.
      • Friendly artificial intelligence – artificial intelligence (AI) that has a positive rather than negative effect on humanity. Friendly AI also refers to the field of knowledge required to build such an AI. AIs may be harmful to humans if steps are not taken to specifically design them to be benevolent. Doing so effectively is the primary goal of Friendly AI.
  • Augmented reality – live, direct or indirect, view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one.
  • Biomedical engineering – application of engineering principles and design concepts to biology and medicine, to improve healthcare diagnosis, monitoring and therapy.[14] Applications include the development of biocompatible prostheses, clinical equipment, micro-implants, imaging equipment such as MRIs and EEGs, regenerative tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic biologicals.
    • Neural engineering – discipline that uses engineering techniques to understand, repair, replace, enhance, or otherwise exploit the properties of neural systems. Neural engineers are uniquely qualified to solve design problems at the interface of living neural tissue and non-living constructs. Also known as "neuroengineering".
      • Neurohacking – colloquial term encompassing all methods of manipulating or interfering with the structure and/or function of neurons for improvement or repair.
  • Biotechnology – field of applied biology that uses living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine, and manufacturing, among other fields. It encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms for human purposes. Early examples of biotechnology include domestication of animals, cultivation of plants, and breeding through artificial selection and hybridization.
    • Bionics – in medicine, this refers to the replacement or enhancement of organs or other body parts by mechanical versions. Bionic implants differ from mere prostheses by mimicking the original function very closely, or even surpassing it.
      • Cyborg – being with both biological and artificial (e.g. electronic, mechanical or robotic) parts.
    • Brain-computer interface – direct communication pathway between the brain and an external device. BCIs are under development to assist, augment, or repair human cognitive and sensory-motor functions. Sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain–machine interface (BMI).
    • Cloning – in biotechnology, this refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms.
      • Human cloning – creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. It does not usually refer to monozygotic multiple births nor the reproduction of human cells or tissue. The term is generally used to refer to artificial human cloning; human clones in the form of identical twins are commonplace, with their cloning occurring during the natural process of reproduction.
      • Therapeutic cloning – application of somatic-cell nuclear transfer (a laboratory technique for creating a clonal embryo using an ovum with a donor nucleus) in regenerative medicine.
  • Cognitive science – interdisciplinary scientific study of mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on how information is processed (in faculties such as perception, language, memory, reasoning, and emotion), represented, and transformed in behaviour, (human or other animal) nervous system or machine (e.g., computer). It includes research on artificial intelligence.
  • Computer-mediated reality – ability to add to, subtract information from, or otherwise manipulate one's perception of reality through the use of a wearable computer or hand-held device[15] such as a smart phone.
  • Converging technologies –
  • Cryonics – low-temperature preservation of humans and animals who can no longer be sustained by contemporary medicine, with the hope that healing and resuscitation may be possible in the future. Cryopreservation of people or large animals is not reversible with current technology.
  • Cyberware – hardware or machine parts implanted in the human body and acting as an interface between the central nervous system and the computers or machinery connected to it. Research in this area is a protoscience.
  • Designer baby – baby whose genetic makeup has been artificially selected by genetic engineering combined with in vitro fertilisation to ensure the presence or absence of particular genes or characteristics.[16]
  • Emerging technologies – contemporary advances and innovation in various fields of technology, prior to or early in their diffusion. They are typically in the form of progressive developments intended to achieve a competitive advantage.[17]
  • Head-mounted display (HMD) – display device, worn on the head or as part of a helmet, that has a small display optic in front of one (monocular HMD) or each eye (binocular HMD).
  • High tech
  • Human enhancement technologies (HET) – techniques used to treat illness or disability, or to enhance human characteristics and capacities.[18]
  • Human genetic engineering – alteration of an individual's genotype with the aim of choosing the phenotype of a newborn or changing the existing phenotype of a child or adult.[19]
  • Human-machine interface – the part of a machine that handles its human-machine interaction.
  • Hypothetical technology
  • Information technology – acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications.[20]
  • [21]) through complete rejuvenation to a healthy youthful condition. Also known as anti-aging medicine, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology.
  • Mind uploading – hypothetical process of transferring or copying a conscious mind from a brain to a non-biological substrate by scanning and mapping a biological brain in detail and copying its state into a computer system or another computational device. The computer would have to run a simulation model so faithful to the original that it would behave in essentially the same way as the original brain, or for all practical purposes, indistinguishably.[22]
  • Nanotechnology – study of physical phenomena on the nanoscale, dealing with things measured in nanometres, billionths of a meter. The development of microscopic or molecular machines.
    • Molecular nanotechnology – technology based on the ability to build structures to complex, atomic specifications by means of mechanosynthesis.[23]
      • Molecular assemblers – as defined by K. Eric Drexler, is a "proposed device able to guide chemical reactions by positioning reactive molecules with atomic precision". Some biological molecules such as ribosomes fit this definition, because they receive instructions from messenger RNA and then assemble specific sequences of amino acids to construct protein molecules. However, the term "molecular assembler" usually refers to theoretical human-made devices.[24]
  • Nootropics – drugs, supplements, nutraceuticals, and functional foods that improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration.[25][26] Also referred to as "smart drugs", "brain steroids", "memory enhancers", "cognitive enhancers", "brain boosters", and "intelligence enhancers".
  • Allograft – transplants that are performed between two subjects of the same species.
  • Xenograft – living cells, tissues or organs transplanted from one species to another.
  • Personal communicators – Around 1990 the next generation digital mobile phones were called digital personal communicators. Another definition, coined in 1991, is for a category of handheld devices that provide personal information manager functions and packet switched wireless data communications capabilities over wireless wide area networks such as cellular networks. These devices are now commonly referred to as smartphones or wireless PDA's.
  • [27]
  • Powered exoskeleton – powered mobile machine consisting primarily of an exoskeleton-like framework worn by a person and a power supply that supplies at least part of the activation-energy for limb movement. Also known as "powered armor", or "exoframe".
  • Prosthetics – artificial device extensions that replace missing body parts.
  • Rejuvenation – reversal of aging, which entails the repair of the damage associated with aging, or replacement of damaged tissue with new tissue. Rejuvenation can be a means of life extension, but most life extension strategies do not involve rejuvenation.
  • Robotics – design, construction, operation, structural disposition, manufacture and application of robots. It draws heavily upon electronics, engineering, mechanics mechatronics, and software engineering.
    • Self-replicating machine – artificial construct that is theoretically capable of autonomously manufacturing a copy of itself using raw materials taken from its environment, thus exhibiting self-replication in a way analogous to that found in nature.
  • Reprogenetics – merging of reproductive and genetic technologies expected to happen in the near future as techniques like germinal choice technology become more available and more powerful.
  • Simulated reality
  • Space colonization – concept of permanent human habitation outside of Earth. Although hypothetical at the present time, there are many proposals and speculations about the first space colony. It is a long-term goal of some national space programs. Also called "space settlement", "space humanization", and "space habitation".
  • Suspended animation – slowing of life processes by external means without termination. Breathing, heartbeat, and other involuntary functions may still occur, but they can only be detected by artificial means. Extreme cold can be used to precipitate the slowing of an individual's functions. For example, Laina Beasley was kept in suspended animation as a two-celled embryo for 13 years.[28][29]
  • Virtual retinal display – display technology that draws a raster display (like a television) directly onto the retina of the eye. Users see what appears to be a conventional display floating in space in front of them.
  • History

    • Preludes to transhumanism
      • Renaissance humanism – cultural and educational reform during the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth centuries, as a response to the challenge of Mediæval scholastic education, emphasizing practical, pre-professional and -scientific studies. Rather than train professionals in jargon and strict practice, humanists sought to create a citizenry (sometimes including women) able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity.
      • Age of Enlightenment – elite cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe that sought to mobilize the power of reason in order to reform society and advance knowledge. It promoted intellectual interchange and opposed intolerance and abuses in church and state.
      • Russian cosmism – past philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century. It entailed a broad theory of natural philosophy, combining elements of religion and ethics with a history and philosophy of the origin, evolution and future existence of the cosmos, and an expanding role of humankind within it.
    • Emergence of transhumanism


    • Futures studies – study of postulating possible, probable, and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. Also called "futurology".
      • Futurology – another name for "futures studies"
      • Technological change – overall process of invention, innovation and diffusion of technology (including processes).
        • Accelerating change – perceived increase in the rate of technological (and sometimes social and cultural) progress throughout history, which may suggest faster and more profound change in the future. While many have suggested accelerating change, the popularity of this theory in modern times is closely associated with various advocates of the technological singularity, such as Vernor Vinge and Ray Kurzweil.
          • Moore's law – the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years. The law is named after Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore, who described the trend in his 1965 paper.
        • Differential technological development – strategy proposed by transhumanist philosopher Nick Bostrom in which societies would seek to influence the sequence in which emerging technologies developed. On this approach, societies would strive to retard the development of harmful technologies and their applications, while accelerating the development of beneficial technologies, especially those that offer protection against the harmful ones.
        • Emerging technology
        • Friendly artificial intelligence
        • Technological evolution
          • Megatrajectory – theoretical concept in evolutionary biology that describes paradigmatic developmental stages (major evolutionary milestones) and potential directionality in the evolution of life. A theorized megatrajectory that hasn't occurred yet is postbiological evolution triggered by the emergence of strong AI and several other similarly complex technologies.
          • Omega Point – term coined by the French Jesuit Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881–1955) to describe a maximum level of complexity and consciousness towards which he believed the universe was evolving.
          • Participant evolution – process of deliberately redesigning the human body and brain using technological means, rather than through the natural processes of mutation and natural selection, with the goal of removing "biological limitations."
            • Liberal eugenics – use of reproductive and genetic technologies where the choice of enhancing human characteristics and capacities is left to the individual preferences of parents acting as consumers, rather than the public health policies of the state.
            • Procreative beneficence
            • Procreative liberty
          • Technological convergence – tendency for different technological systems to evolve towards performing similar tasks. Convergence can refer to previously separate technologies such as voice (and telephony features), data (and productivity applications), and video that now share resources and interact with each other synergistically.
            • GNR – denotes the technologies of genetics, nanotechnology, and robotics.[30]
          • Technological singularity – hypothetical future emergence of greater-than-human intelligence through technological means. Since the capabilities of such an intelligence would be difficult for an unaided human mind to comprehend, the occurrence of a technological singularity is seen as an intellectual event horizon, beyond which the future becomes difficult to understand or predict. Nevertheless, proponents of the singularity typically anticipate such an event to precede an "intelligence explosion", wherein superintelligences design successive generations of increasingly powerful minds.
            • Singularitarianism – technocentric ideology and social movement defined by the belief that a technological singularity—the creation of a superintelligence—will likely happen in the medium future, and that deliberate action ought to be taken to ensure that the Singularity benefits humans.
    • Existential risksee Survival, below
    • Extropy
    • Human condition – the irreducible part of humanity that is inherent and not connected to gender, race, class, etc.; the experiences of being human in a social, cultural, and personal context. Transhumanism aims to radically improve the human condition. Concepts about the human condition that pertain to transhumanism include:
      • Human enhancement[31] –"any attempt to temporarily or permanently overcome the current limitations of the human body through natural or artificial means. It is the use of technological means to select or alter human characteristics and capacities, whether or not the alteration results in characteristics and capacities that lie beyond the existing human range." [32][33][34]
        • Posthumanism
          • Posthuman[35] – in transhumanism, it is a hypothetical future being "whose basic capacities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer unambiguously human by our current standards."[35]
            • Parahuman – human-animal hybrid or chimera. Scientists have done extensive research into the mixing of genes or cells from different species, e.g. adding human (and other animal) genes to bacteria and farm animals to mass-produce insulin and spider silk proteins, and introducing human cells into mouse embryos.
            • Posthuman God – idea that posthumans, being no longer confined to the parameters of human nature, might grow physically and mentally so powerful as to appear god-like by human standards.[35]
          • Posthumanity
        • Superhuman – human with extraordinary and unusual capabilities enabling them to perform feats well beyond anything that an ordinary person could conceivably achieve, even through long-time training and development. Superhuman can mean an improved human, for example, by genetic modification, cybernetic implants, nanotechnology, or as what humans might eventually evolve into thousands or millions of years later into the distant future.
          • Übermensch – concept of the superhuman in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Nietzsche had his character Zarathustra posit the Übermensch as a goal for humanity to set for itself in his 1883 novel Thus Spoke Zarathustra (German: Also Sprach Zarathustra).
      • Transhumanist rights
      • Transhumanist values
        • Extropianism – evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the human condition. Extropians believe that advances in science and technology will some day let people live indefinitely. An extropian may wish to contribute to this goal, e.g. by doing research and development or volunteering to test new technology.
        • Neophile
        • Posthumanismsee entry under human enhancement, above
        • Proactionary principle – ethical and decision-making principle formulated by the transhumanist philosopher Max More, pertaining to people's freedom to innovate, and the value of protecting that freedom.
        • Singularitarianism – technocentric ideology and social movement defined by the belief that a technological singularity—the creation of a superintelligence—will likely happen in the medium future, and that deliberate action ought to be taken to ensure that the Singularity benefits humans.
        • Technophilia – strong enthusiasm for technology, especially new technologies such as personal computers, the Internet, mobile phones and home cinema. The term is used in sociology when examining the interaction of individuals with their society, especially contrasted with technophobia.
    • Human extinctionsee Survival, below
    • Immortalitysee Survival, below
    • Indefinite lifespansee Survival, below
    • Longevitysee Survival, below
    • Life stance
    • Mind children
    • Noosphere – "sphere of human thought".[37] In the original theory of Vernadsky, the noosphere (sentience) is the third in a succession of phases of development of the Earth, after the geosphere (inanimate matter) and the biosphere (biological life).



    • The Transhumanist Reader: Classical and Contemporary Essays on the Science, Technology, and Philosophy of the Human Future, First Edition. Edited by Max More and Natasha Vita-More. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


    • Humanity+ Magazine []

    In fiction

    Notable transhumanist authors

    In television and film

    In comics or graphic novels

    • Battle Angel Alita/Gunm
    • Transmetropolitan – comic about a transhuman society several centuries in the future that includes many cyborgs, uploaded humans, and genetically-modified mutants.
    • Upgrade – satirical dystopian graphic novel by Louis Rosenberg, about humans approaching the singularity
    • Monkey Room – satyrical dystopian graphic novel by Louis Rosenberg, about humans approaching the singularity

    In video games

    In table-top games

    • Eclipse Phase – role playing game that takes transhumanism to a post-apocalyptic horror setting in which General Artificial Intelligences have gone rogue, introducing itself with the slogan “Your mind is software. Program it. Your body is a shell. Change it. Death is a disease. Cure it. Extinction is approaching. Fight it.”
    • Transhuman Space – GURPS supplement that presents a transhumanist future set in our solar system in the year 2100.
    • Warhammer 40,000 – game and fiction franchise by Games Workshop, that depicts a universe which includes cybernetic and genetic modifications, human-machine interfaces, self-aware computer "spirits" (advanced AIs), ubiquitous space travel and posthuman gods. The main protagonists of many novels and campaigns, the Imperial Space Marines, are literal textbook transhumans: normal human men who have been so vastly augmented and changed by technology that they are no longer homo sapiens but some other, new species.


    • Alcor Life Extension Foundation – nonprofit company based in Scottsdale, Arizona, USA that researches, advocates for and performs cryonics, the preservation of humans in liquid nitrogen after legal death, in the hope of restoring them to full health when new technology is developed in the future.
    • American Cryonics Society
    • Applied Foresight Network – global web of university-based centres connected by a network of forums for professors, students, teachers, and concerned citizens. The AFN supports informed discussion and social action on issues of critical importance to the future of humanity.
    • Cryonics Institute
    • Feynman Prizes given in experimental and theory categories, and the $250,000 Feynman Grand Prize for demonstrating two molecular machines capable of nanoscale positional accuracy and computation.[41]
    • [44] and also sponsors small-scale scientific initiatives.
    • Longecity
    • artificial intelligence software, and to raise awareness of both the dangers and potential benefits it believes AI presents. In their view, the potential benefits and risks of a technological singularity necessitate the search for solutions to problems involving AI goal systems to ensure powerful AIs are not dangerous when they are created.[45][46]
    • Mormon Transhumanist Association

    Leaders and scholars

    Some people who have made a major impact on the advancement of transhumanism:

    • Nick Bostrom
    • George Dvorsky
    • Robert Ettinger
    • K. Eric Drexler
    • Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov
    • FM-2030 (October 15, 1930, – July 8, 2000) – author, teacher, transhumanist philosopher, futurist, and consultant.[47] His given name was Fereidoun M. Esfandiary. He became notable as a transhumanist with the book Are You a Transhuman?: Monitoring and Stimulating Your Personal Rate of Growth in a Rapidly Changing World, published in 1989.
    • Aubrey de Grey – English author and theoretician in the field of gerontology, and the Chief Science Officer of the SENS Foundation. He is perhaps best known for his view that human beings could, in theory, live to lifespans far in excess of that which any authenticated cases have lived to today.
    • James Hughes – sociologist and bioethicist teaching health policy at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut in the United States. Hughes served as the executive director of the World Transhumanist Association (which has since changed its name to Humanity+) from 2004 to 2006, and moved on to serve as the executive director of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, which he founded with Nick Bostrom.
    • Julian Huxley
    • Raymond Kurzweil
    • Hans Moravec – adjunct faculty member at the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. He is known for his work on robotics, artificial intelligence, and writings on the impact of technology. Moravec also is a futurist with many of his publications and predictions focusing on transhumanism. Moravec developed techniques in computer vision for determining the region of interest (ROI) in a scene.
    • Max More
    • David Pearce – Utilitarian thinker and author of The Hedonistic Imperative, in which he explores the possibility of how technologies such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, pharmacology, and neurosurgery could potentially converge to eliminate all forms of unpleasant experience in human life and produce a posthuman civilization.[48]
    • Giulio Prisco
    • Anders Sandberg – researcher, science debater, futurist, transhumanist, and author born in Solna, Sweden, whose recent contributions include work on cognitive enhancement[49] (methods, impacts, and policy analysis); a technical roadmap on whole brain emulation;[50] on neuroethics; and on global catastrophic risks, particularly on the question of how to take into account the subjective uncertainty in risk estimates of low-likelihood, high-consequence risk.[51]
    • Stefan Lorenz Sorgner – philosopher who argues for a Nietzschean transhumanism
    • Frank J. Tipler

    See also


    1. ^ a b c  
    2. ^ a b Hughes, James (2002). "Democratic Transhumanism 2.0". Retrieved 2007-01-26. 
    3. ^ Hughes, James (2002). "The politics of transhumanism". Retrieved 2006-02-26. 
    4. ^ The Abolitionist Society. "Abolitionism". Archived from the original on 2006-11-04. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 
    5. ^  
    6. ^ "Immortality Institute". 
    7. ^  
    8. ^ Kurzweil, Raymond (2005).  
    9. ^ Definition of AI as the study of intelligent agents:
    10. ^ McCarthy's definition of AI:
    11. ^ (Kurzweil 2005, p. 260) or see Advanced Human Intelligence where he defines strong AI as "machine intelligence with the full range of human intelligence."
    12. ^ The Age of Artificial Intelligence: George John at TEDxLondonBusinessSchool 2013
    13. ^ Newell & Simon 1976
    14. ^ Biomedical engineer prospects
    15. ^ "Wearable,Tetherless, Computer-Mediated Reality", Technical Report #260, M.I.T. Medial Lab Perceptual Computing Section, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1994
    16. ^ Designer Babies: Ethical Considerations - Nicholas Agar - An original article
    17. ^ International Congress Innovation and Technology XXI: Strategies and Policies Towards the XXI Century, & Soares, O. D. D. (1997). Innovation and technology: Strategies and policies. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic.
    18. ^ Enhancement Technologies Group (1998). "Writings by group participants". Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
    19. ^ Singer, Peter; Kuhese, Helga. "Bioethics: An Anthology". .
    20. ^ Longley, Dennis; Shain, Michael (1985), Dictionary of Information Technology (2 ed.), Macmillan Press, p. 164,  
    21. ^ "agerasia".  
    22. ^ Anders, Sandberg; Nick, Boström (2008). Whole Brain Emulation: A Roadmap. Technical Report #2008‐3. Future of Humanity Institute, Oxford University. Retrieved 5 April 2009. The basic idea is to take a particular brain, scan its structure in detail, and construct a software model of it that is so faithful to the original that, when run on appropriate hardware, it will behave in essentially the same way as the original brain. 
    23. ^ "Nanosystems Glossary". 
    24. ^ Drexler, K. Eric, and Marvin Minsky. Engines of creation. Fourth Estate, 1990.
    25. ^ "Dorlands Medical Dictionary". Archived from the original on 2008-01-30. 
    26. ^ Lanni C, Lenzken SC, Pascale A, et al. (March 2008). "Cognition enhancers between treating and doping the mind". Pharmacol. Res. 57 (3): 196–213.  
    27. ^ Bob Aubrey, Managing Your Aspirations: Developing Personal Enterprise in the Global Workplace McGraw-Hill 2010 ISBN 978-0-07-131178-6, page 9
    28. ^ "Longest frozen embryo baby born". BBC News. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 14 January 2009. 
    29. ^ "Triplets born 13 years apart". Times Online. 6 July 2005. Retrieved 24 January 2010. 
    30. ^  
    31. ^  
    32. ^ human enhancement, IEET,
    33. ^  
    34. ^ Moore, P., "Enhancing Me: The Hope and the Hype of Human Enhancement"
    35. ^ a b c  
    36. ^  
    37. ^ Georgy S. Levit: The Biosphere and the Noosphere Theories of V. I. Vernadsky and P. Teilhard de Chardin: A Methodological Essay. International Archives on the History of Science/Archives Internationales D'Histoire des Sciences, 50 (144) - 2000: S. 160-176
    38. ^
    39. ^ Hughes, James (2004).  
    40. ^ http://articles/Kill_Switch_(The_X-Files)
    41. ^ "Foresight Institute Prize Descriptions and Applications". Foresight Nanotech Institute. Retrieved 10 April 2011. 
    42. ^ Immortality Institute (March 2004). The Scientific Conquest of Death. Libros en Red Inc. p. 296.  
    43. ^ "Exploring Life Extension". Immortality Institute. 2002–2009. Retrieved 2010-03-27. 
    44. ^ "Immortality Institute". Immortality Institute. 2002–2011. Retrieved 2011-02-12. 
    45. ^ Coming to grips with intelligent machines Stefanie Olsen, staff writer, CNET, September 7, 2007
    46. ^ Smarter than thou?, San Francisco Chronicle, 12 May 2006
    47. ^ Martin, Douglas (July 11, 2000). "Futurist Known as FM-2030 Is Dead at 69". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-08-25. 
    48. ^ "The Genomic Bodhisattva". H+ Magazine. 2009-09-16. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
    49. ^ Anders Sandberg and Nick Bostrom (2006): Converging Cognitive Enhancements, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1093:201-227
    50. ^ Anders Sandberg, Nick Bostrom (2008): Whole Brain Emulation: A Roadmap Technical Report #2008‐3, Future of Humanity Institute, Oxford University
    51. ^ Toby Ord, Rafaela Hillerbrand, Anders Sandberg (2008): Probing the Improbable: Methodological Challenges for Risks with Low Probabilities and High Stakes

    External links

    • Transhumanism at DMOZ
    • Future of Humanity Institute, Oxford University
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